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Gurus The Role of the Masands in Sikh History

Sep 5, 2010
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From the time of Guru Nanak, the Sikh community or panth grew steadily in numbers. Its followers were primarily attracted to join because of the Gurus precepts and doctrines which, inter alia, included melodious singing of divine hymns, and discussions of social evils such as untouchability, the caste system, meaningless ritual practices, and the low status of women long before the women’s suffrage movement made its appearance in the Western world in 1848.

The increase in numbers and geographical spread of its followers across the Indian subcontinent and beyond served as the impetus for the establishment of the masand system as agents or intermediaries of the Gurus both, in terms of further propagation of the Sikh faith and as a means for sangats to keep in touch with the Gurus themselves.

This article is an attempt to examine the evolutionary history and development of the masand system, assess its contribution to the economic development of the Sikh community during the time of the Gurus, and explore the factors that ultimately led to its abolition by the tenth Guru, Guru Gobind Singh.

Origins and Establishment of the Masand System

Guru Amar Das was in his early seventies when he became the third Guru of the Sikhs in 1552 by which time the Sikh sangats (derived from the Sanskrit word sangh, meaning brotherhood, company, fellowship, and association) were already growing steadily and beginning to be geographically pervasive. To cater for the needs these sangats, he established 22 manjis (literal meaning, a stringed wooden cot or seat, also interpreted as a missionary area/district). It was customary for the Gurus to receive visitors while sitting on their manjis and addressing their audience/congregations) or parishes/ecclesiastical districts covering different parts of India from Dacca to Kabul and appointed agents “who were fully conversant with the doctrines of the faith, to organize worship and the collection of offerings for the golak (community chest).

Guru Amar Das had copies made of the hymns of Gurus Nanak and Angad and added to them his own compositions. Since this anthology was in Punjabi, it gained enormous popularity among the masses, who did not understand either the Sanskrit texts of the Hindus or the Arabic of the Muslims.” 1 Each of these manjis was placed under the charge of pious and devoted Gursikh sangatias or manjidars “who, besides preaching Guru Nanak’s word, looked after the sangats within their jurisdiction and transmitted the disciples offerings to Goindwal. Guru Amar Das designated the opening days of the months of Baisakh and Magh for the Sikhs to forgather at Goindwal. The manjidars deputized for the Guru when he could not be present at these ceremonies. Guru Amar Das also laid down rules for the simple ceremonies and rites for birth, marriage and death. In this way, the Sikh faith began developing the signs of a well‐marked social group2.” Guru Amar Das shared Guru Nanak’s belief on the equal status of women, and this is reflected in the fact that three of the manjis were administered by women.

McLeod (1997) avers that “Guru Amar Das is traditionally credited with having established the manji system of supervision, and the later masand (Hindi and Punjabi corruption of Persian masnad‐i‐ala, meaning lofty throne, couch, title of courtiers) system is believed to have developed from this prototype. The function of the manjis seems to have been exclusively to preach the message of naam Simran3.” However, some doubt remains as to exactly when and which Guru established the masand system, with some accounts listing Guru Amar Das 4, others listing Guru Ram Das5, and still others listing Guru Arjan.6 A plausible explanation for this doubt (as cited in Gandhi, 2007) suggests “concrete evidence in the Panth Parkash whose author calls masand ‘Ramdasia’. Nowhere in the contemporary record has the word masand been used during the period of Guru Ram Das. It came into use during the Guruship of Guru Arjan Dev and perhaps this was the reason that led certain scholars to conclude that the masand system originated under Guru Arjan Dev 7.”

It is also believed that the dharamsalas (rest houses for travelers, devoted to religious or charitable purposes) were the forerunners of these manjis where congregations could meet together in fellowship to recite the Gurus hymns and teachings of moral and human values. There is common agreement that the initial role of the masands was to spread Guru Nanak’s teachings, provide spiritual guidance and support to the sangats, and transmit collected offerings to the Gurus. The offerings were used for langar (the community kitchen), and after meeting the local expenses of the manjis, the surplus was passed on to the Guru’s golak (the community chest) at Goindwal.

Guru Ram Das succeeded Guru Amar Das and served as the fourth Guru of the Sikhs from 1574 until his death in 1581. Mandair (2013) credits Guru Ram Das for extending the manji system of his predecessor with the masand institution which played an important role in the further growth and development of Sikhism in successive decades before in‐fighting, factionalism, and corruption started to taint this institution. He is specially remembered for clerical appointments and donation collections to theologically and economically support the Sikh movement.8 These masands were also called Ramdasias after the name of the Guru whom they represented 9.

The masands were not expected to use or depend on the offerings they received to support their own subsistence. During the tenure of Guru Ram Das, offerings collected and received by the masands were used for the langar (community kitchen) and other charitable causes. Guru Arjan Dev initiated work on the excavation of the sarovar at Darbar Sahib.

Evolving Roles and Development of the Masand System

Guru Arjan


All ten Sikh Gurus were Khatris belonging to the Bedi, Trehan, Bhalla and Sodhi subcastes. Most of the masands were Jats, while a few were Brahmans and Khatris. The masands recruited from the Khatri class were mostly merchants and traders involved in trans‐regional trade during the Mughal empire. The masands were not paid any salaries but were permitted to use one‐third of the regular offerings in kind or cash received from the Sikhs for meeting local district expenses, with the rest being given to the Guru’s community chest on Maghi, Baisakhi, and other special days. The Guru bestowed the masands with siropas (from Persian sar‐o‐pa, head and foot, an honorary dress, garment, scarf, or length of cloth bestowed on someone as a mark of honor).

Guru Arjan acceded to Guruship in 1581 and formally introduced the practice of daswandh (Punjabi ਦਸਵੰਧ, literally meaning "a tenth part" in reference to the act of donating ten percent of one's earnings) as a contribution to the Guru’s construction and welfare projects (Guru di golak). This was not dissimilar to the Muslim practice of zakat and Guru Arjan converted voluntary offerings into compulsory contributions. More importantly (as cited in Pashaura Singh, 2006) “he reorganized the masand system for collecting tithes and other offerings from loyal Sikhs living in such distant places as Bukhara, Kabul, Lahore, Sirhind, Thanerar, Delhi, Agra, Banaras, Allahbad, Patna, and Bengal which were all situated on the trade route connecting central Asia with eastern India. Apart from Central Punjab, there were Sikh congregations established in Rajasthan, Malwa, Gujrat, Gwalior, Ujjain, and Burhampur. There were Sikhs living in coastal towns in the south and in Kashmir in the north10.” He gave the masands greater authority and with varied religious and social functions.

List of Manjis: Adapted from: Manji System - SikhiWiki, free Sikh encyclopedia.

No.​
Name​
Area​
Assigned Region​
1​
Bhai Allah YaarDelhiDelhi
2​
Bhai Beni
3​
Bhai Bua
4​
Bhai DarbariMajitha
5Bhai Gangu ShahSimaur, Himachal
6Bhai HandalJandiala Guru area
7Bhai Kedari
8Bhai Kheda
9Bhai Lalu
10Bhai MaheshaSultanpurSultanpur area
11Bhai Mai DasTarn Tarn, Amritsar Area
12Bhai Manak Chand
13Bhai Matho & Bibi MurariChunian, Kasur area
14Bhai Paro
15Bhai PheraMirpur (J&K)J&K Area
16Bhai Raja Ram
17Bhai Rang DasGharooan (near Kharar)Ropar District
18Bhai Rang ShahJalandhar, Nawanshahr area
19Bhai Sadharan
20Bhai Sawan Mall
21Bhai Sukhan
22Bibi Sachan Sach
Owing to the active involvement of the masands, large numbers of the Jat peasantry and rural population were attracted to and joined the Sikh community. In discussing the missionary work of the masands, Pashaura Singh (2006) makes specific mention of a masand named Kaliana who was sent by Guru Arjan to “hill country, present day Himachal Pradesh to spread the message of the Guru, and to raise funds and bring down timber for construction projects at Amritsar11.” Mohsin Fani (as cited in Daljeet Singh, 1994) “records that the fifth Guru erected lofty buildings, kept horses, and even elephants, and maintained retainers12.” Gupta (as cited in Daljeet Singh, 1994) wrote that in every respect Guru Arjan had created a ‘state within a state’ 13.”


In the construction of the Darbar Sahib’s foundation, Guru Arjan’s instructions were that only kiln‐dried bricks were to be used for this work. “Some masands who had charge of the bricks resolved to cheat the Guru and scamp the work. They smeared sun‐dried bricks with plaster and laid them. The Guru heard of their dishonesty and ordered them to desist. They disobeyed his orders three times. He then dismissed them 14.” The building of the Golden Temple was completed under the leadership of Guru Arjan, and Pashaura Singh (2006) contends that “the economic prosperity of the Sikh Panth was largely responsible for the completion of the building program at Ramdaspur 15.”

Guru Hargobind

Guru Hargobind became the sixth Guru of the Sikhs following his father Guru Arjan’s execution by the Mughal emperor Jahangir in 1606. Guru Arjan had earlier warned his son to be prepared to defend himself and be fully armed on acceding to the Guruship. The shift from pacifism to militarization as a defense against Mughal oppression was also reflected in the Guru wearing two swords symbolizing the dual concepts of miri piri (temporal power and spiritual authority). The masand system under Guru Hargobind was well administered with proper records maintained and checked. Under his stewardship, the masands were instructed to maintain a disciplined life and given additional roles of recruiting and training Sikhs in the art of warfare and for supplying warriors to the Guru. They were also instructed to bring offerings of arms and horses and to encourage Sikh traders to travel widely to neighboring countries and distant places, especially in Central Asia for trade in defensive weapons and well‐bred horses. These traders often visited the Guru with their offerings and to seek his blessings for both, their property and safety 16.

Guru Hargobind himself traveled widely and expanded his missionary work. During his stay in Kiratpur, the number of disciples and followers increased considerably, causing the Guru to set up more community centers and train more masands. Some of these responsibilities fell upon Bhai Buddha and Bhai Gurdas, and following their death, were taken up by Guru Hargobind’s son Gurditta. The masands diligently performed their duties of preaching at various centers throughout India and P. P. Singh (2006) asserts that “they were the treasure houses of the Gurus for money and materials and were regular in their offerings. The office of the masands had become hereditary17.”

Gurus Har Rai, Har Krishan, and Tegh Bahadur

Guru Har Rai was the grandson of Guru Hargobind and became the seventh Guru of the Sikhs on the death of his grandfather in 1644. In the early years of his accession as the seventh Guru, Guru Har Rai lived a fairly secluded life in a small village in Himachal Pradesh. The hostility of the disappointed claimants to Guruship, and the general disintegration of the masand organization impacted upon the advancement of the (Sikh) community. Guru Har Rai thus undertook tours of the centers and reorganized the missions. During his tenure of Guruship, some notable landed families of the Punjab became Sikhs18.”

During the tenure of the seventh, eighth, ninth, and tenth Gurus the Darbar Sahib was in the hands of the masands who looked after and were in control of the place. These masands, together with other impostors and priests saw the monies to be made by priestly craft and are alleged to have mismanaged the temple.

Scholars including Teja Singh, Ganda Singh and Sewa Dass have posited thaBaba Makhan Shah, a trader by profession, was also a masand for the Kathiawaad area and involved in preaching Sikhism in West Punjab and abroad. He was a busy trader who travelled frequently on business and while there are no written records that support this contention, it is well known that he was responsible for punishing Dhir Mall (grandson of Guru Hargobind) and a masand by the name of Shihan who fired a shot at Guru Tegh Bahadur, fortunately missing him. Because he was passed over for appointment as the seventh Guru in favour of this younger brother Har Rai, Dhir Mall set himself up as Guru at Kartarpur and appointed his own masands or ministers, to collect tithes.

Besides travelling and visiting sangats in Eastern India including Bihar and Assam, Guru Tegh Bahadur left the village of Bakala to visit Amritsar to find the masands barring his entry to Darbar Sahib. The masands had clearly grown powerful enough to deny the Guru entry to this holy place.


Guru Gobind Singh

Gobind Rai as he was known before he became the tenth Guru of the Sikhs in 1675 had a personal experience of the dishonesty of a masand named Bulaki who collected Sikh offerings from sangats in Dhaka. While anxiously awaiting his father Guru Tegh Bahadur’s summons to come to Anandpur, he requested Bulaki to make a palki embellished with gold and ivory that he could take with him on his journey. On examining the finished product, he discovered that “what the masands represented to be gold work only contained one part of gold to nine of copper19.” On a separate occasion, Bulaki, accompanied by his sons Chaia and Maia came to visit the Guru and presented a piece of Dhaka muslin as an offering. A similar offering for the Guru’s mother Mata Gujri was purportedly retained by Maia and Chaia and not gifted to her20.” The Guru also received a complaint from the widow of Ram Rai (eldest son of the seventh Guru, Guru Har Rai) that he was captured by some masands killed21.”

McLeod infers that “the growing independence and corruption of several of the masands was a cause of increasing concern...the situation had been bad enough in the time of his father Guru Tegh Bahadur, with the masands in control of much of the Majha and the gates of Amritsar closed against the Guru. Now, it was considerably worse with practically the whole of the Majha territory and most of Doaba under these rival authorities22.” Owing to their geographical spread and distance from where the Gurus were based, the masands effectively controlled their respective sangats relations with the Gurus and could choose for these relations to be severed. The masands had grown increasingly corrupt dictatorial and grasping power as opportunity offered, some were keeping what offerings they had collected in the Guru’s name, while others arrogated sanctity to themselves, and some others tried to “create schisms in the fledgling Sikh community which could have weakened it from within23.” In some instances, these corruptions included misrepresentation of the Gurus doctrines. Some masands even aspired to Guruship. Yet others “engaged in money lending and trading on the offerings they extorted from the poor peasants24.” This is not to say that all the masands were dishonest. The Guru knew masand Pheru to be “without guile, acquitted him, and with his own hands invested him with a robe of honour 25.”

Belief in the spiritual tutelage of the Gurus was an intrinsic part of Guru Nanak’s teachings and during his time at Anandpur, Guru Gobind Singh reflected on “the disunity and decadence that had come into the movement launched by Nanak. He was able to put his finger on the two causes which had contributed to this state of affairs, namely the wrangling over the succession to Guruship and the masands26.” Guru Gobind Singh was not unaware that abolishing the masands would have an effect on offerings for the Guru’s coffers. In preference to deciding to reform the masands he instead chose to abolish and excommunicate all the masands. The examples of Prithi Chand, Dhir Mal, Mehrban, and Ram Rai, each of whom had disputed the succession (to Guruship) during their times and their positions as rival Gurus, were no doubt a deciding factor in Guru Gobind Singh’s mind 27.”

Guru Gobind Singh “summoned all the masands to appear with their Sikh constituents before him at Anandpur at the Baisakhi festival28.” Several primary sources have mentioned different dates of this historical event, yet the most acceptable date is Baisakhi day of March 20, 1699.29 “He was now thoroughly satisfied that the masands had arrived at a pass where they did not believe in any Guru and that their insolence must be checked. He therefore decided that, as the human Guruship must end with himself, so must his Sikhs be freed from the tyranny of the masands30.” The Granth Sahib would henceforth serve as the spiritual Guru and the elected representatives of the community (panth) would serve as the as the secular Guru31. Besides abolishing the masand system he also established the Khalsa, derived from the Arabic or Persian workd "Khalisa" which means "to be pure, to be clear, to be free from."). Chandra Sain Sainapati, commonly referred to as Sainapati was one of 52 court poets of Guru Gobind Singh and gave a contemporary account of this particular Baisakhi day in 1699 on the creation of the Khalsa and the renunciation of the masands in the following words (English translation by Kulwant Singh). His piece is titled Founding of the Khalsa Panth (Baisakhi B.S. 1752).

Dohra:

“Guru Gobind Singh at Anandpur Sahib,
Did deliver his sermons now and then.
By endless mountains was it surrounded,
On a Satluj bank was this auspicious place situated. ||1||117||

After the passage of the month of Chettra,
There was held a huge congregation here.

On the auspicious occasion of Baisakhi,
Did the revered Guru Gobind Singh reflect. ||2||118||

As the people arrived from distant towns and cities,
All of them gathered here in Guru’s congregation.
The divine Guru being the creator and doer,
Did appear before the congregation in his benevolence. ||3||119||

Guru Gobind Singh in his cheerful benevolence,
Did shower his benevolence on the congregation.
As the Divine Guru revealed the creation of Khalsa Panth,
He eliminated all the (earlier) entanglements. ||4||120||

As the whole congregation assembled here,
One the bank of the sacred river Satluj.
Many joined the Khalsa Panth after listening to Guru’s words,
While many others felt restless and worried. ||5||121||

Renounce the Masands and meditate upon one God,
With these words of wisdom did the Guru address the congregation.
Thereupon, the devout followers united with the Divine Guru,
As a fish feels at home being within the water. ||6||122||”


Source: Sainapati. Sri Gursobha. English translation of the 1711 original manuscript by Kulwant Singh, Chandigarh, Institute of Sikh Studies, 2014, p. 59.

Guru Gobind Singh issued four hukamnamas (compound of two words: hukam, meaning command or order and namah, meaning statement. Also refers to a hymn from the Guru Granth Sahib given as an order to Sikhs by one of the Gurus), namely Hukamnamas Nos. 46, 48, 49 & 50. Madanjit Kaur (2007) asserts that “two hukamnamas bear direct direct testimony for rejecting the masands. Hukamnama No. 46 issued in 1699 A.D. and Hukamnama No. 50 issued in 1700 A.D. mention the term masand. Hukamnama No. 48 and Hukamnama No. 49 only directs the sangat not to give any offering to anybody else (hor kise nu nahi dena) 32.”

Summation

Owing to the dispersed spread of the Panth it would have been difficult for the Gurus to frequently travel and personally meet with sangats in distant places. The establishment of the masand system contributed significantly towards the organization and dissemination of the Sikh faith during the times of the Gurus. It was left to the masands to initiate new followers, serve as a link between them and the Gurus, and also deal with the secular problems of the local sangats. Gandhi (2007) contends that “their role in expanding the Sikh mission in different parts of the country at its earlier stages of history is commendable33.” McLeod (1997) concurs “that the masand system presumably did its job reasonably well in the first few decades of its existence34.” As the panth grew in size and numbers, some of the masands grew lax and lazy, usurped authority unto themselves, grew increasingly independent, evinced signs of corruption in terms of keeping offerings collected on the Gurus behalf, and some even had aspirations to Guruship.

More than 320 years have passed since Guru Gobind Singh abolished the masand system. Yet today, countless self‐styled mahants, sants, babas, and masands still exist in some form or other, many of then occupying gurdwaras and deras (camps or contonments) in India and overseas. They prey on the fralties and weaknesses of their followers and acquire wealth through spurious and deceptive plans to build schools, community centers, and new gurdwaras – many of which never see the light of day. Some engage in manmat and rituals, presumably preaching from Gurbani and garnishing the misrepresentations of Gurbani messages with their own songs and sakhies, while still others have also been involved in nefarious activities.

If the truth be told, these modern day self‐styled mahants and pakhandi sant babas are of our own creation. They would cease to exist if we chose not to entertain and pander to them. It behooves us, individually and collectively with the joint efforts of Sikh national organizations in India and overseas, gurdwara management committees, and the Shiromani Gurdwara Parbhandhak Committee (SGPC) to call them out. The Guru Granth Sahib is our ultimate guide and spiritual Guru.


Notes:

1. K. Singh. A history of the Sikhs, Vol 1: 1469‐1839. New Delhi, Oxford University Press, 1999, p.53.
2. H. Singh. The heritage of the Sikhs, 2d. rev. ed. New Delhi, Manohar, 1984, pp. 32‐33.
3. H. McLeod. Sikhism. London, Penguin, 1997, p.23.
4. C.E. Farhadian. Introducing world religions; A Christian engagement. Baker Academic, Grand Rapids, Michigan, 2015, p. 342. 5. S. Mittal & G. Thursby. Religions of South Asia: An introduction. Routledge, 2006, pp. 244–245.
6. S. S. Gandhi. History of Sikh Gurus Retold: 1469‐1606 C.E. New Delhi, Atlantic Publishers & Distributors (P) Ltd., 2007, p. 321.
7. Ibid., p.322
8. A. S. Mandair. Sikhism: A guide for the perplexed. London, Bloomsbury Publishing, 2013, pp 38‐40.
9. 6. S. S. Gandhi. History of Sikh Gurus Retold: 1469‐1606 C.E. New Delhi, Atlantic Publishers & Distributors (P) Ltd., 2007, p. 331.
10. P. Singh. Life and work of Guru Arjan; History, memory, and biography in the Sikh tradition. New Delhi, Oxford University Press, 2006, p. 74.
11. Ibid., p. 90.
12. D. Singh. Essentials of Sikhism, 2d ed. Amritsar, Singh Brothers, 1994, p.133.
13. Ibid., p. 133.
14. M.A. Macauliffe. The Sikh religion; Its Gurus, scared writings and authors, vol III. Amritsar, Satvic Media Pvt. Ltd, (1909, reprint January 2009), p. 10.
15. P. Singh. Life and work of Guru Arjan; History, memory, and biography in the Sikh tradition. New Delhi, Oxford University Press, 2006, p. 109.
16. P.P. Singh. The history of Sikh Gurus. New Delhi, Lotus Press, 2006, pp. 81‐83.
17. Ibid., p. 96.
18. K. Singh. A history of the Sikhs, Vol 1: 1469‐1839. New Delhi, Oxford University Press, 1999, pp. 67‐68.
19. M.A. Macauliffe. The Sikh religion; Its Gurus, scared writings and authors, vol IV. Amritsar, Satvic Media Pvt. Ltd, (1909, reprint January 2009), p. 364.
20. Ibid., pp. 105‐106.
21. R.C. Dogra & U. Dogra. The Sikh world; An encyclopaedic survey of Sikh religion and culture. New Delhi. UBS Publishers, 2003, p. 359.
22. H. McLeod. Sikhism. London, Penguin, 1997, pp. 50‐51.
23. P. Singh. The Sikhs. New Delhi, Rupa & Co., 2002, p .55.
24. K. Singh. A history of the Sikhs, Vol 1: 1469‐1839. New Delhi, Oxford University Press, 1999, p. 82.
25. M.A. Macauliffe. The Sikh religion; Its Gurus, scared writings and authors, vol V. Amritsar, Satvic Media Pvt. Ltd, (1909, reprint January 2009), p. 87.
26. K. Singh. A history of the Sikhs, Vol 1: 1469‐1839. New Delhi, Oxford University Press, 1999, p. 81.
27. Ibid., p. 81.
28. M.A. Macauliffe. The Sikh religion; Its Gurus, scared writings and authors, vol V. Amritsar, Satvic Media Pvt. Ltd, (1909, reprint January 2009), pp. 84‐85.
29. Sainapati. Sri Gursobha. English translation of the 1711 original manuscript by Kulwant Singh, Chandigarh, Institute of Sikh Studies, 2014, p. 59.
30. M.A. Macauliffe. The Sikh religion; Its Gurus, scared writings and authors, vol V. Amritsar, Satvic Media Pvt. Ltd, (1909, reprint January 2009), pp. 84‐85.
31. K. Singh. A history of the Sikhs, Vol 1: 1469‐1839. New Delhi, Oxford University Press, 1999, p. 81.
32. M. Kaur. Guru Gobind Singh: Historical and ideological perspective. Chandigarh, Unistar Books, 2007, p. 252.
33. S. S. Gandhi. History of Sikh Gurus Retold: 1469‐1606 C.E. New Delhi, Atlantic Publishers & Distributors (P) Ltd., 2007, p. 322.

34. H. McLeod. Sikhism. London, Penguin, 1997, p.27.
 

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