• Welcome to all New Sikh Philosophy Network Forums!
    Explore Sikh Sikhi Sikhism...
    Sign up Log in

Punjabi ਭਾਰਤ-ਚੀਨ ਵਿਚਾਲੇ ਬਦਲੇ ਸਬੰਧਾਂ ਅਨੁਸਾਰ ਭਾਰਤ ਦੀ ਸੰਭਾਵੀ ਭਵਿਖ ਨੀਤੀ

Dalvinder Singh Grewal

Jan 3, 2010
Indian Army has superiority in characteristics over the Chinese Army.

First China has had no experience in combat in 35 years while India has plenty of experience with Kashmir, North East Insurgency, and Maoists. Let’s say you practiced yoga, and you then played for 35 years without yoga, and your yoga teacher ask you to do yoga again. Can you do that?

35 years ago, the Sino-Vietnamese war ended horribly, China is no longer good at infantry tactics and field maneuvers, it forgot everything that it learned from World War 2 and the strategy that made China win the Civil War, Korean War. China is like a cat, that lost its craws when it became a fat house cat.

The Chinese Tactical maneuvers do not match the modern wars.

China lacks transport and logistics. Many of the Chinese infantry were still not mechanized. There are no logistic vehicles like the Chinook when the US have them since the Vietnam War.


Chinook supplies devlivery helicopter.


T15 armata mechanized infantry fighting vehicle

What do the Chinese have nowadays?


J15, flopping fish, all looks great but can't fight, it only can equip 2 PL8 Anti-air missiles, which are missiles used at Vietnam war standards, when we have PL10, PL11, PL12, PL15. All those can't be used due to maximal take-off weight. Hack, even Pakistan have PL12.


Type-99a, tank with an engine lacking to make it through the Sino-Indian mountain borders.


We all learned in 2nd grade that when altitude increases air pressure decreases, oxygen decreases, water boiling point decreases, temperature decreases, engine power decreases, and fuel efficiency decreases. And all that makes Type-99a not operational in the Sino-Indian borders.

So China will lose all those firepowers if it invades India, India have the greatest natural barrier called “The Himalayan Mountain” and the greatest naval barrier called Vietnam, Thailand, Malaysia, and the Chinese navy have to go through the straits of Malacca. And even if the Chinese make it through the straits of Malacca, it has no logistics fleets. And J15 flopping fish can't fight.

China's supply lines become very long when operating along the Himalayas. It will not sustain long battles due to a lack of supplies.

Dalvinder Singh Grewal

Jan 3, 2010
External Affairs Minister S Jaishankar has said " India faces a "very complicated challenge" from China. This challenge was "very visible" in border areas in the last three years, Jaishankar said on Saturday, adding that both the countries have to find an equilibrium in a relationship, but it cannot be on the terms of the other party.

Dalvinder Singh Grewal

Jan 3, 2010
Since Chinese intentions against India are very offensive, India should stop all imports from China. However, it has not done so far. The reasons behind this are the following:

In 1991, the then Finance Minister Shri Manmohan Singh in Shri Narasimha Rao's government made many reforms in the Indian economy. This increased rate of development in India. Wherever the cheapest things and good quality things were available in the world, India bought from there and used these in the country With cheaper inputs the Industries and trade flourished. This helped faster development in India.

China's industrial production has been the cheapest in the world and it also makes and sells basic raw materials for industrial production cheaply. The Pharma industry, and the electronics industry in India, all buy their raw material mostly from China because it is cheaper. Thus our economy got linked with China's economy. If we suddenly stop buying goods from China, 20 to 30% of our industries will be affected and the Indian economy will take be hit. However, we can think of reducing exports from China, but cannot stop these altogether.

Dalvinder Singh Grewal

Jan 3, 2010
China has remained in confrontation with India occasionally. Doklum crisis, Galwan confrontation, Twang area confrontatrion, border consdturctions, building of dam on Brahmputra on Arunachal Pradesh boundary, naming Arunachal cities amd villages names as Chinese, opposing declariation of pak terrorists as global terrorists etc. Recently on two more occasions China raised string objections to Indian actions during covid-19 crisis.
In the first case, China objected to India’s new FDI rule which allowed only government approved investment in India from neighbouring countries including China. India framed this rule only when China’s central bank indulged in distress purchase of India’s HDFC Bank’ share few day back. China says that India’s new FDI rule is discriminatory under WTO rule, because it is not applicable to all countries.

China’s complaint is however, misplaced as WTO rule is not concerned with this type of investment. India has right to prevent the distress sale and purchase of the share during covid-19 pandemic.

In the second case Chinese Ambassador in Delhi criticized India's decision to cancel the order of Supply of testing kits from two Chinese company.

India cancelled this order because of the poor quality of the kits. It is true that India (ICMR) could not ensure the quality of the kits before placing the order to private Chinese companies. But, if Chinese government is so much worried about the cancellation of the orders of their private companies, why they do not ensure that only good quality kits are supplied to other countries? Why these companies are playing with the lives of people in other countries?

On both these occasions, India has avoided the diplomatic confrontation with China. But China, is frustrated due to the global blame against her for hiding corona information, appears to be in at the verge of diplomatic confrontation not only with India but other countries as well. Two days back China has threatened Australia for raising the demand of investigation on the origin of the corona virus. China is further exposing herself by this kind of immature reactions.

Dalvinder Singh Grewal

Jan 3, 2010
China occupies Depsang Valley and is not ready to vacate. All diplomatic and military-level discussions have failed because China's intentions appear to retain the occupied territory and not to vacate. Since April 2020, tensions exists on the borders. Galwan was one such result. Now both countries have built up forces that are difficult to maintain for longer periods in inhospitable terrain. The 2020 intrusion has confirmed the 1962 lesson that is not to trust China.

India and China signed six treaties from 1993 onwards and conducted the Joint Working Group meetings that received further momentum after Rajiv Gandhi's visit in 1988. Three decades of intensive discussions, protocols, and Confidence Building Measures were jettisoned one fine morning in 2020. Therefore, the primary lesson that has been learned is that that there is no reliability about the Chinese. We have to learn to distrust the Chinese because their intent is not clear.

They announced the changed names of certain places in Arunachal Pradesh when there is a 2005 treaty that states that it is a settled area and Arunachal Pradesh is our territory.

The McMahon Line was signed between Tibet and British India in 1914-1915 when Tibet was not a part of China. The treaties signed by sovereign nations cannot be rescinded by China.
China's expansionist ambitions are clear and we have learned it the hard way. We have to ensure that their quest for expansionism is denied.
Replying to them on the same coin can be one of the answers. Why not take over the Kashmir area occupied by Pakistan and cut off the Chinese projects in Pakistan and beyond?

China's expansionist ambitions are clear and we have learned it the hard way. We have to ensure that their quest for expansionism is denied.

Dalvinder Singh Grewal

Jan 3, 2010
China still maintains that Arunachal is his part and is renaming various places and objecting Indian authorities' visit to Arunachal in a calculated manner. Even it has tried to encroach upon certain Indian posts. India too has maintained its claim over the Aksai Chin territory including Dipsang valley as part of the Jammu and Kashmir state. Aksai Chin of Former Jammu and Kashmir state of India is still controlled by China after 1962 war and now after April 2020 Dipasng valley is under its control. Aksai Chin territory of the former Jammu and Kashmir has been controlled by China after the Chinese invasion of India in 1962.
In 1947, Britain retreated out of the Subcontinent of India and planned to form two independent states including India and Pakistan. The former Princely State of Kashmir [1] and Jammu agreed to join India but Pakistan disagreed. Later, the wars between India and Pakistan happened which divided the former Princely State of Kashmir and Jammu into both territories: Jammu and Kashmir state
[2]controlled by India and Gilgit-Baltistan [3], Azad Kashmir [4] controlled by Pakistan. In 1962, China invaded India and has occupied part of the Indian Jammu and Kashmir state: Aksai Chin as part of the Chinese historical territory.


Of course, there are many reasons that make India not to re-occupy Aksai Chin but giving up re-occupying the Aksai Chin territory is one of the strategic mistakes of India which send the wrong signals to China that India was not ready to fight with China even though India has still been viewed as regional power enough to challenge the Chinese aggression. At that time, if India was brave enough to keep fighting with China, the border dispute between both countries may have been resolved soon before the 2000s. However, now, China has been rising to the superpower status equal to the US or the former Soviet Union but India is still struggling for its own position in the world economy and world geopolitical order. China has little reason and motivation to make concessions toward India.


Now, India should together with China to reach a rational agreement about the borderline and territorial dispute. Alternatively it should take over Baltistan and Gilgit area from Pakistan to create a roadblock to China's Economic Corridor to Pakistan.

Dalvinder Singh Grewal

Jan 3, 2010
A young Indian Army lieutenant punched a Chinese Major on his nose at Muguthang and sent blood oozing from his nose.

The officer's infantry unit had stopped the intruding Chinese at Muguthang last week and were furious at the Chinese Major for shouting, "Sikkim is not your land, this is Chinese territory..so just go back."

Brought up in a military family, young Lt Das could not digest someone calling Indian land out of their territory, so he hit the Chinese Major hard.

The Indian armed forces however didn't wanted to escalate the matter with the Chinese so Lieutenant has been asked to move. However, the courage Lt Das has shown in the moment is well appreciated & respected.


Jul 22, 2023
Rafale purchased by India versus J-20 produced by China

India has bought Rafale from France; Pakistan is weighing purchase of J-20 from China. When China sells something, the buyer is lured into their types of hardware (aircraft, in this case). All other factors being constant, the buyer is very likely to stick to the same supplier. Upgrade versions will not be as challenging to learn as a totally new aircraft. Third, suppliers like the USA can be very fickle because Pakistan-USA relationship is fickle. In contrast, Pakistan-China relationship will stay constant for a long time to come.

China’s latest on the shelf is the J-20; their most advanced fighter aircraft. Is it China’s answer to the Rafale.


The Dassault Rafale: French twin-engine, canard delta wing, multi-role fighter aircraft and considered to be in the 4.5 generation category.


The J-20 Chengdu: is a single-seat, twin-jet, all-weather, stealth, 5th generation fighter aircraft developed by China’s Chengdu Aerospace Corporation.

  • J-20 has an edge in max speed and service ceiling
  • J-20 has better payload capacity (16.6t vs 14.2 t)
Both fighter plane use an Active Electronically Scanned Array (AESA), considered one of the most advanced radar technologies in the world.

Rafale carries its electronic warfare suite called SPECTRA, said to cost 30% of the cost of the plane itself. SPECTRA protects the aircraft against airborne and ground threats. Various methods of detection, jamming, decoying and a highly re-programmable system capable of analyzing threats better, makes it extremely difficult to detect and shoot down a Rafale.

The J-20’s AESA radar comes with a chin-mounted infrared/electro-optic search and track sensor. The Chinese claim that a passive electro-optical detection system in the J-20 gives its pilot 360-degree coverage of the battlefield. The plane is said to be capable of accessing real-time data from Chinese military satellites.

Both are capable of air-to-air combat, ground support, in-depth strike, anti-ship strike and nuclear deterrence missions. They come with an array of weapons.

  • India’s version of Rafale carries SCALP (a ground attack precision weapon) and Meteor (a Beyond Visual Range air-to-air missile).

Meteor, Beyond Visual Range (BVR) air to air missile. (Photo: MBDA Missle Systems)


J -20's equivalent of the Rafale's Meteor is the Pl-15 missile, which according to a report published by the International Institute for Strategic Studies in early 2018 ‘would be the most capable air-to-air missile in the PLAAF inventory.’

  • If you go by these number, J-20’s BVR has an edge over Rafale’s BVR
  • PL-15 missile was developed to shoot large aircraft like mid-air refuels or Airborne Warning And Control System (AWACS). But Meteor is capable of targeting even smaller targets like Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAVs) or cruise missiles.
  • J-20 has stealth capability that makes the aircraft less ‘observable’ to the enemy. The US Raptor is supposed to the best Stealth but a Rafale did beat it!
  • J-20 itself is modeled on F-22. Indian Air Force claims its SU-30MKI fighters are able to pick up the J-20 on their radar.
  • So, Rafale is a proven aircraft while the capabilities of a J-20 are only on paper.
The terrain, a practical aspect

One of the big advantages India has is the location of its air bases. The Chinese aircraft will have to take off from bases in Tibet, which are located at a height of 4,000 meters and above. Since the air there is less dense, they can’t carry full fuel and full weapon load. J-20s launched from Pakistan (against India) may not have this limitation.

Whereas Indian fighters can get airborne from airfields located at lower altitudes and they will be able to take off with a full load of weapon, compared to their Chinese counterparts. The Chinese tried to develop an engine, but they could not. They had to go for Russian engines, so the thrust-to-weight ratio is not favorable. (per Air Marshal (Retd) Dhiraj Kukreja)

(Information source: The Quint)

Sheer technical capabilities do not tell the complete story. Training of the pilots, their level of tactical planning on how to engage with the opposing aircraft, and their immediate and actual response in the stress of actual combat - these matter a lot.

Each plane has its own claimed advantages. The true power of a tool comes only in practice. That means, a tool is only as good as the workman. Compared to China, Indian air force has battle experience. If you recall the Abhinandan episode, he was said to have shot down a Pakistani F-16, from his fit-for-museum Mig-21 Bison.

For our pilots to get the same skill with the Rafale, they need extensive flying experience, 100s of hours, over all the terrains it is expected to operate. The more the flying, the more the familiarization, the more the confidence. A complex thing like a fighter takes a lot for the airman to get used to. One must thoroughly get used to all that is there in the aircraft. Its aerodynamics is just one of the most important factors. It is so because no two fighters have the same characteristics. Airmen prefer to stick to the same model they get used to it. See it like a horseman and his horse. Of course countries do buy newer & different aircraft but the airman must spend 100s to 1000s of hours getting familiarity so that he may get to know it like back of his own hand.
Kind courtesy Rediff


Jul 22, 2023
Even though disengagement from Galwan Valley, Pangong Tso, Gogra & Hot Springs, India and China continue to maintain thousands of troops, equipment along LAC.was done years before yet the burning point of Depsang valleys about 1000 sq km area in Chinese hands since April 2020 still continues even after 20th round of India-China talks which have failed making no headway. India's military, economic and social relations are suspended since April 2020 and over a lakh troops facing 4th winter at high altitude where temperature run to minus 45 degree in deep winter.
The 20th round of India-China Corps Commander Level Meeting was held at Chushul-Moldo border meeting point on the Indian side on 9-10 October 2023,” read a statement released by the Ministry of External Affairs (MEA), Wednesday. Sources in the defence and security establishment said this meant that soldiers on both sides will continue to remain deployed in forward areas along the LAC for the fourth straight winter.
“The two sides exchanged views in a frank, open and constructive manner for an early and mutually acceptable resolution of the remaining issues along the LAC in the Western Sector, in accordance with the guidance provided by the national leadership of the two countries, and building on the progress made in the last round of Corps Commanders’ Meeting held on 13-14 August 2023,” said the MEA.
It added that both sides agreed to maintain the “momentum of dialogue and negotiations through the relevant military and diplomatic mechanisms”. “They also committed to maintain peace and tranquillity on the ground in the border areas in the interim,” the short statement added. The Indian delegation was led by Lt Gen Rashim Bali, commander of the Leh-based 14 Corps, while the Chinese delegation was to be led by the commander of the South Xinjiang military district.
India has been seeking restoration of status quo as of April 2020 in areas which saw tensions beginning May 2020, besides resolution of earlier disagreements including those over Depsang Plains. However China is admant to retain Depsang and does mellow down to vacate this forcible occupation of forcible occupation in April 2020. As a result neither the troops along LAC will be wthdrawn nor the relations between the two countries will normalize.


Jul 22, 2023
Purges of Generals in Chinese Army discloses deep weakness in Chinese Defence Forces

China has 'purged' 9 PLA generals. Among them were three former commanders or vice commanders of the PLA Roccket Force, which looks after China's nuclear missiles, a Navy commander who oversaw the South China Sea, a former Air Force chief, and four officers who were in charge of equipment as per Reuters. clampdown is seen widening. Upheaval weakens PLA, including in strategic rocket force. More time is needed to clean up corruption as per Chinese analyst. Problems may dissuade PLA from risking major clashes in near term. Purge of Military General after removal of Defence and Foreign Affairs Minister show the internal disturbances in China. A sweeping purge of Chinese generals has weakened the People's Liberation Army, exposing deep-rooted corruption that could take more time to fix and slow Chinese leader Xi Jinping's military modernization drive amid geopolitical tensions, analysts say.
This step precedes further punishment for wayward cadres. Many of these were from the Rocket Force - a key arm of the PLA overseeing tactical and nuclear missiles. During his tenure, Xi has intensified anti-corruption efforts across China's government and the People's Liberation Army (PLA), Reuters reported.
This sweeping purge of Chinese generals has weakened the People's Liberation Army, exposing deep-rooted corruption that could take more time to fix and slow Chinese leader Xi Jinping's military modernization drive amid geopolitical tensions, analysts say. The purges are a setback for Xi who has pumped billions into buying and developing equipment as part of his modernizing efforts to build a "world-class" military by 2050, with Beijing's outsized defence budget growing at a faster pace than the economy for some years.
The recent downfall of generals and military equipment suppliers, however, has punctured some of this aura, and raised questions over whether there has been adequate oversight over these massive military investments as China vies with the United States in key areas, including Taiwan and the South China Sea.
Since Xi took power in 2012, he has embarked on a wide-ranging anti-corruption crackdown among Communist Party and government officials, with the PLA being one of its main targets.
"More heads will roll. The purge that centred around the Rocket Force is not over," said Alfred Wu, associate professor, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy in Singapore.

Wei Fenghe, a former defence minister who used to head the Rocket Force, has also vanished. When asked about his whereabouts, a defence ministry spokesman said in August that the military has zero tolerance for corruption. His successor, Li Shangfu, was abruptly removed as defence minister in October without explanation after also disappearing for months. He had previously headed the equipment department. One of his then deputies was removed from parliament on Friday. On the same day, Dong Jun, a Chinese ex-Navy chief, with a South China Sea background, was named Li's replacement as defence minister.
Analysts say that while the Chinese military has long been known for corruption, the extent of the latest crackdown and the involvement of the PLA's Rocket Force is shocking.
"This part of the PLA would have the most rigorous vetting process for senior officers, given the importance of having highly trusted men in charge of China's nuclear weapons," said Dennis Wilder, senior fellow for the Initiative for U.S.-China Dialogue on Global Issues at Georgetown University.
"Moreover, it seems to have involved several senior men rather than one 'bad apple'."
Analysts say the purge of senior military leaders could leave the Rocket Force temporarily weakened
until Xi manages to put the house in order.
"The strategic nuclear force is what China relies on as the bottom line of its national security, and the last resort on Taiwan," said Yun Sun, Director of the China Program at the Stimson Center, a Washington D.C.-based thinktank.
"It will take some time for China to clean up the mess and restore confidence in the Rocket Force's competence and trustworthiness. It means for the time being, China is at a weaker spot."
India has to watch this situation and analyse the increasing weaknesses in Chinese Defence Forces. It cert ainly affects Chinese plans to attack Taiwan and also later on India to capture Arunachal Pradesh but India cannot sit cool. It has to prpare its defence better to matach China, the threat which always looms over India.


Jul 22, 2023
Maldives President Muizhu's visit to China - an analysis
Colonel Dr. Dalvinder Singh Grewal,
Professor Emeritus, Desbhagat University

Muizhu, who arrived on January 8,2024 on a five-day state visit to China, held talks with Chinese Premier Li Qiang on Thursday and discussed the implementation of various projects committed to implementation by China. He also met Chairman of the Standing Committee of the 14th National People's Congress Zhao Leji.

From a geographical point of view, the Maldives and India are the closest countries in the Indian Ocean hence are of great importance to both countries. It is even more important to create a new threat to India's security from a strategic point of view by creating close relations with China. Apart from this, the talks and treaties between Maldives and China are also of great concern for India as it may have security concerns for India.

Image: Chinese President Xi Jinping and Maldives President Mohamed Muizhu attend a welcoming ceremony at the Great Hall of the People in Beijing on January 10, 2024. Photo: CNS Photo via Reuters
"Both sides agree to continue to strongly support each other in safeguarding each other's core interests," said a joint statement issued at the end of Muizu's talks with top Chinese leaders. China said it "strongly opposes external interference" in the internal affairs of the Maldives and supports the island nation to uphold its sovereignty and independence.

According to the joint statement, Muizhu Xi Jinping's principles, the Global Security Initiative (GSI), which includes the Global Development Initiative (GDI), the Global Civilization Initiative (GCI) and the Belt and Road Initiative ( Apart from BRI (I) agreed to support common security. The statement said: Both sides agree to explore ways to implement the GSI and jointly contribute to regional and global stability, conventional and non-conventional security challenges, promote the development of bilateral relations and contribute to peace and agree to face major challenges together.

The Maldives intends to join the Group of Friends of the GDI and work with other parties to promote practical cooperation in the areas identified by the GDI, in order to accelerate the implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development coordination system can be created.

For its part, the Maldives said in the joint statement that it is firmly committed to the 'one-China principle', recognizing that there is one China in the world, the only one fully representing the government of the People's Republic of China. There is a legal government of China, and Taiwan is an integral part of China's territory.

Chinese analysts say that the strategically large archipelago of Maldives is important to China's growing influence in the Indian Ocean region. "Although the Maldives is a small country in terms of land area and population, it has very high strategic importance in terms of geopolitics," said Zhao Gancheng, a research fellow at the Shanghai Institute for International Studies.

According to the Global Times report, "The Indian Ocean is far away from us, but it is very important to our country's economic and energy security as well as to the One Belt One Road (BRI), so China needs to expand its presence in the region." One needs to do one's best to make friends," Zhao told state media.

The joint statement said, 'Maldives highly appreciates the vision of building a community with the principles of promoting a common future for humanity, BRI, goodwill, integrity, mutual benefit and inclusion with neighbouring countries.'

The significance of China's One Belt One Road is a new way of colonialism through commercialization, which India has rejected from the beginning. To curb China’s influence, the United States has signed a new One Belt One Road agreement with India, Saudi Arabia and the UAE which is about to be effected soon.

The joint statement comes at a time when Maldives, led by Muizu, who is considered a pro-China leader, is embroiled in a diplomatic spat with India over insulting statements made by three Maldivian ministers against Prime Minister Narendra Modi, which led to the spate of cancellation of reservations of Indian tourists to Maldives. Muizu suspended the ministers with a warning not to make such comments.

Muizu’s visit to China has also been affected by the release of a report by the European Election Observation Mission to the Maldives, which said that the ruling coalition of the Progressive Party of Maldives and the People's National Congress fuelled anti-India sentiments and rigged the 2023 presidential election. Muizu won the elections by spreading misinformation.

Observers say the fallout from Muizu's high-profile trip to China will play out in the coming weeks and months. Will Maldives allow Chinese spy vessels to dock at its ports? Due to India's security concerns, Sri Lanka recently banned docking of Chinese spy vessels from its ports.

Joint statement stated that the Maldives opposes 'any statement or action that undermines China's sovereignty and territorial integrity, opposes all separatist activities of Taiwan independence', and opposes any official relations with Taiwan.

It said, 'Maldives opposes external interference in China's internal affairs under any pretext and supports all efforts made by China for national reunification.

After talks between Muizhu and Chinese President Xi Jinping, China and the Maldives signed 20 agreements. The two countries signed the Action Plan for the Construction of China-Maldives Comprehensive Strategic Cooperative Partnership (2024-2028) and the Belt and Road Initiative, Economic and Technological, Blue Economy, Digital Economy, Green Development, Construction, and for People's Livelihood signed documents on cooperation in areas like food aid, infrastructure.

The joint statement said that the two sides will actively promote economic and trade cooperation, make full use of the mechanism of the China-Maldives Joint Committee on Economic and Trade Cooperation, enhance trade facilitation and economic and trade cooperation between the two countries and will promote high-quality of development.

It said that both sides are satisfied with the results of President Muizhu's visit to China and agree that the visit is very important for advancing China-Maldives comprehensive strategic cooperative partnership. Since the establishment of diplomatic relations 52 years ago, the two countries have always respected and supported each other.

The agreements also include cooperation in tourism to increase Chinese tourists to the island nation. China is currently the third largest tourist destination in Maldives with India leading with 3 lakh tourists , followed by Russia with over two lakh visitors last year.

President Muizhu praised the warm hospitality of President Xi Jinping, the Chinese government and the Chinese people, and invited Chinese leaders to visit the Maldives at a mutually convenient time.

Maldivian President Mohamed Muizzu said after his visit to China "We may be small, but that doesn't give you the license to bully us," Mohamed Muizzu said at a press conference on Saturday, January 13. Next day on Sunday he asked India to withdraw its military personnel from his country by March 15 even as the two sides deliberated on finding a "mutually workable solution" to enable continued operation of the Indian military platforms in the island nation.

Only time will tell how Maldives-Chinese agreements work and their further effects on India and Maldives relations. To my view Maldives has been softly caught in a net by China which may cause complication for Maldives in view its strategic significance for India due to tis close proximity. Muizzu’s India bashing must be taken as a serious development in India-Maldives relations hence must be dealt with seriously. Impact of Chinese use of smaller nation to its advantage also must be taken care of globally.


Jul 22, 2023
Indian, Chinese troops clashed twice after Galwan

At least two previously unknown incidents of skirmishes between the Indian and Chinese troops along the Line of Actual Control (LAC) have come to light with citations for gallantry awards conferred on Indian Army personnel mentioning them.

In early May 2020, troops of the People's Liberation Army and Indian Army engaged in melee at locations along the notional Line of Actual Control (LAC), the disputed boundary between China and India.[1][2] It escalated on 15/16 June 2020 resulting in deaths on both sides. Indian sources reported the deaths of 20 Indian soldiers and casualties of at least 45 Chinese soldiers.[3][4] China reported 4 deaths.[5][6] On 7 September, for the first time in 45 years, shots were fired along the LAC, with both sides blaming each other for the firing.[7][8] Indian media also reported that Indian troops fired warning shots at the PLA on 30 August.[9]

Most experts point out that Indian infrastructure construction along the LAC troubled the Chinese and was one of the multiple major triggers.[10][11] Multiple rounds of diplomatic and military talks followed, including the corps-commander-level meetings, and meetings of existing border dispute management and resolution mechanisms.[12][13] The 13th round of corps-commander talks took place on 10 October 2021.[14][15] Incomplete, partial and complete disengagement and de-escalation has been announced at various locations respectively.[16][17]

The 2020–2022 China–India skirmishes are a part of the larger Sino-Indian border dispute. This is a timeline of events that stretches over the period of the 2020–2022 China–India skirmishes.

In late May, Chinese forces objected to Indian road construction in the Galwan river valley.[18][19] According to Indian sources, melee fighting on 15–16 June 2020 resulted in the deaths of Chinese and Indian soldiers.[20][21] Media reports stated that soldiers were taken captive on both sides and released in the coming few days while official sources on both sides went on to deny this.[22] On 7 September, for the first time in 45 years, shots were fired along the LAC, with both sides blaming each other for the firing.[23][24] Indian media also reported that Indian troops fired warning shots at the PLA on 30 August.[25]

Partial disengagement from Galwan, Hot Springs, and Gogra occurred in June–July 2020 while complete disengagement from Pangong Lake north and south bank took place in February 2021.[26][27] Following disengagement at Gogra in August 2021, Indian analysts pointed out that the LAC has shifted westwards at patrol point 17A (PP 17A).[28][29]

Amid the standoff, India reinforced the region with approximately 12,000 additional workers, who would assist India's Border Roads Organisation in completing the development of Indian infrastructure along the Sino-Indian border.[30][31][32] Experts have postulated that the standoffs are Chinese pre-emptive measures in responding to the Darbuk–Shyok–DBO Road infrastructure project in Ladakh.[33] China has also extensively developed its infrastructure in these disputed border regions and is ontinuing to do so.[34][35] The revocation of the special status of Jammu and Kashmir, in August 2019, by the Indian government has also troubled China.[36] However, India and China have both maintained that there are enough bilateral mechanisms to resolve the situation.[37][38] This includes multiple rounds of colonel, brigadier, and major general rank dialogue, special representatives' meetings,[39][40][41] meetings of the 'Working Mechanism for Consultation and Coordination on China-India Border Affairs' (WMCC),[42][43] and meetings and communication between their respective foreign and defense ministers.[44] On 12 January 2022, the 14th corps-commander-level meeting at Chushul-Moldo Border Personnel Meeting (BPM) point took place.[45] Following the Galwan Valley skirmish on 15 June, some Indian campaigns about boycotting Chinese products were started.[46][47] Action on the economic front included cancellation and additional scrutiny of certain contracts with Chinese firms, and calls were also made to stop the entry of Chinese companies into strategic markets in India.[48][49][50] By November 2020, the Indian government had banned over 200 Chinese apps, including apps owned by Alibaba, Tencent, Baidu, Sina, and Bytedance.[51]

Indian and Chinese troops clashed at least twice between September 2021 and November 2022 along the Line of Actual Control (LAC), The Tribune has reported. During this 15-month period, India conducted a series of covert operations aimed at keeping a watch on the Chinese People’s Liberation Army (PLA). These clashes and operations — previously unreported — came to light when citations for gallantry awards were read out during the investitures organised by the Western and Central Army Commands.

It is imperative to maintain the secrecy of such operations in the interests of national security. The Army has taken prompt action to ensure that a video clip which revealed classified information is no longer available in the public domain. Even as the slip-up needs to be probed thoroughly, it is evident that there has been no let-up in the border tensions in recent years, after the Galwan clash of June 2020. Last year, a Pentagon report had claimed that China increased the deployment of forces and ramped up infrastructure, including ‘underground storage facilities near Doklam, a second bridge over the Pangong lake, a dual-purpose airport and multiple helipads’, along the LAC in 2022.

Army Chief Gen Manoj Pande said recently that the LAC situation was ‘stable but sensitive’. Amid a prolonged standoff, India cannot afford to lower its guard. A vigil has to be maintained round the clock in order to pre-empt any misadventure by the PLA. China is keen to gain tactical superiority by making India blink first. New Delhi needs to respond to any provocation cautiously yet firmly. It is laudable that External Affairs Minister S Jaishankar has told his Chinese counterpart that ‘unless a solution is found at the border, they should not expect other relations to move on normally’. The onus is on Beijing to take sincere steps to resolve the LAC dispute and pave the way for putting the bilateral ties back on track.

There were multiple incidents of skirmishes along the LAC between the Indian and Chinese troops in the last three-and-a-half years following the eruption of the eastern Ladakh border row in May 2020. The Chinese troops attempted transgression in the Tawang sector of the LAC as well.

There were multiple incidents of skirmishes along the LAC between the Indian and Chinese troops in the last three-and-a-half years following the eruption of the eastern Ladakh border row in May 2020.

The Chinese troops attempted transgression in the Tawang sector of the LAC as well.

On December 9, 2022, PLA troops tried to transgress the LAC in the Yangtse area of Tawang Sector and unilaterally changed the status quo, Defence Minister Rajnath Singh said in Parliament four days after the incident. Singh said the Chinese attempt was contested by the Indian troops in a firm and resolute manner. Sources said several Indian Army personnel who were part of the team that responded firmly to the attempted Chinese transgression were also conferred gallantry awards at the investiture ceremony.

"The ensuing face-off led to a physical scuffle in which the Indian Army bravely prevented the PLA from transgressing into our territory and compelled them to return to their posts," Singh said on December 13 that year. The scuffle led to injuries to a few personnel on both sides, he said.

"I would like to assure this house that our forces are committed to protecting our territorial integrity and will continue to thwart any attempt made on it. I am confident that this entire house will stand united in supporting our soldiers in their brave effort," Singh said.

Indian and Chinese soldiers clashed at least two times in 2022 along their Himalayan frontier where they have been involved in a bitter standoff since 2020, according to new details that have emerged from the Indian Army's gallantry award citations.

The incidents involved hand-to-hand combat and came as New Delhi and Beijing held a series of diplomatic and military talks to resolve their worst military conflict in decades.

No deaths were reported in these incidents. At least 20 Indian soldiers and four Chinese troops were killed in clashes in the area two years previously, in mid-2020.

These skirmishes in India's Ladakh region, the last of which is now known to have happened in November 2022, show that the tensions along the undemarcated border continued much longer than previously reported.

The Indian and Chinese armies did not immediately respond to requests for comment.

Details of the new clashes emerged after the Indian Army awarded gallantry medals to some of its soldiers, who it said challenged Chinese troops trying to enter Indian territory in at least two incidents in 2022.
In the first incident in January 2022, according to a citation, "several soldiers of the People’s Liberation Army attacked” an Indian Army post in the eastern Ladakh region.
During physical jostling, an Indian soldier wounded at least four Chinese troops and snatched their rifles, "forcing them to go back,” it said. In the second incident in November 2022, Indian troops pushed back "a group of 40 to 50 soldiers” trying to enter Indian territory. A unit of Indian soldiers attacked and injured them, “thus foiling the enemy’s plan to capture the post,” another citation said. The citations also said army units of the two countries were involved in a two-day standoff in an unspecified area in 2022. The military and diplomatic discussions between the nuclear-armed neighbors to resolve the standoff that began in mid-2020 have not resulted in a final resolution yet.The India-China border dispute dates to the 1950s and the two sides fought a brief but bloody war over it in 1962. [52]

India expected more skirmishes with the Chinese soldiers in future, the news agency Reuters reported citing a security assessment by Indian police in the Himalayan region of Ladakh. This comes as several reports have suggested that China has been ramping up military infrastructure in the region. Concerns were also raised after skirmish between Indian and Chinese soldiers along the Line of Actual Control (LAC) in the Tawang sector of Arunachal Pradesh. Reports said that during the face-off, soldiers from both sides sustained "minor injuries".


1. Siddiqui, Imran Ahmed (16 June 2023). "'Subjugation and surrender': Military veterans slam Modi government's continuing silence on Galwan". Telegraph India.
  • "Video | "Territory Gone, Grazing Ground Now Buffer Zone": Ladakh Leader On Troops Pull-Back". Retrieved 9 October 2022.
  • Bhaumik, Anirban; Ray, Kalyan (14 September 2022). "LAC pullback ends amid buzz that India lost ground". Deccan Herald. Retrieved 9 October 2022.
  • Singh, Vijaita (20 September 2022). "Grazing lands turning into buffer zones, says chief of village bordering LAC". The Hindu. Retrieved 22 November 2022.
  • "China Gained Ground on India During Bloody Summer in Himalayas". Bloomberg.com. 1 November 2020. Retrieved 22 November 2022.
  • Bommakanti, Kartik. "China is yet to restore status quo ante on the India-China border". ORF. Retrieved 22 November 2022.
  • "Return to status quo ante needed for situation to become normal in Eastern Ladakh: IAF chief". www.telegraphindia.com. Retrieved 22 November 2022.
  • "Indian Navy to move MiG-29K fighter jets to north amid border row with China". Hindustan Times. 21 July 2020. Retrieved 21 July 2020.
  • "Air Marshal Vivek Ram Chaudhari to take charge of Western Air Command amid tension at LAC". Hindustan Times. 24 July 2020. Retrieved 1 August 2020.
  • "Galwan Valley face-off: Indian, Chinese military officials meet to defuse tension". Hindustan Times. 18 June 2020. Retrieved 18 June 2020.
  • Negi, Manjeet Singh (13 October 2020). "Lt General PGK Menon takes over as commander of Fire & Fury Corps". India Today. Retrieved 24 October 2020.
  • Bhaumik, Anirban (18 June 2020). "Galwan Valley: Indian, Chinese diplomats to hold video-conference soon". Deccan Herald. Retrieved 18 June 2020.
  • "Rear Admiral Philipose George Pynumootil, NM Assumes Charge as Flag Officer Naval Aviation (FONA)". 26 February 2019. Retrieved 21 July 2020.
  • "IGP Ladakh reviews security arrangements". Daily Excelsior. 9 April 2020. Retrieved 19 June 2020.
  • Kakar, Maj Gen Harsha (16 January 2022). "India-China standoff: How possibility of escalation has reduced but that of continued stalemate increased". Firstpost. Retrieved 7 February 2022.
  • Swami, Praveen (23 June 2020). "PLA Attacked Indian Troops in Galwan Valley Violating Border Agreements and Protocols". News18 India. Retrieved 7 February 2022.
  • "India, Chinese troops face-off at eastern Ladakh; casualties on both sides". Asia News. 16 June 2020. Archived from the original on 16 June 2020. Retrieved 17 June 2020.
  • Philip, Snehesh Alex (24 May 2020). "Chinese troops challenge India at multiple locations in eastern Ladakh, standoff continues". The Print. Retrieved 24 May 2020
  • Singh, Sushant (24 May 2020). "Chinese intrusions at 3 places in Ladakh, Army chief takes stock". The Indian Express. Retrieved 24 May 2020
  • "India soldiers killed in clash with Chinese forces". BBC News. 16 June 2020. Retrieved 16 June 2020.^
  • Som, Vishnu (22 June 2020). Ghosh, Deepshikha (ed.). "At Talks, China Confirms Commanding Officer Was Killed in Ladakh: Sources". NDTV.com. Retrieved 22 June 2020
  • "China denies detaining Indian soldiers after reports say 10 freed". Al Jazeera. 19 June 2020. Retrieved 26 August 2020
  • Gettleman, Jeffrey (8 September 2020). "Shots Fired Along India-China Border for First Time in Years". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 9 September 2020
  • Kaushik, Krishn (9 September 2020). "First time in 45 years, shots fired along LAC as troops foil China's bid to take a key height". The Indian Express. Retrieved 9 September 2020.
  • Singh, Vijaita (11 September 2020). "LAC standoff | Officials confirm two incidents of firing at south bank of Pangong Tso". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Archived from the original on 13 September 2020. Retrieved 11 September 2020.
  • Rai, Arpan (25 July 2020). "India, China complete troop disengagement at three friction points, focus now on Finger area". Hindustan Times. ANI. Retrieved 26 July 2020.
  • Bhalla, Abhishek (19 February 2021). "India, China complete disengagement in Pangong Tso, next round of military talks on Saturday". India Today. Archived from the original on 19 February 2021. Retrieved 27 March 2021.
  • Singh, Sushant (11 August 2021). "Gogra Disengagement Raises More Questions About the Situation in Ladakh". The Wire. Archived from the original on 11 August 2021. Retrieved 24 August 2021
  • Panag, Harcharanjit Singh (12 August 2021). "Modi government's politics with China is evolving. Gogra disengagement is proof". The Print. Retrieved 24 August 2021
  • Singh, Rahul; Choudhury, Sunetra (31 May 2020). "Amid Ladakh standoff, 12,000 workers to be moved to complete projects near China border". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 4 June 2020.
  • Ray, Kalyan; Bhaumik, Anirban (1 June 2020). "Amid border tension, India sends out a strong message to China". Deccan Herald. Retrieved 4 June 2020
  • Kumar, Rajesh (14 June 2020). "CM flags off train with 1,600 workers for border projects". The Times of India. Ranchi. Retrieved 15 June 2020.
  • Singh, Sushant (26 May 2020). "Indian border infrastructure or Chinese assertiveness? Experts dissect what triggered China border moves". The Indian Express. Retrieved 26 May 2020.
  • Jaiswal, Mansi (27 May 2020). "China starts construction activities near Pangong Lake amid border tensions with India". Business Today (India). Archived from the original on 5 June 2020. Retrieved 5 June 2020.
  • Desai, Shweta (3 June 2020). "Beyond Ladakh: Here's how China is scaling up its assets along the India-Tibet frontier". Newslaundry. Retrieved 5 June 2020.
  • Krishnan, Ananth (12 June 2020). "Beijing think-tank links scrapping of Article 370 to LAC tensions". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Archived from the original on 12 June 2020. Retrieved 15 June 2020.
  • Chaudhury, Dipanjan Roy (29 May 2020). "India-China activate 5 pacts to defuse LAC tensions". The Economic Times. Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  • Roche, Elizabeth (8 June 2020). "India, China to continue quiet diplomacy on border dispute". LiveMint.com. Retrieved 9 June 2020.
  • Sandhu, P.J.S. (21 July 2020). "It Is Time to Accept How Badly India Misread Chinese Intentions in 1962 – and 2020". The Wire. Retrieved 14 October 2020.
  • Sagar, Pradip R (13 August 2020). "100 days on, India-China border in Ladakh still remains tense". The Week. Retrieved 30 August 2020.
  • Mitra, Devirupa (6 June 2020). "Ahead of Border Talks With China, India Still Unclear of Reason Behind Troops Stand-Off". The Wire (India). Archived from the original on 6 June 2020. Retrieved 6 June 2020. On Saturday, Indian and Chinese military officials of Lieutenant General-rank are likely to meet at a border personnel meeting (BPM) ... The various BPM meetings – led first by colonels, then brigadiers and then finally over three rounds by major general-rank officers – have until now yielded no results.
  • Philip, Snehesh Alex (12 August 2020). "No progress made in India-China major general-level talks, all eyes now on diplomatic parleys". ThePrint. Retrieved 28 August 2020.
  • "China Ups Rhetoric, Warns India of 'Severe Consequences' for Violent Clash". The Wire. 25 June 2020. Retrieved 25 June 2020.
  • Sarkar, Shankhyaneel (5 September 2020). "At SCO meet, Rajnath Singh tells China to restore status quo at LAC". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 5 September 2020.
  • Kaushik, Krishn (14 January 2022). "No breakthrough in 14th round of India-China military talks, but two sides agree to 'meet soon'". The Indian Express. Retrieved 4 February 2022.
  • Suneja, Kirtika; Agarwal, Surabhi (17 June 2020). "Is This Hindi-Chini Bye Bye on Trade Front? Maybe Not: No immediate impact likely on business relations, say govt officials". The Economic Times. Retrieved 4 July 2020 – via Pressreader.com.
  • Pandey, Neelam (16 June 2020). "Traders' body calls for boycott of 3,000 Chinese products over 'continued' border clashes". ThePrint. Retrieved 17 June 2020.
  • Ninan, T. N. (20 June 2020). "To hit China, aim carefully. Don't shoot yourself in the foot". ThePrint. Retrieved 20 June 2020.
  • Arnimesh, Shanker (15 June 2020). "RSS affiliate wants Modi govt to cancel Chinese firm's bid for Delhi-Meerut RRTS project". ThePrint. Retrieved 18 June 2020.
  • Dastidar, Avishek G; Tiwari, Ravish (18 June 2020). "Chinese firms to lose India business in Railways, telecom". The Indian Express. Retrieved 20 June 2020.
  • 51. Krishnan, Ananth (25 November 2020). "China slams India's ban on 43 more apps". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Archived from the original on 30 November 2020. Retrieved 26 November 2020.
  • 52. The Tribune Chandigarh, India Clashed twice, 16 Jan 2024


Jul 22, 2023
ਚੀਂਨ-ਭਾਰਤ ਹੱਦਾਂ ਤੇ ਆਪਸੀ ਝੜਪਾਂ ਅਤੇ ਵਧਦੇ ਤਣਾਅ ਤੇ ਉਸਦਾ ਹੱਲ

ਡਾ: ਦਲਵਿੰਦਰ ਸਿੰਘ ਗ੍ਰੇਵਾਲ

ਅਪ੍ਰੈਲ 2020 ਤੋਂ, ਜਦੋਂ ਚੀਨ ਨੇ ਪੂਰਬੀ ਲੱਦਾਖ ਦੇ ਵੱਡੇ ਖੇਤਰਾਂ 'ਤੇ ਕਬਜ਼ਾ ਕਰ ਲਿਆ ਸੀ, ਦੋਵੇਂ ਦੇਸ਼ ਆਰਮੀ ਕਮਾਂਡਰ ਅਤੇ ਕੂਟਨੀਤਕ ਪੱਧਰ 'ਤੇ ਨਿਯਮਤ ਗੱਲਬਾਤ ਦੇ ਬਾਵਜੂਦ ਤਣਾਅ ਵਿਚ ਹਨ। ਦੋਵੇਂ ਫ਼ੌਜਾਂ ਲੱਦਾਖ ਵਿੱਚ ਆਹਮੋ-ਸਾਹਮਣੇ ਖੜ੍ਹੀਆਂ ਹਨ, ਦੋਨਾਂ ਪਾਸਿਆਂ ਦੇ ਹੋਰ ਇੱਕ ਲੱਖ ਸੈਨਿਕਾਂ ਦੀ ਵਧੀਕ ਤੈਨਾਤੀ ਅਤੇ ਸਭ ਤੋਂ ਆਧੁਨਿਕ ਹਥਿਆਰਾਂ ਤੇ ਇੱਥੋਂ ਤੱਕ, ਕਿ ਚੀਨ ਦੀਆਂ ਸਰਹੱਦ ਦੇ ਨਾਲ-ਨਾਲ ਮਿਜ਼ਾਈਲਾਂ ਅਤੇ ਸਭ ਤੋਂ ਆਧੁਨਿਕ ਉਪਕਰਣਾਂ ਦੀ ਤੈਨਾਤੀ ਗੰਭੀਰ ਮਾਮਲੇ ਹਨ।

ਦੋਨੋਂ ਫੌਜਾਂ ਜਦੋਂ ਇੱਕ ਦੂਜੇ ਦੇ ਆਹਮੋ-ਸਾਹਮਣੇ ਹੁੰਦੇ ਹਨ ਇਨ੍ਹਾਂ ਵਿਚਕਾਰ ਹੋਈ ਗਰਮੀ ਝੜਪਾਂ ਪੈਦਾ ਕਰਦੀ ਰਹਿੰਦੀ ਹੈ । ਪਿਛਲੇ ਸਾਢੇ ਤਿੰਨ ਸਾਲਾਂ ਵਿੱਚ ਭਾਰਤੀ ਅਤੇ ਚੀਨੀ ਸੈਨਿਕਾਂ ਵਿਚਕਾਰ ਐਲਏਸੀ ਦੇ ਨਾਲ ਝੜਪਾਂ ਦੀਆਂ ਕਈ ਘਟਨਾਵਾਂ ਹੋਈਆਂ ਹਨ। ਮਈ 2020 ਦੇ ਸ਼ੁਰੂ ਵਿੱਚ, ਪੀਪਲਜ਼ ਲਿਬਰੇਸ਼ਨ ਆਰਮੀ ਅਤੇ ਭਾਰਤੀ ਫੌਜ ਦੀਆਂ ਟੁਕੜੀਆਂ ਨੇ ਚੀਨ ਅਤੇ ਭਾਰਤ ਦਰਮਿਆਨ ਵਿਵਾਦਿਤ ਸੀਮਾ, ਅਸਲ ਕੰਟਰੋਲ ਰੇਖਾ ਦੇ ਨਾਲ-ਨਾਲ ਸਥਾਨਾਂ 'ਤੇ ਝਗੜਾ ਕੀਤਾ। ਇਹ ਗਲਵਾਨ ਵਿੱਚ 15/16 ਜੂਨ 2020 ਨੂੰ ਵਧਿਆ ਜਿਸ ਦੇ ਨਤੀਜੇ ਵਜੋਂ ਦੋਵਾਂ ਪਾਸਿਆਂ ਦੀਆਂ ਮੌਤਾਂ ਹੋਈਆਂ। ਭਾਰਤੀ ਸੂਤਰਾਂ ਨੇ 20 ਭਾਰਤੀ ਸੈਨਿਕਾਂ ਦੀ ਮੌਤ ਦੀ ਖਬਰ ਦਿੱਤੀ ਹੈ ਅਤੇ ਚੀਨ ਨੇ 4 ਮੌਤਾਂ ਅਤੇ 45 ਚੀਨੀ ਸੈਨਿਕਾਂ ਦੀ ਜ਼ਖਮੀ ਹੋਣ ਦੀ ਖਬਰ ਦਿੱਤੀ ਹਾਲਾਂਕਿ ਵਿਦੇਸ਼ੀ ਸੂਤਰਾਂ ਨੇ ਇਸ ਝੜਪ ਵਿੱਚ 34 ਜਾਂ ਇਸ ਤੋਂ ਵੱਧ ਚੀਨੀ ਮਾਰੇ ਜਾਣ ਦੀ ਖਬਰ ਦਿੱਤੀ ਹੈ।

ਜੂਨ-ਜੁਲਾਈ 2020 ਵਿੱਚ ਗਲਵਾਨ, ਤੋਂ ਚੀਨ ਦੇ ਪਿਛੇ ਹਟਣ ਨਾਲ ਸਮਝੋਤਾ ਅੰਸ਼ਕ ਰੂਪ ਵਿੱਚ ਹੀ ਹੋਇਆ ਸੀ ਜਦੋਂ ਕਿ ਪੈਂਗੌਂਗ ਝੀਲ ਦੇ ਉੱਤਰੀ ਅਤੇ ਦੱਖਣੀ ਕਿਨਾਰੇ ਤੋਂ ਫ਼ਰਵਰੀ 2021 ਵਿੱਚ ਸਮਝੌਤਾ ਪੂਰੀ ਤਰ੍ਹਾਂ ਹੋਇਆ ਸੀ। ਅਗਸਤ 2021 ਵਿੱਚ ਹਾਟ ਸਪ੍ਰਿੰਗਸ ਅਤੇ ਗੋਗਰਾ ਖਾਲੀ ਕਰਨ ਤੋਂ ਬਾਅਦ, ਭਾਰਤੀ ਵਿਸ਼ਲੇਸ਼ਕਾਂ ਨੇ ਦੱਸਿਆ ਕਿ ਐਲਏਸੀ ਵਿੱਚ ਅਪ੍ਰੈਲ 2020 ਵਾਲੀ ਸਥਿਤੀ ਹੋ ਸਕਦੀ ਹੈ । ਹਾਲਾਂਕਿ ਦੇਪਸੰਗ ਦੇ ਹਜ਼ਾਰਾਂ ਕਿਲੋਮੀਟਰ ਅਜੇ ਵੀ ਖਾਲੀ ਨਹੀਂ ਹੋਏ ਹਨ।

7 ਸਤੰਬਰ ਨੂੰ, 45 ਸਾਲਾਂ ਵਿੱਚ ਪਹਿਲੀ ਵਾਰ, ਐਲ ਏ ਸੀ ਦੇ ਨਾਲ-ਨਾਲ ਗੋਲੀਬਾਰੀ ਕੀਤੀ ਗਈ, ਜਿਸ ਵਿੱਚ ਦੋਵੇਂ ਧਿਰਾਂ ਨੇ ਇੱਕ ਦੂਜੇ ਨੂੰ ਗੋਲੀਬਾਰੀ ਲਈ ਜ਼ਿੰਮੇਵਾਰ ਠਹਿਰਾਇਆ।

ਨਵੀਂਆਂ ਝੜਪਾਂ ਵਿੱਚ ਬਹਾਦੈਰੀ ਦਿਖਾਉਣ ਬਦਲੇ ਭਾਰਤੀ ਫੌਜ ਦੁਆਰਾ ਆਪਣੇ ਕੁਝ ਸੈਨਿਕਾਂ ਨੂੰ ਬਹਾਦਰੀ ਦੇ ਤਗਮੇ ਦਿੱਤੇ ਜਾਣ ਤੋਂ ਬਾਅਦ ਜੋ ਝੜਪਾਂ ਬਾਰੇ ਹੋਰ ਖਬਰਾਂ ਸਾਹਮਣੇ ਆਈਆਂ, ਜਿਨ੍ਹਾਂ ਵਿੱਚ 2022 ਵਿੱਚ ਘੱਟੋ ਘੱਟ ਦੋ ਘਟਨਾਵਾਂ ਵਿੱਚ ਭਾਰਤੀ ਖੇਤਰ ਵਿੱਚ ਦਾਖਲ ਹੋਣ ਦੀ ਕੋਸ਼ਿਸ਼ ਕਰ ਰਹੇ ਚੀਨੀ ਸੈਨਿਕਾਂ ਨੂੰ ਚੁਣੌਤੀ ਦਿੱਤੀ ਗਈ ਸੀ।

ਜਨਵਰੀ 2022 ਵਿੱਚ ਪਹਿਲੀ ਘਟਨਾ ਵਿੱਚ, ਇੱਕ ਹਵਾਲੇ ਦੇ ਅਨੁਸਾਰ, "ਪੀਪਲਜ਼ ਲਿਬਰੇਸ਼ਨ ਆਰਮੀ ਦੇ ਕਈ ਸਿਪਾਹੀਆਂ ਨੇ ਪੂਰਬੀ ਲੱਦਾਖ ਖੇਤਰ ਵਿੱਚ ਇੱਕ ਭਾਰਤੀ ਫੌਜ ਦੀ ਚੌਕੀ ਉੱਤੇ ਹਮਲਾ ਕੀਤਾ"। ਸਰੀਰਕ ਧੱਕਾ-ਮੁੱਕੀ ਦੇ ਦੌਰਾਨ, ਇੱਕ ਭਾਰਤੀ ਸਿਪਾਹੀ ਨੇ ਘੱਟੋ-ਘੱਟ ਚਾਰ ਚੀਨੀ ਸੈਨਿਕਾਂ ਨੂੰ ਜ਼ਖਮੀ ਕਰ ਦਿੱਤਾ ਅਤੇ ਉਨ੍ਹਾਂ ਦੀਆਂ ਰਾਈਫਲਾਂ ਖੋਹ ਲਈਆਂ ਤੇ, "ਉਨ੍ਹਾਂ ਨੂੰ ਵਾਪਸ ਜਾਣ ਲਈ ਮਜ਼ਬੂਰ ਕੀਤਾ ਗਿਆ। ਨਵੰਬਰ 2022 ਵਿੱਚ ਦੂਜੀ ਘਟਨਾ ਵਿੱਚ, ਭਾਰਤੀ ਸੈਨਿਕਾਂ ਨੇ "40 ਤੋਂ 50 ਸੈਨਿਕਾਂ ਦੇ ਇੱਕ ਸਮੂਹ" ਨੂੰ ਭਾਰਤੀ ਖੇਤਰ ਵਿੱਚ ਦਾਖਲ ਹੋਣ ਦੀ ਕੋਸ਼ਿਸ਼ ਕਰਦੇ ਹੋਏ ਚੀਨੀਆਂ ਨੂੰ ਪਿੱਛੇ ਧੱਕ ਦਿੱਤਾ। ਭਾਰਤੀ ਸੈਨਿਕਾਂ ਦੀ ਇੱਕ ਟੁਕੜੀ ਨੇ ਹਮਲਾ ਕਰਕੇ ਉਨ੍ਹਾਂ ਨੂੰ ਜ਼ਖਮੀ ਕਰ ਦਿੱਤਾ, "ਇਸ ਤਰ੍ਹਾਂ ਪੋਸਟ 'ਤੇ ਕਬਜ਼ਾ ਕਰਨ ਦੀ ਦੁਸ਼ਮਣ ਦੀ ਯੋਜਨਾ ਨੂੰ ਨਾਕਾਮ ਕਰ ਦਿੱਤਾ," । ਹਵਾਲਿਆਂ ਵਿੱਚ ਇਹ ਵੀ ਕਿਹਾ ਗਿਆ ਹੈ ਕਿ ਦੋਵਾਂ ਦੇਸ਼ਾਂ ਦੀਆਂ ਫੌਜਾਂ 2022 ਵਿੱਚ ਇੱਕ ਅਣ-ਨਿਰਧਾਰਤ ਖੇਤਰ ਵਿੱਚ ਦੋ ਦਿਨਾਂ ਦੀ ਇੱਕ ਦੂਜੇ ਦੇ ਸਾਹਮਣੇ ਡਟੀਆਂ ਹੋਈਆਂ ਸਨ। 2020 ਦੇ ਅੱਧ ਵਿੱਚ ਸ਼ੁਰੂ ਹੋਏ ਇਸ ਆਂਪਸੀ ਮਸਲੇ ਨੂੰ ਸੁਲਝਾਉਣ ਲਈਦੋਨਾਂ ਦੇਸ਼ਾ ਵਿਚਕਾਰ ਫੌਜੀ ਅਤੇ ਕੂਟਨੀਤਕ ਵਿਚਾਰ-ਵਟਾਂਦਰੇ ਹੋਏ ਹਨ। ਭਾਰਤ-ਚੀਨ ਸਰਹੱਦੀ ਵਿਵਾਦ 1950 ਦੇ ਦਹਾਕੇ ਦਾ ਹੈ ਅਤੇ ਦੋਵਾਂ ਧਿਰਾਂ ਨੇ 1962 ਵਿੱਚ ਇਸ ਨੂੰ ਲੈ ਕੇ ਇੱਕ ਛੋਟੀ ਪਰ ਖੂਨੀ ਜੰਗ ਲੜੀ ਸੀ।

ਚੀਨ ਇਸ ਖੇਤਰ ਵਿੱਚ ਫੌਜੀ ਬੁਨਿਆਦੀ ਢਾਂਚੇ ਨੂੰ ਵਧਾ ਰਿਹਾ ਹੈ। ਅਰੁਣਾਚਲ ਪ੍ਰਦੇਸ਼ ਦੇ ਤਵਾਂਗ ਸੈਕਟਰ ਵਿੱਚ ਅਸਲ ਕੰਟਰੋਲ ਰੇਖਾ (ਐਲਏਸੀ) ਦੇ ਨਾਲ ਭਾਰਤੀ ਅਤੇ ਚੀਨੀ ਸੈਨਿਕਾਂ ਵਿਚਕਾਰ ਝੜਪ ਤੋਂ ਬਾਅਦ ਵੀ ਚਿੰਤਾਵਾਂ ਪੈਦਾ ਹੋਈਆਂ। ਰਿਪੋਰਟਾਂ ਵਿੱਚ ਕਿਹਾ ਗਿਆ ਹੈ ਕਿ ਆਹਮੋ-ਸਾਹਮਣੇ ਦੌਰਾਨ, ਦੋਵਾਂ ਪਾਸਿਆਂ ਦੇ ਸੈਨਿਕਾਂ ਨੂੰ "ਮਾਮੂਲੀ ਸੱਟਾਂ" ਲੱਗੀਆਂ। ਚੀਨੀ ਸੈਨਿਕਾਂ ਨੇ ਐਲਏਸੀ ਦੇ ਤਵਾਂਗ ਸੈਕਟਰ ਵਿੱਚ ਵੀ ਉਲੰਘਣਾ ਦੀ ਕੋਸ਼ਿਸ਼ ਕੀਤੀ। 9 ਦਸੰਬਰ, 2022 ਨੂੰ, ਪੀਐਲਏ ਦੇ ਜਵਾਨਾਂ ਨੇ ਤਵਾਂਗ ਸੈਕਟਰ ਦੇ ਯਾਂਗਤਸੇ ਖੇਤਰ ਵਿੱਚ ਐਲਏਸੀ ਨੂੰ ਪਾਰ ਕਰਨ ਦੀ ਕੋਸ਼ਿਸ਼ ਕੀਤੀ ਅਤੇ ਇੱਕਤਰਫ਼ਾ ਸਥਿਤੀ ਨੂੰ ਬਦਲ ਦਿੱਤਾ, ਰੱਖਿਆ ਮੰਤਰੀ ਰਾਜਨਾਥ ਸਿੰਘ ਨੇ ਘਟਨਾ ਤੋਂ ਚਾਰ ਦਿਨ ਬਾਅਦ ਸੰਸਦ ਵਿੱਚ ਕਿਹਾ। ਰਾਜਨਾਥ ਸਿੰਘ ਨੇ ਕਿਹਾ ਕਿ ਚੀਨੀ ਕੋਸ਼ਿਸ਼ ਦਾ ਭਾਰਤੀ ਸੈਨਿਕਾਂ ਨੇ ਦ੍ਰਿੜਤਾ ਅਤੇ ਦ੍ਰਿੜਤਾ ਨਾਲ ਮੁਕਾਬਲਾ ਕੀਤਾ। ਸੂਤਰਾਂ ਨੇ ਕਿਹਾ ਕਿ ਚੀਨ ਦੇ ਉਲੰਘਣ ਦੀ ਕੋਸ਼ਿਸ਼ ਦਾ ਮਜ਼ਬੂਤੀ ਨਾਲ ਜਵਾਬ ਦੇਣ ਵਾਲੀ ਟੀਮ ਦਾ ਹਿੱਸਾ ਰਹੇ ਕਈ ਭਾਰਤੀ ਫੌਜ ਦੇ ਜਵਾਨਾਂ ਨੂੰ ਵੀ ਨਿਵੇਸ਼ ਸਮਾਰੋਹ ਵਿੱਚ ਬਹਾਦਰੀ ਪੁਰਸਕਾਰ ਨਾਲ ਸਨਮਾਨਿਤ ਕੀਤਾ ਗਿਆ।

ਨਿਊਜ਼ ਏਜੰਸੀ ਰਾਇਟਰਜ਼ ਨੇ ਲੱਦਾਖ ਦੇ ਹਿਮਾਲੀਅਨ ਖੇਤਰ ਵਿੱਚ ਭਾਰਤੀ ਪੁਲਿਸ ਦੁਆਰਾ ਸੁਰੱਖਿਆ ਮੁਲਾਂਕਣ ਦਾ ਹਵਾਲਾ ਦਿੰਦੇ ਹੋਏ ਰਿਪੋਰਟ ਕੀਤੀ ਹੈ ਕਿ ਭਾਰਤ ਨੂੰ ਭਵਿੱਖ ਵਿੱਚ ਚੀਨੀ ਸੈਨਿਕਾਂ ਨਾਲ ਹੋਰ ਝੜਪਾਂ ਦੀ ਉਮੀਦ ਹੈ । ਚੀਨ ਦਾ ਅਪਣੇ ਜਰਨੈਲਾਂ ਕਰਕੇ ਉਠਿਆ ਮਸਲਾ ਅਤੇ ਵਿੱਚ ਆਜ਼ਾਦ ਤਾਇਵਾਨ ਲੋਚਦੀ ਚੀਨ ਵਿਰੋਧੀ ਪਾਰਟੀ ਦੀ ਤਾਇਵਾਨ ਵਿੱਚ ਜਿਤ ਹੋਣ ਕਰਕੇ ਚੀਨ ਦਾ ਹੁਣ ਜ਼ਿਆਦਾ ਧਿਆਨ ਆਂਤਰਿਕ ਮਾਮਲਿਆਂ ਅਤੇ ਤਾਇਵਾਨ ਨਾਲ ਨਜਿਠਣ ਵਲ ਹੈ । ਉਹ ਦੁਨੀਆਂ ਨੂੰ ਅਪਣੇ ਅਨੁਸਾਰ ਬਦਲਣਾ ਚਾਹੁੰਦਾ ਹੈ ਅਤੇ ਵਨ ਬੈਲਟ ਵਨ ਰੋਡ ਰਾਹੀਂ ਸਾਰੀ ਦੁਨੀਆਂ ਨਾਲ ਸਿਧਾ ਸਬੰਧ ਪਾ ਕੇ ਪ੍ਰਭਾਵ ਵਿੱਚ ਰੱਖਣਾ ਚਾਹੁੰਦਾ ਹੈ ਪਰ ਭਾਰਤੀਆਂ ਨੂੰ ਇਹ ਧਿਆਨ ਵਿਚ ਰੱਖਣਾ ਚਾਹੀਦਾ ਹੈ ਕਿ ਉਸ ਉਪਰ ਵਿਸ਼ਵਾਸ਼ ਨਹੀਂ ਕੀਤਾ ਜਾ ਸਕਦਾ ਜਿਸ ਲਈ ਭਾਰਤ ਨੂੰ ਅਪਣੇ ਖੇਤਰਾਂ ਖਾਸ ਕਰਕੇ ਅਰੁਣਾਚਲ ਪ੍ਰਦੇਸ, ਸਿਕਿਮ ਅਤੇ ਲਦਾਖ ਵੱਲ ਖਾਸ ਚੋਕਸੀ ਅਤੇ ਸੈਨਿਕ ਤਿਆਰੀ ਬਣਾਈ ਤਾਂ ਪਵੇਗੀ ਹੀ ਪਰ ਚੀਨ ਦੇ ਬਰਾਬਰ ਹੋ ਜਾਣ ਲਈ ਲਗਾਤਾਰ ਹਿੰਮਤ ਕਰਨੀ ਪਵੇਗੀ।


Jul 22, 2023
Chinese Spy Ships in Maldivs rings danger bells in India
The Maldives government has confirmed that a Chinese "research vessel" - the Xian Yang Hong 03, seen as a spy ship mapping the Indian Ocean floor for military purposes - will dock at capital Male early next month. The ship will not conduct any "research" while in Maldivian waters, the island nation said, noting it was asked for clearance to "... for rotation and replenishment.

The 4,300-ton Xiang Yang Hong 03 is classified as a 'research' vessel that is mapping the floor of the Indian Ocean floor. Research exercises like this can provide valuable data that can help anticipate natural disasters like underwater earthquakes, and mitigate otherwise disastrous impacts. Mapping the floor also enables China to navigate these waters in the future using submarines and submersible drones. This spy ship, masquerading as a 'research' vessel, is en route to Maldives and has set alarm bells ringing in New Delhi, amid a simmering row with Male that erupted this month after three Maldivian ministers made comments critical of Prime Minister Narendra Modi. The Marine Tracker app shows the Chinese ship now sailing off the coast of Indonesia after having navigated the Sunda Strait between Java and Sumatra, and it is due in Male on February 8. According to leading Geospatial expert Damien Symon, the ship surveyed these waters in 2019 and 2020. The ship's presence on the edge of the Indian Ocean Region, or IOR, comes days after Maldives President Mohamed Muizzu's all-smiles meeting with China's Xi Jinping in Beijing, in visuals that appeared to underline a pivot to China - a potentially key geopolitical and military shift in the IOR.

Mr Muizzu, elected on the back of an "India Out" campaign, has already issued one demand to Delhi - to withdraw, by March 15 - the nearly 100 Indian soldiers and military assets in the Maldives.

"The Maldives has always been a welcoming destination for vessels of friendly countries, and continues to host both civilian and military vessels making port calls for peaceful purposes..." "Such calls enhance bilateral ties between the Maldives and partner countries, and also demonstrate the centuries-old tradition of welcoming vessels from friendly countries..." the Maldives said.

The Maldives giving the Chinese ship permission to dock comes as Male and New Delhi are locked in a tense stand-off over three Maldivian ministers' critical comments this month about Prime Minister Narendra Modi, which sparked a row in India and pushback at home for President Mohamed Muizzu.

The "welcoming vessels from friendly countries" phrase has been seen as a direct attack on India and further evidence of Male's pivot away from New Delhi and towards Beijing. The move to China is a potentially significant geopolitical and military shift in the Indian Ocean Region, or IOR.

Though the three ministers were suspended, and the Maldives Foreign Ministry made conciliatory statements, the fact is Mr Muizzu - elected on the back of an "India Out" campaign - has just returned from a State visit to China. On this visit he met Xi Jinping and signed 20 "key" agreements, and announced elevation of the two countries' ties to a Comprehensive Strategic Cooperation Partnership.


Jul 22, 2023

Indian and Chinese disengage in Pagong Lake in February 2022
But they have not agreed to disengage in Depsong till date. They are being rigid in Depsang, so we will continue to be present there militarily and simultaneously keep talking to them. We too have to be rigid until they vacate Depsang area. With this our relations will remain stained and or approach towards Chinese will remain unfriendly. Though the final decision has to come from the top but the agreement has to be at the bottom at local area commander level. In numerous meeting China has not changed its stand and India too remains adamant at getting Depsang clear of Chinese. China has been an aggressor again; this fact can never be forgotten in future as well that they cannot be relied upon and our militaries have to be ever ready not only land borders but also in sea, air, space and in cyber and bio world as Chinese has advanced a lot in all these fields.


Jul 22, 2023
A high-tech Chinese marine research ship on Thursday arrived near the Maldives after spending about a month in the Indian Ocean near the island nation, media reports said in Male.
The ship, 'Xiang Yang Hong 03' reached the Maldives on the same day when Indian and Sri Lankan coast guard ships reached the strategically located archipelago for a trilateral naval exercise.
India had already expressed concern about the movement of the Chinese research ship in the Indian Ocean and also prevailed on Sri Lanka to refuse permission for the ship to dock at the Colombo port.

“Chinese research vessel Xiang Yang Hong 03 was moored close to Male City this morning. Around noon, the ship was shown to be near Thilafushi,” news portal Edition.mv reported, quoting the Marine Traffic website that tracks all ocean liners across the globe.

“Xiang Yang Hong 03 began its journey on January 14, 24 hours after Maldives President Mohamed Muizzu concluded his state visit to China. It arrived near Male' today after spending about a month near the Maldives' Exclusive Economic Zone,” said Adhadhu.com, a news portal.
It also claimed that the vessel was “not visible on common tracking sites starting from January 22. It is believed that the vessel's tracking systems had been turned off when it was in the Java Sea off Indonesia then.”

An analysis by Adhadhu using satellite AIS tracking showed that the Chinese vessel was later at the EEZ of Maldives, the report said, adding, “The vessel had spent about a month near the EEZ.”

Muizzu, widely seen as a pro-China leader, won last year's presidential election on an ‘anti-India' stance. He made Beijing his first port of call going against the tradition of visiting New Delhi first as the Maldivian President.

An American think-tank has alleged that a vast fleet of China's “scientific research” ships is collecting data from the oceans, including in the Indian Ocean Region, for military purposes, especially for submarine operations, a charge denied by Beijing, which said the Chinese vessels operations are in line with the UN Convention on Law of the Seas.

On January 23, the Maldives government permitted the research vessel. But while the Maldivian foreign ministry said the Chinese Research Vessel Xiang Yang Hong 3 will “not be conducting any research while in the Maldivian waters,” sources in the Indian defence establishment had indicated that New Delhi was keeping a close watch on the movement of the ship.

In February, Chinese foreign ministry spokesperson Wang Wenbin said, “China's scientific research activities in relevant waters are for peaceful purposes and aimed at contributing to humanity's scientific understanding of the ocean.”

Earlier on January 5, Sri Lanka, while denying entry to the Chinese ship, had said it had declared a moratorium on foreign research ships entering its waters for a year amid concerns from India over Chinese research vessels docking in its neighbourhood.

The Maldives' proximity to India, barely 70 nautical miles from the island of Minicoy in Lakshadweep and 300 nautical miles from the mainland's western coast, and its location at the hub of commercial sea lanes running through the Indian Ocean Region (IOR) gives it significant strategic importance.

The Maldives is India's key maritime neighbour in the IOR and occupies a special place in its initiatives like SAGAR' (Security and Growth for All in the Region) and the Neighbourhood First Policy' of the Narendra Modi government.

Meanwhile, on Thursday morning, Coast Guards of Maldives, India, and Sri Lanka, along with observers from Bangladesh, joined in at the Trilateral Joint Exercise ‘DOSTI-16.'

“MNDF welcomes participating ships from India and Sri Lanka for the Trilateral Joint Exercise 'DOSTI-16' from Feb 22-25. Coast Guards of Maldives, India, and Sri Lanka, along with observers from Bangladesh, join in this biennial event to enhance collaboration between the forces,” Maldives National Defence Force said in a post on X along with the photos of the two vessels.

“The purpose of the biennial exercise is to enhance military collaboration between the three nations and explore ways the nations can work together with respect to incidents unfolding at sea,” news portal Sun.mv reported.


Jul 22, 2023

Indian, Chinese armies hold Major-General level talks to resolve Eastern Ladakh stand-off​

Since the commencement of the Corps Commander-level talks in 2020, both India and China have successfully undertaken disengagement from five friction points — Galwan, the north and south banks of Pangong Tso, and Patrolling Points (PP) 15 and 17A in the Gogra-Hot Springs area. Photograph:(Reuters)

The talks were held to resolve the issues at Depsang Plains and CNN Junction near Demchok—the remaining friction points between the two sides
The Indian Army and Chinese People's Liberation Army (PLA) held Major General-level talks at Daulat Beg Oldie (DBO) and Chesul areas to resolve the long-standing stand-off in Eastern Ladakh, ANI news agency reported quoting defence sources.

According to the report, the Indian side was represented by Major General PK Mishra and Maj Gen Hariharan.

For more than three years, the two Asian giants have been locked in an intense border conflict in the northern Indian territory.
The talks come days after the 19th round of the China-India Corps Commander Level Meeting took place at the Chushul-Moldo border meeting point in the Leh district of Ladakh , a Union territory of India.
The talks happened on August 13 and 14 and were said to have occurred in a "candid and pragmatic atmosphere" on the Indian side of the border.
The two sides had a positive, constructive and in-depth discussion on the resolution of the remaining issues along the LAC in the Western Sector. In line with the guidance provided by the leadership, they exchanged views in an open and forward looking manner," said the statement released simultaneously in Delhi and Beijing.
"They agreed to resolve the remaining issues in an expeditious manner and maintain the momentum of dialogue and negotiations through military and diplomatic channels," it said.
"In the interim, the two sides agreed to maintain the peace and tranquillity on the ground in the border areas," the statement said.
Addressing separately, Chinese Foreign Ministry spokesperson Wang Wenbin said on Wednesday, “China commends the progress made through the meeting. In a candid and pragmatic atmosphere, the two sides According to Te Tribune dated 21 Fn 2-24
India insisted on total pullout at LAC to restore peace.
Differences remain unresolved over pulling back of troops from Depsang plains and Chardog Nullah, near Demchok.
There is a deadlock over the pending resolution of disputes at Depsang, a 972 sq km plateau where the two sides have an issue over troops' positions, espdcially at the 'bottleneck' on the eastern edge of Depsang.
India has already suggested to China that a graded three-step process is needed to ease the
The first is disengagement of troops within close proximity of each other in grey zones along the LAC and getting back to positions as on April 2020. The next two steps are de-escalation and de-induction to April 2020 positions.
Till that is agreed upon and compiled it cannot be assumed to be business as usual and India troops in tend to remain at LAC.


Jul 22, 2023
China has been continuously aggressive along Indian borders. At four occasions after April 2020 they have tried to occupy Indian territories and there have been skirmishes. They will continue to keep pricking at places where both of us are sensitive and keep the LAC alive.'

"Even in the 1962 War, China's basic theme was to teach us a lesson. The PLA advanced nearly up to the plains of Assam and went back. The fact that they went back indicated that territory was not their aim; it was just to teach us a lesson.

'China wants to keep things on the boil," says retired Lieutenant General Sudarshan Shrikant Hasabnis, AVSM, VSM, ADC and former deputy chief of army staff (planning and system). "There's absolutely no doubt that China is our enemy number 1." "They will do anything and everything to prevent India from becoming a peer competitor. China wants the region to acknowledge its hegemony, but India is the biggest stumbling block," says the General. Till seven, eight years ago, we never saw any defence being constructed by the Chinese. But today, they have had to do that which shows a change of mindset on their side.
Earlier, the Chinese thought that the Indians would remain defensive. While our posts were practically along the LAC, their posts were 20 km inside. They had proper two-three storied buildings that served as accommodation for troops. But today, in Eastern Ladakh, the PLA troops are right up in front and since they are not used to this they are having a lot of problems.
The PLA is an army of conscripts and whether they acknowledge it or not, the one child policy has had a very bad effect. A single child has a protected upbringing and is unprepared for the hardships of serving in a difficult area for long durations. This is a major problem faced by the PLA today.
It's not easy for our troops also who are occupying areas that were not so well fortified earlier. But our men are well trained and capable.
In 1962, their basic theme was to teach us a lesson. The PLA advanced nearly up to the plains of Assam and went back. They did not have any intention of holding territory. Of course, it would have been difficult to hold such deep ingresses, but that's a different story. The fact that they went back indicated that territory was not their aim even then; it was just to teach us a lesson -- to whip us and tell us to become a good boy. It must be borne in mind that we are on our own. We may have friendships all over the world, but no one is going to fight our battle -- along the borders or at sea. India is very clear about the fact that it's our war to fight.
We may get some assistance in terms of weapons, but any new weapon comes with a chain of requirements -- training, logistics, repair, maintenance etc. We have some Western equipment, weapons, aircraft etc, but ultimately, it is going to be our war.

India poses a threat to China. The Indian economy will be a competitor in times to come and is closing in on them. Therefore, China wants us to remain on the back foot whether on the economic or military front. China does not want India to become a competitor.


IMAGE: Indian Army gunners successfully validate their battle drills and carry out a rigorous field firing exercise to hone combat skills and enhance operational readiness. Photograph: Kind courtesy ADGPI Indian Army/X

It is not important to hear what the Chinese are saying, but is much more important to see what they are doing. There is always a huge difference in what they say and what they do. Thus rtnsions along the border with them will continue.
There has been no success in continuous rounds of talks with Chinese. In fafg they are gaining validity of their occupation with thus dialogue process An understanding was reached in some areas but after their key area of interest has been about 1000 km of Depsang where they have not yet budged an inch.

Under these conditions offensive defensive deployment is the only answer. Since A every hilltop can be held and one needs resources to do that which poses a challenge for both .defender as well as the attacker. Answer to this is acquisition of modern technologies including satellites, drones, radars, laser equipment and the like. Mountain warfare is not easy so you need to prioritise, you need to be able to defend somewhere and take the battle someplace else. Newspaper reports show that the northern front has been given first priority. Till very recently, we were totally Pakistan-centric and that has changed in the recent past. Some resources earmarked for the western front are now being earmarked for the northern frontier to make it more feasible to execute the plans.

IMAGE: Northern Army Commander Lieutenant General Suchindra Kumar visits forward posts of the Chinar Corps to review operational preparedness, February 22, 2024. Photograph: ANI Photo
Do you see any resolution in this current standoff?

Under these conditions any immediate resolution is not in sight in the near future. A nation speaks on the strength of its comprehensive national power. We have to raise our economic, military, technological and social strength. We are on that course already and China is trying its best to prevent us from getting there by blocking our way whether by actions on LAC or at the UN.
They will do anything and everything to prevent India from becoming a peer competitor in the region. China wants countries in the region to acknowledge their hegemony, but India is the biggest stumbling block for them.


IMAGE: People's Liberation Army tanks disengage during the disengagement process in Ladakh two years ago, in February 2022. Photograph: ANI Photo

China is now India's No.1 enemy. There is absolutely no doubt about that. It is already like a war situation where our troops are face to face with each other and we are in direct contact with them.

IMAGE: Lieutenant General Sudarshan Shrikant Hasabnis (retd), AVSM, VSM, ADC and former deputy chief of army staff (planning and system). Photograph: Archana Masih/Rediff.com
Do you see an escalation in the Chinese activity before the general election?

I do not think so. In fact, if they do, we are in a position to give a strong response which will go in favour of the present government in the eyes of the general population. It will be played out in that manner by the government also.

It's not going to be easy for China to try any misadventure along the entire LAC. They will be given a bloody nose.

Is this standoff going to continue for the foreseeable future?

They will continue to keep pricking at places where both of us are sensitive and keep the LAC alive. They will not precipitate the situation and do anything that could result in the current government getting a better position in May.

China is definitely not comfortable with the way the external affairs minister has named China. We never did that in the previous dispensation, even in the current dispensation's previous term, we never used to name China. Today, we are naming China at the highest level.


Photograph: Kind courtesy ADGPI Indian Army/X
China is looking to become the number one superpower by 2048. That seems to be their basic thrust and they will ensure that nothing comes in the way of their achieving that status. They don't want anything to destabilise their march towards 2048.


Jul 22, 2023
India and China are rising and the two countries, in the process, are changing the world order, External Affairs Minister S Jaishankar said on Monday. Jaishankar, citing talks between leadership of the two countries in Mamallapuram and Wuhan, said India tried to maintain an "equilibrium" in the ties through diplomacy, but the relations took a different turn following China's military build-up along the Line of Actual Control in 2020 in violation of laid down norms.


The external affairs minister, speaking at a media summit organised by the TV9 Network, described the rise of India and China as "significant" in the global geopolitical scenario.

"If you were to list three or four really big things which have changed in the last 20-25 years, I think most people would agree it would be the rise of China and the rise of India," he said, replying to a question.
"You can say China started it much earlier because our own politics here delayed the era of reform. That's okay. What's done is done. But there is no question, both countries are rising and for world politics, this poses a very interesting problem," he said.

"The problem is this: both are changing the world order by their rise. So each one has an impact vis-a-vis the world. But they also happened to be neighbours. So their relationship is also changing while it is changing vis-a-vis the rest of the world," Jaishankar added.

The external affairs minister argued that the situation, therefore, is making it "very complicated to create an equilibrium". They were part of "equilibrium maintenance exercise", Jaishankar said when specifically asked about the informal summit between Prime Minister Narendra Modi and Chinese President Xi Jinping in the Chinese city of Wuhan in 2018 and Mamallapuram in 2019.

"We tried to maintain that equilibrium naturally -- first through diplomacy. So what you saw in Wuhan and Mamallapuram, etc was that equilibrium maintenance exercise," he said.

"But what happened in 2020 was, China for whatever reason chose to move military forces in disregard of agreements. That called for a different response for the equilibrium," he said.

"The logical thing for us to do, which is what we did, was we moved our forces and in a very big way. So from 2020, you have an equilibrium, one part of which is the military posture in the border areas, one part of it today obviously is the political relationship impacted by this border situation," he said.
"One part of it is also the economic measures that we have taken," he added.

Jaishankar said the Modi government believes that interests of the country's working class, small enterprises and small industries must be protected against "unfair competition".

"Our effort today is to build our deep strengths. We have to build our digital capabilities, our telecom, our manufacturing, our pharma industry, our health self-sufficiency, our defence industry, our ability to deploy on the border which you can only do if you build infrastructure," he said.

Jaishankar suggested that India's annual average expenditure on the border with China was about Rs 3,500 crore till 2014. Today, it is almost Rs 15,000 crore, he said.

There was a neglect of the border infrastructure, he said, adding "you cannot defend the border if you do not build infrastructure there".
He however did not dwell on the point why around 1000 km of Depsang is not being vacated by China despite of numerous round of talks and what action Indi will take to end this stalemate where China has no intention to vacate the occupied area.


Jul 22, 2023
Taking a dig at China, External Affairs Minister S Jaishankar on Thursday said Beijing has not observed longstanding written agreements with India and blamed it for the bloodshed at the borders in 2020, the first in more than four decades.


IMAGE: External Affairs Minister S Jaishankar speaks at the inaugural Raisina Roundtable in Tokyo, March 7, 2024. Photograph: Courtesy S Jaishankar on X

Speaking at the inaugural Raisina Roundtable in Tokyo, an event by the think tank, Jaishankar also spoke about how he expected a change in Russia's direction towards the rest of the world and it may likely want multiple options in Asia.
On a two-day trip to Japan, Jaishankar elaborated on the changing world order, saying, “There is a reality of a very big power shift in the Indo-Pacific. When there are very big shifts in capabilities and influence and presumably ambitions, then there are all the accompanying ambitions and strategic consequences.” " Now it is not an issue whether you like it or you don't like it. There's a reality out there, you have to deal with that reality,” he said and added, “Ideally, we would assume that everybody would say, okay, things are changing, but let's keep it as stable as we can.”
“Unfortunately, that's not what we have seen in the last decade of our own experience in the case of China, for example, is between 1975 to 2020, which is really 45 years, there was no bloodshed on the border, and in 2020, changed,” he said.

“We can disagree on many things, but when a country actually sort of does not observe written agreements with a neighbour, I think, you have caused ... because ... then raises a question mark about the stability of the relationship and frankly, about intentions,” Jaishankar said in response to a question.

The eastern Ladakh border standoff erupted on May 5, 2020, following a violent clash in the Pangong Lake area.

The ties between the two countries nosedived significantly following the fierce clash in the Galwan Valley in June 2020 that marked the most serious military conflict between the two sides in decades.

India has been maintaining that its ties with China cannot be normal unless there is peace in the border areas.

"We see it in the conflict in Europe, in disregard for international law in Asia, and in the ongoing developments in the Middle East and often in the weaponization of the normal," he said earlier in his prepared address.

"Longstanding agreements are not being necessarily observed, raising question marks about the stability of the environment in which we all operate," he said, referring to the 1993 Border Peace and Tranquility Agreement and the 1996 agreement on “Confidence Building Measures in the Military Field Along the Line of Actual Control in the India-China Border Areas”.

Answering a question after his speech, he said, "That is why for India, in a changing world, our own equilibrium, our own balances with other countries are changing as well. They don't have to be acrimonious, but the balance is changing."

The external affairs minister on March 2 in Delhi raised a similar point while speaking at an interactive session of a think tank.

“China must adhere to border management pacts and there has to be peace and tranquility along the Line of Actual Control for improvement in Sino-India ties,” Jaishankar asserted amid the lingering military face-off in eastern Ladakh.

In his remarks, in an apparent reference to India's increasing economic strength, he said, “We cannot become, in GDP, from number 11 to number five and (expect) everything remains the same. It will not remain the same.”

“But how to create new equilibriums ... in a less frictional manner ... I think that today, the management of the global order, some of us are trying to help. Some of us have other approaches to countries in various sectors and also that broadens the spectrum,” the minister added.

He also made an interesting comment about Russia and its changing approach. Pointing out how, during the last two years, Russia's relationship with the West has broken down because of the Ukraine conflict, he said, “Economically, it means that a lot of access Russia had to the Western world is no longer there and historically, Russia has always put a premium that is the main axis for them.”

“So you actually have today the prospect that Russia is turning more and more towards Asia. It can also turn to other continents but I would say Asia is the most dynamic possibility for them,” he observed.
The flow of Russian trade of investments of resources, and available collaborations towards Asian destinations will not be a short-term trend and continue for some years, he added.

“So I expect, actually, almost like a change in Russia's direction towards the world and I think it has very interesting implications for us in Asia, because like any big power Russia will also want multiple options,” Jaishankar added.



📌 For all latest updates, follow the Official Sikh Philosophy Network Whatsapp Channel: