Guru Nanak in Mecca Dr Dalvinder Singh Grewal MeccaorMakkah(Arabic) (coordinates: 21025’N 39049’ E)is a city in the Hejazin Saudi Arabia.It is the capital of that kingdom's Makkah Region. The city is located 70 km (43 mi) inland from Jeddah in a narrow valley at a height of 277 m (909 ft) above sea level. Its resident population in 2012 was roughly 2 million, although visitors more than triple this number every year during the hajj("pilgrimage") period held in the twelfth Month Dhu al-Hijjah The Masjid al-Haram panorama: main site for Hajj Mecca is the birth place of Muhammadand the site of Muhammad’s first revelation of the Quran (specifically, a cave 3 km from Mecca, [39Mecca is regarded as the holiest cityin Islam and a pilgrimageto it known as the Hajj is obligatory for all able Muslims. Mecca is home to the Kaaba, by majority description Islam's holiest site, as well as being the direction of Muslim prayer. Mecca was long ruled by Muhammad’s descendants, the Sharifs, acting either as independent rulers or as vassals to larger polities. It was conquered by Ibn Saud in 1925. During this expansion, Mecca has lost some historical structures and archaeological sites, such as the Ajyad Fortress.Today, more than 15 million Muslims visit Mecca annually, including several million during the few days of the Hajj. As a result, Mecca has become one of the most cosmopolitan and diverse cities in the Muslim world despite the fact that non-Muslims are prohibited from entering the city.  "Mecca" is the familiar form of the English transliteration for the Arabic name of the city, although the official transliteration used by the Saudi government in 1980s is Makkah, which is closer to the Arabic pronunciation  but is not universally known or used worldwide. The word "Mecca" in English has come to be used to refer to any place that draws large numbers of people, and because of this many Muslims regard the use of this spelling for the city as offensive.  The ancient or early name for the site of Mecca is Bakkah (also transliterated Baca, Baka, Bakah, Bakka, Becca, Bekka, etc.),  an Arabic language word, its etymology  and includes the Kaaba.  Mecca is at an elevation of 277 m (909 ft) above sea level, and approximately 80 km (50 mi) inland from the Red Sea.  Central Mecca lies in a corridor between mountains, which is often called the "Hollow of Mecca." The area contains the valley of Al Taneem, the Valley of Bakkah and the valley of Abqar. This mountainous location has defined the contemporary expansion of the city. The city centers on the Masjid al-Haram area and has elevation lower than most of the city. The area around the mosque comprises the old city. The main avenues areAl-Mudda'ahandSūq al-Laylto the north of the mosque, andAs-Sūg Assaghīrto the south. As the Saudis expanded the Grand Mosque in the center of the city, where there were once hundreds of houses there are now replaced with wide avenues and city squares. Traditional homes are built of local rock and are generally two to three stories. The total area of Mecca today stands over 1,200 km2(460 sq mi).  Mecca houses the Masjid al-Haram, the largest mosque in the world. The mosque surrounds the Kaaba, which Muslims turn towards while offering daily prayer. This mosque is also commonly known as the Haram or Grand Mosque.  Hira is a cave near Mecca, on the mountain named Jabal Al-Noor in the Tihamah region of present-day Saudi Arabia. It is notable for being the location where Muhammad received his first revelation from God through the angel Gabriel to Christians. 59] According to Islamic tradition, the history of Mecca goes back to Abraham (Ibrahim), who built the Kaabawith the help of his elder son Ismael in around 2000 BCE when the inhabitants of the site then known as Bakkahhad fallen away from the original monotheismof Abraham.   The Old Testament chapter Psalm 84:3–6, and a mention of a pilgrimage at the Valley of Baca, Muslims see as referring to the mentioning of Mecca as Bakkah in Qur'an Surah 3:96. In the 5th century, the Quraysh took control of Mecca, and became skilled merchants and traders. In the 6th century they joined the lucrative spice trade as well, since battles in other parts of the world were causing trade routesto divert from the dangerous sea routes to the more secure overland routes.  Ibrahim was a Quresh; carpenter by trade. His father Ajar used to make and sell stone idols. Ibrahim came into the company of saints and opposed idol worship. One night he broke all the idols in the temple and left his axe on the shoulder of the largest idol and left. Next day priest were astonished seeing this state of idols and enquired as to who had done that. Ibrahim said, “They must have fought themselves. The largest idol must have broken them in anger”. The people present said, “They are just the idols. They cannot fight or break anything.” Ibrahim said, “If they cannot do anything; why do we need them for? Worship the true God who creates and cares for the entire world and destroys unwanted”. Many left idol worship and started following him. Soon Ibrahim became famous as a prophet. Kaaba is now in this house where Ibrahim used to meditate. People came; bowed toward him from outside and went. After his death the same practice has continued. This house (makan) is 12 yards long 10 yards in breadth on three pillars. There are two rooms one for Mother Eve and other for Baba Adam. There is only one gate from the east. To the right of the door is a 4’ high black stone known as ‘sang aswad’, adjoining to it is 6’ high ‘sang Manat’. Both are protected by an iron ring around. The house, the rooms and the stones are kept covered with cloth offered by King Room and are changed every year. Pieces of the removed cloth are taken by the Hajjis as a blessing, which they put on a dead body and removed before putting the dead into grave. Likewise Hindus too have been following the same tradition by taking the piece from the cloth removed at Jagan Nath temple.  1. 1787 OttomanTurkish map of the Masjid-al Haramand related religious sites: 2. Jabal al-Noor where Muhammad received his first revelation of God On the left of Kaaba is the well, known as ‘Abe Zamzam”. The followers of Muhammad say this about this well, “When the Ibrahim was young, there used to be less water in the area. His mother felt thirsty. Ibrahim rubbed the heel of his foot on ground and made a small pit out of which appeared a spring which was converted into a well later. The water of this well is called, “Abe Zamzam”. Hajjis use this water as Hindus use Ganga water.  On a hill named ‘Arnat’ 9 kos from the place of Hajj in Mecca, all Hajjis gather there a day before Id and watch towards the route to Rum (Turkey) and sham (Syria). Kazis from Turkey and Syria appear on camels with valuables pertaining to Prophet Muhammad. Watching them is known as hajj. These Qazis go back on camels without getting down. There is a mosque on the hill. It is stated that on this hill Muhammad showed the Yehudis dividing moon into two parts. One piece went through the dress of the Prophet and went out through the gate of the mosque; the second part went out breaking through the wall creating a hole in the wall which these Hajjis have a sight. Hajjis start from Jeddah reciting aits from Quran; reach the area earmarked for their countries; pray (namaz) and go around Kaaba. They then have a sip from Abe Zamzam and kiss the wall of ‘sang aswad’. Some even mange to enter Kaaba, but they are not allowed to look around and ask them to keep their heads down. They are then allowed to take the pillar in their arms and are sent out. Some are able to do quick prayer (namaz) inside.  Muhammad was born in Mecca in 570 AD, [60and thus Islam has been inextricably linked with it ever since. He was born in a minor faction, the Hashemites, of the ruling Quraysh tribe. Muhammad received divine revelationsfrom God through the Archangel Gabrielin 610 AD in the nearby mountain cave of Hiraon Jabal al-noor. Due to persecution from the pagan tribes for 13 years, Muhammad emigrated in 622 AD with his companions, the Muhajirun to Yathrib (later called Medina). The conflict between the Quraysh and the Muslims, however, continued: The two fought in the Battle of Badr where the Muslims defeated the Quraysh outside Medina; while the Battle of Uhadended indecisively. Overall Meccan efforts to annihilate Islam failed and proved to be costly and unsuccessful. During the Battle of the Trenchin 627 AD, the combined armies of Arabia were unable to defeat Muhammad's forces.  In 628 AD, Muhammad and his followers wanted to enter Mecca for pilgrimage, but were blocked by the Quraysh. Subsequently, Muslims and Meccans entered into the Treaty of Hudaybiyyah whereby the Quraysh promised to cease fighting Muslims and promised that Muslims would be allowed into the city to perform the pilgrimage the following year. It was meant to be a ceasefire for 10 years. However, just two years later, the Quraysh violated the truce by slaughtering a group of Muslims and their allies. Muhammad and his companions, now 10,000 strong, marched into Mecca. However, instead of continuing their fight, the city of Mecca surrendered to Muhammad, who declared peace and amnesty for its inhabitants. The pagan imagery was destroyed by Muhammad's followers and the location Islamisedand rededicated to the worship of God. Mecca was declared as the holiest site in Islam ordaining it as the center of Muslim pilgrimage, one of the faith's Five Pillars. Muhammad returned to Medina after assigning Akib ibn Usaidas governor of the city. His other activities in Arabia led to the unification of the peninsula.  Muhammad died in 632 AD, but with the sense of unity that he had passed on to his Ummah(Islamic nation). Islam began a rapid expansion, and within the next few hundred years stretched from North Africa into Asia and parts of Europe. As the Islamic Empiregrew, Mecca continued to attract pilgrims from all across the Muslim worldand beyond, as Muslims came to perform the annual Hajj pilgrimage. Mecca also attracted a year-round population of scholars, pious Muslims who wished to live close to the Kaaba, and local inhabitants who served the pilgrims. Due to the difficulty and expense of the Hajj, pilgrims arrived by boat at Jeddah, and came overland, or joined the annual caravans from Syria or Iraq. In 1517, the Sharif, Barakat bin Muhammed, the local ruler of Mecca acknowledged the supremacy of the Ottoman Caliph, but retained a great degree of local autonomy.  Following the Battle of Mecca (1924), the Sharif of Mecca was overthrown by the Saud family, and Mecca was incorporated into Saudi Arabia.  Under Saudi rule, much of the historic city has been demolished as a result of new construction programs. The Sharif of Mecca or Sharif of Hejaz was the title of the former governors of Hejaz and a traditional steward of the holy cities of Mecca and Medina. The term Sharif means noble in Arabic, and indicates descent from Muhammad through his grandson al-Hassan ibn Ali. The sharif was charged with protecting the cities and their environs and ensuring the safety of pilgrims performing the Hajj. The office of the Sharifate of Mecca dates back to the late Abbasid era. Since 1201, the Sharifate was held by a member of the Hawashim clan, not to be confused with the larger clan of Banu Hashim to which all Sharifs claim descent. Descendants of this family continued to hold the position until the Twentieth Century on behalf of various Muslim powers including the Ayyubids and the Mamelukes. In 1517, the Sharif acknowledged the supremacy of the Ottoman Caliph, but maintained a great degree of local autonomy. During the Ottoman era, the Sharifate expanded its authority northwards to include Medina, and southwards to the frontiers of Asir, and regularly raided Nejd. The Sharif of Mecca during the period of Guru Nanak’s travel to Mecca was Barkat II bin Muhammed (Barakat Efendi) (1497-1525). The Hajj involves pilgrims visiting the Masjid al-Haram, but mainly camping and spending time in the plains of Mina and Arafah. The pilgrimage to Mecca attracts millions of Muslims from all over the world. There are two pilgrimages: the Hajj and the Umrah. The Hajj, the 'greater' pilgrimage is performed annually in Mecca and nearby sites. During the Hajj, several million people of varying nationalities worship in unison. As per a Muslim edict, every adult, healthy Muslim who has the financial and physical capacity to travel to Mecca and can make arrangements for the care of his/her dependents during the trip must perform the Hajj at least once in a lifetime. Umrah, the lesser pilgrimage, is not obligatory, but is recommended in the Qur'an. Often, they perform the Umrah, the lesser pilgrimage, while visiting the Masjid al-Haram. Records of Guru Nanak Dev’s visit to Mecca are first found in Bhai Gurdas Vaar 1, Pauri 32.  ‘ Donning blue attire then Baba Nanak went to Mecca. He held staff in his hand, pressed a book under his armpit, caught hold of a metal pot and mattress. He sat in a mosque where the pilgrims (hajjis) had gathered. When Baba (Nanak) slept in the night with his legs towards the alcove of mosque at Kaba, the qazi named Jivan kicked him and asked: “Who is this infidel enacting blasphemy?” “Why is this sinner is sleeping keeping his legs towards God?” Catching hold of the legs he moved his (Baba Nanak) legs and lo and behold the miracle, the whole of Mecca seemed to be revolving. All got surprised and they all bowed’.  Giani Gian Singh mentions: “He slept at night in the western compound keeping his feet towards Mecca. Early morning the head of sweepers, Jiwan said to him angrily: “What type of senseless infidel you are, having your feet towards Kaaba?” Guru Nanak said, “Please move my feet to the direction where the God is not there.” As he moved Guru’s feet around, he felt Kaaba moving to the same direction. Guru Nanak said, “Jivan! God is everywhere.” This gave realization to Jivan of God’s existence all over. As the people gathered, he shouted “Kaaba is everywhere. God is everywhere.” Giani Gian Singh stresses the point that this may be a miracle like Muhammad’s breaking the moon in two pieces, Musa finding a path in sea, Christ’s reviving the dead and reviving body parts, Krishna’s picking up Gowardhan, Ram’s floating the stones etc. Some other writers give examples of Bhagat Namdev, when recited Lord’s name and turned his face in any direction, the Deodi, entrance of temple turned towards that direction wherever he turned his face and quote p 1164 line 13 meaning As Naam Dev uttered the Glorious Praises of the Lord, the temple turned around to face the Lord’s humble devotee.  Many Muslim brothers take offence to the reference that Jivan or Qazi Rukunudin saw the Kaaba move as he moved Guru Nanak’s feet to point them in a direction away from Kaaba. They claim that this could not have happened. In turn some give following references in Islam which talk about the Kaaba moving. 1. Hazrat Iban writes in his book Fatuhat Makih that he saw the Kaaba rise to crush him when he thought inappropriate thoughts about the Kaaba during the Hajj  “I may remind you that When Mohammad Sahib was proclaimed to be the last prophet, his wife Aisha protested and said to people, “Say that he is the ‘seal of prophets’ but do not say there is no prophet after him.” 2. Rabia, when passing through a forest on her way to the Hajj for the second time, saw the Kaaba coming towards her to welcome her. Rabia said, “I was hoping to see God. I have no need for God’s house. If he were to walk towards me a length of a hand, I will advance a yard towards him. What do I do with the Kaaba? This doesn’t please me”. 3. Hazrat Ibrahim Azam went to Mecca, and was surprised to see the Kaaba missing. He thought his eyesight was failing him. He heard a voice which said, “There is nothing wrong with your eyesight, the Kaaba has gone to welcome a lady who is too feeble to walk to the Hajj” . However it appears more logical that Jivan was made to realize the Truth that ‘God is everywhere’ through reason. As the people including Qazis and Mullahs gathered, they started questioning about the event and held discussions with Guru Nanak. Discussion with the Qazis is mentioned in Vaar 1, Paudi 33: ‘Qazis and maulvis got together and began discussing religion. A great fantasy has been created and no one could understand its mystery. They asked Baba Nanak to open and search in his book whether Hindu is great or the Muslim. Baba replied to the pilgrim (hajjis) that, without good deeds both will have to weep and wail. Only by being a Hindu or a Muslim one cannot get accepted in the court of the Lord. As the colour of safflower is impermanent and is washed away in water, likewise the colors of religiosity are also temporary. (Followers of both the religions) in their expositions, denounce Ram and Rahim. The whole of the world is following the ways of Satan’. Guru Nanak’s account of the occurrence at Mecca. An eyewitness account by Syed Prithipal Singh  about Guru Nanak’s visit to Arab is given here. Head of these Qazis and Mullahs wasRuqan-ud-Deen who became follower of Guru Nanak. Recently new facts about Qazi Ruqun-ud-Deen of Mecca Mosque, a devout follower of Guru Nanak have come to light where he has been stoned to death on the order of Amir of Mecca because he followed and propagated Guru Nanak’s teaching instead of Islam. This material however needs detailed investigation. Name of Ruqun-ud-Deen appears in 3 Janamsakhis: Puratan Janamsakhi , Janamsakhi B 40  and Janamsakhi Bhai Mani Singh . In a recent paper by Prof. Himmat Singh  details of Ruqun-ud-Deen also appear in three recently located manuscripts ‘Syahto Baba Nanak Fakir’ (1509 AD)  written by Taj-u-deen Naqshbandi, Twareekh-i-Arab’ (1505-06 AD)  written by Khwaja Zain ul Abideen and Gunitusalehin  written by Abdul Rahman. ‘Syahto Baba Nanak Fakir’ whose writer Taj-u-deen Naqshbandi had joined Guru Nanak’s party from Iran and stated to have recorded daily movements of Guru Nanak, wrote about this event as well. While doing research at a university in Medina, Mushtaq Hussein came across a handwritten manuscript, Siyahto Baba Nanak Fakir, in a library. This manuscript was written by an Arabic and Persian writer named Taajudin Naqshabandhi. Taajudin joined Guru Nanak in his journey around Undlas, a town between Erar and Baghdad. While living with Guru Nanak, he kept a diary the Siyahto Baba Nanak Fakir manuscript which he submitted to the library in Medina around 1512 AD. He recorded that Guru Nanak Dev was in the Middle East in Mecca and Baghdad for roughly one-and-a-half to two years. According to ‘Syahto Baba Nanak Fakir’, Guru Nanak moved from there to the Qabristan of Mecca and stayed there for three days. Mardana started his music (in accompaniment of Guru Nanak’s hymns). The people of Arab gathered in the presence of Guru Nanak. Heaps of dates and pots of milk were presented by these devotees. At the end of the music, Guru Nanak delivered a sermon. Qazi Ruqun-ud- Deen, Khwaja Zain-ul-aab(i) Deen (writer of Tareekh(i) Arab), Qazi Gulam Ahmed (Richest man of Mecca) and Ibni Aswad , the head of Quresh tribe and heads of Budhu tribes were also present then. According to Puratan Janamsakhi, Ruqun-ud-Deen was a Qazi and was present at the famous Mecca mosque during Guru Nanak’s visit to Mecca. Reaching Mecca, Guru Nanak slept keeping his feet towards Qaba. Ruqun-ud-Deen asked him not to do so since feet should not be towards God’s home. Guru Nanak asked him to move his feet to the direction where God is not present. Qazi Ruqun-ud-Deen caught Guru Nanak’s feet and moved. In whatever direction he moved Guru’s feet the Qaba followed. Astonished Ruqun-ud-Deen kissed Guru’s feet and asked his name and held discussions with him.  Details of ‘Makke di Goshat’ are given thereafter in which Guru sang his hymn ‘Yak arz guftam pes(i) tu dargos kun kartar’: (Mahla 1: Tilang). ‘I offer this prayer to YouO Creator Lord: please listen to it. O Cherisher Lord, You are true, great, merciful and spotless. The world is a transitory place of mortality — we the beings must know this for certain in our mind. Azraa-eel, the Messenger of Death, has already kept a grip of the hair of my head, but I am not still thinking of the God! Spouse, children, parents and siblings — none of them will be there to hold my hand when I fallat last. The time of my last prayer has come; no one is going to rescue me. I wandered around in greed night and day, contemplating evil schemes. I never did good deeds; this is my state. I am unfortunate, miserly, negligent, shameless and without the Fear of God. Says Nanak, I am God’s humble servant;I am the dust of the feet of God’s slaves. (SGGS, p.721)’ In his Arabic book, Khwaja Jainul Abdin, the author of Tarikhe Arab, wrote the first-person account of Guru Nanak Dev ji’s Arabian journey. He writes, “I was with Guru Nanak Dev Ji when Guru Ji met Qazi (an Islamic religious judge) Rukn-ud-din.” As they came face-to-face, Rukn-ud-din offered his Salam, and the Guru replied, “Sat Sri Akal, Gurbar Akal” (The Lord immortal is the sole truth; the all-powerful timeless God). Rukn-ud-din asked, “Fala Alla Mazahbu,” meaning “which religion do you belong to?” The response was, “Abdulla Allah La Mazahabu,” meaning “I am God’s servant; I have no religion.” The whole day passed in questions and answers. There were three hundred and sixty questions in total. About the ban on singing in Islam, the Guru said: “It is written in Hadees that your Prophet Mohammed Sahib went to a wedding in the Quresh tribe where women were singing. Seeing Hazrat Mohammad, they stopped singing folk songs and started singing hymns. Mohammad Sahib Ji said they should sing folk songs and God will bestow respect on them.” Stumped, Rukn-ud-din said, “ya rabi tahroo fi al kabool-ul rab,” meaning “you have been sent to me by God; please bless me with the ability to recognize.” Rukn-ud-din then argued that, in Islam, it is acceptable to cut hair, but that the Guru keeps his hair uncut. In response, the Guru said, “This is not correct. Even your Quran does not allow this.” Rukn-ud-din was taken aback and asked, “Do I go against what the Quran says? Do you mean, ‘I read the Quran, but don’t understand it? Please explain.” Guru Ji asked him to refer to paragraph two Surat Badar Raku 24 Ayat 1952, (The translator found the reference in question in Ayat 196 instead of 195) where it is specified that cutting hair is prohibited for the ones who go to the Hajj and wish to lead a spiritual life. On the issue of whether or not God lives in Kaaba, the Guru said: “Even the Quran challenges the notion of considering Kaaba as God’s abode. The God addressed Mohammad and said ‘Nakhan Akarth Wa Allahay Min Habul Vareed,’ meaning, ‘I am closer to every human being than his own world jugulary.” Hearing this, the audience called out, “Marhaba! Labank!! Zazak Hum Allah Tala,” meaning, “Amazing! We surrender in your service. May God bless you with boon and goodness.” Over the next days, the Guru continued daily services of kirtan (singing God’s praises) and sermons. His services blissfully drew people who were in search of God and truth. People would bring milk, dates, and honey as offerings, which were then distributed amongst the congregation. One day, the congregation requested guidance for attaining salvation so that their human wanderings could end. According to the author, Jainul Abdin, Guru Nanak Dev Ji sang the following shabad (hymn) in raag (melody) Tilang, page 721 SGGS: Please listen to my prayer, O Creator Lord You are true, great, merciful, and faultless, O Cherisher Lord. ||1|| The world is a transitory place of mortality – I know this in my mind. Yet, I do not realize in my mind that the Messenger of Death has caught me by my hair on head. ||1||Pause|| My spouse, children, parents, or siblings will not be there to hold my hand [when the messenger will take my soul] When the time of my last prayer will come and when at last I fall, there shall be none to rescue me. ||2|| Night and day, I wandered around in greed, contemplating evil schemes. 13 I never did good deeds; this is my condition. ||3|| I am unfortunate, miserly, negligent, shameless and without the Fear of God. Says Nanak, I am Your humble servant; may I become the dust of the feet of Your slaves. ||4||1|| (Yak araj gufṯam pes ṯo ḏar gos kun karṯār. Hakā Kabīr karīm ṯū be aib parvarḏagār. ||1|| Ḏunīā mukāme fānī ṯėhkīk ḏil ḏānī. Mam sar mūe ajrāīl girafṯėh ḏil hecẖ na ḏānī. ||1|| rahāo. Jan pisar paḏar birāḏarāŉ kas nes ḏasṯaŉgīr. kẖir biafṯam kas na ḏāraḏ cẖūŉ savaḏ ṯakbīr. ||2|| Sab roj gasṯam ḏar havā karḏem baḏī kẖiāl. Gāhe na nekī kār karḏam mam īŉ cẖinī ahvāl. ||3|| Baḏbakẖaṯ ham cẖo bakẖīl gāfil benajar bebāk. Nānak bugoyaḏ jan ṯurā ṯere cẖākrāŉ pā kẖāk. ||4||1||) The hymn ‘Yak Arz Guftam’ became a fad for Qazi Ruqun-ud-Deen. Eventually, it came time for Nanak Shah Fakir to leave, and the congregation asked for parting words. The Lord Nanak said, “May God be in your mind always; meditate on Him. Your devotion has been accepted in the Guru’s house.” In this gathering, Hajji Gul Mohammad, Shiekh-e-Arab Khawaja Jainul Abdin, the chief of the Quresh tribe, Aban Aswad, and the chief of the Basu tribe were all present. The news that Rukn-ud-din had accepted Nanak Shah as his spiritual guide spread like wildfire in Mecca. This meeting is narrated by the Arabic author in three hundred pages. He further writes that Rukn-ud-din came into contact with the Creator on a Friday evening in 917 Hijri (1511 AD). Only the qazi knows the mystery of this contact. Khwaja Zain-ul-aab (i) Deen  the writer of Twareekh(i) Arab, was present in Qabristan of Mecca. He wrote in the chapter Bab-ul-Mecca of his book ‘Twareekh-i-Arab’ (p. 300): The sermon of Guru Nanak was heard by 300 followers. Ruqun-ud-Deen went into deep meditation. Thereafter Ruqun-ud-Deen never went back to his home and remained in meditation in a cave till he was put to death by the fundamentalist regime. When Amir of Mecca came to know that the Muslims are following an infidel, he issued fatwas (religious order/edict). These fatwas (religious order/edict) were; 1. Nanak fakir is an infidel. His teachings are falsehood and against the Muslim religion. 2. Ruqun-ud-Deen’s entire property will be confiscated. 3. The Khwesh tribe, the follower of Guru Nanak is ordered to leave the country. 4. Each followers of Guru Nanak ‘to undergo beating by 30 lashes and to be without food for 11 days.’ 5. They will then be buried in sand dunes. 6. Before this they will be taken on camels around the city with blackened faces. 7. They will be hung upside down. 8. The strongest follower of Guru Nanak (Ruqun-ud-deen) will be buried in ground till his chest and then stoned to death. Since it was announced in the city that a criminal is being stoned to death; the citizens thronged to watch the event. The citizens of Mecca gathered round with stones….The writer of Twarikh-e-Arab sums up this event saying: “The sacrifice of Ruqun-ud-Deen was special. Watching the sacrifice, 50% of the onlookers became followers of Nanak”. This is how the number of followers of Guru Nanak increased with each sacrifice. In summer heat, Rukn-ud-din underwent all punishments undeterred. When they removed him from a box after eleven days, people could hear God’s name from every pore of his body. Finally, after twenty-two days, the seventh fatwa of burying in sand and stoning approached. Rukn-ud-din was carefree in eternal bliss and simran. There was no sign of sadness in him. At the end, the Shah of Mecca sent for a pen and ink so that Rukn-ud-din’s last words could be documented. Rukn-ud-din came out of his trance and remembered the words of his guru: “share with others what you experience.” There could have been no better time for this; the masses of Mecca had gathered for the stoning. In front of everybody he stated his last testament: “Rubanian khatiba el imame hazrat Nanak ma, akallamehu ina feehay musle mun.” This meant that “my religion and my god is Guru Nanak. He brings the greatest sacred message and the book. I believe in him. If you wish for redemption, then seek Nanak’s shelter. Whoever reflects on this, will go to heaven.” Upon saying this, he left his body. Those who had brought stones to hit him fell on his feet. Many in the crowd turned their faith to Nanak. Even to this day, the people of Badh tribe, who are lion-hearted, and 16 who are descendants of Nanak’s devotees, still live in Mecca and Baitul Makadas. As Sikhs, they do not cut their hair. Rukn-ud-din’s descendants still live around the Tirah Mountains in Afghanistan. Amir of Mecca sent his men to locate and eliminate Guru Nanak as well. Abdul Rahman the writer of another book Gunitusalehin  (1506-07) was one such person assigned the job. He wrote about his encounter with Guru Nanak in his book: “When I was driving my horse with speed and hurry; my horse stopped abruptly. I tried to move him by kicking and hitting but the horse did not move. I lifted my head to find in front that at a distance of 100 yards the faqirs were seated. The elderly person in the midst of them had a brightened face and an aura around of him more powerful than thousands of suns. This brightness shut my eyes and I had a revelation that I was about to commit a crime. The horse proved better than me who saved me from committing this crime even though I gave him lashes to advance. In front of me is the same Godly person who had moved Mecca mosque. Shah Sharaf and Ruqun-ud-Deen became his devout followers. He has rightly spread the True Name of God among the Arabs and is now in front of me. I regained my senses and thought of doing the right. I immediately saw the reason; left my horse and shoes and fell at his feet.” This is how the person who had come to kill Guru Nanak turned his follower. While the Guru was in Mecca, he was presented with a robe on which ayats of the Quran and the Guru’s praise were printed. The Guru was also presented with five ser (a unit of weight) of dates and honey. The second robe was presented by Karoon Hamid, who was the ruler of Egypt. This robe had an Arabic inscription as well. The robe kept in Dera Baba Nanak is one of these two. The Arabic author describes that the robe had the inscription, “La Hilailla Alla Subhan Kaanikun To Min Zalmeen,” meaning “the worship-worthy God is the only one who would show mercy and bless a sinner like me.” “El Hamdul Il Lahe Aalmeen, Alrehman Rahim Malik Yomudin.” When the Guru was leaving Mecca, people were inconsolable at the thought of his departure. Taajudin writes that the Guru gave them his staff as a memento and said, “Aasa Man Fazale Rabeen Deedarun Pheere, Haka Ru Vaseera Tul Musatkim.” Translated, this means “consider this staff a seal of God. It shall remind you of the path to God.” Nanak’s disciples consider this staff an object of reverence. According to Mushtaq, locals talk of three dwellings to the west of Mecca built in the memory of Sultan Bahu, Baba Farid, and Guru Nanak Shah Fakir. Some questions are being asked on GLZ net on Guru Nanak's travel to Mecca. These are 1. Did Guru Nanak go to Mecca? 2. How could he go to Mecca when it was banned for other than Muslims? 3. Did Mecca rotate in the same direction Guru's feet were moved? 4. Did the Guru leave Khadavan at Mecca as mentioned by Bhai Gurdas? 5. How could the Guru go so far? I have tried to analyse these questions and have following to reply Answer 1: Guru Nanak went to Mecca for which the following evidence exists: Various sources for the Travels of Guru Nanak in Udasi to Mecca and beyond includes Varan Bhai Gurdas Vaar 1,  Puratan Janamsakhi edited by Bhai Veer Singh  Puratan Janamsakhi edited by Shamsher Singh Ashok  Janamsakhi Bhai Bala edited by Dr Surinder Singh Kohli  Janamsakhi Meharban in Janam Sakhi Prampra ed by Dr Kirpal Singh  Janamsakhi Bhai Mani Singh in Janam Sakhi Prampra  Janamsakhi Sri Guru Nanak Devji, (B-40) edited by Piar Singh , Twareekh Guru Khalsa, Part 1, Guru 1 by Giani Gian Singh,  Sri Guru Panth Parkash by Giani Gian Singh  Giani Gian Singh, Gurdham Sangreh,  Bhai Kahn Singh Nabha, Gurdham Deedar,  ‘Mahankosh’ by Kahn Singh Nabha  Guru Khalsa Twareekh by Giani Lal Singh Sangrur , Vir Singh (Bhai), 1955, Shri Guru Nanak Chamatkar,  Sahib Singh (Prof), Jeevan Birtant Guru Nanak Devji,  Tarlochan Singh (Dr.), 1970, Jeevan Charitar: Guru Nanak Dev,  Teja Singh Sodhi, 1972, Vachitar Jeewan Shri Guru Nanak Devji,  Teja Singh, Ganda Singh, 1985, Sikh Itihas,  Kohli Surinder Singh, 1970, Travels of Guru Nanak,  Major Gurmukh Singh, Historical Sikh Shrines,  Grewal J.S., 1969, Guru Nanak in History, Chandigarh  Kalra, Balwant Singh, 'Guru Nanak's Visit to Uch Sharif, Sikh Review 18 (188)  Kalra, Mohan Singh : 'Guru Nanak's Mission to the Muslims' in Punjab Past and Present, 3 (1-2)  Sewa Ram Singh, 'Guru Nanak at Baghdad', Punjab Past and present, 3 (1-2) 1969 Kartar Singh, 1984, Life Story of Guru Nanak  Pandit Arjan Muni Kaviraj 1923, Gurduara Darpan  Three manuscripts mentioned by Prof. Himmat Singh  about Guru Nanak’s visit to Saudi Arabia i.e., ‘Syahto Baba Nanak Fakir’ (1509 AD) written by Taj-u-deen Naqshbandi,  Twareekh-i-Arab’ (1505-06 AD) written by Khwaja Zain ul Abideen and Gunitusalehin (1506-07) written by Abdul Rahman. XII plates of manuscript presented by Dr Trilocahan Singh  and Guru Nanak Number edited by Dr Ganda Singh . Q2.How could he go to Mecca when it was banned for other than Muslims? Ans 2. During Guru Nanak’s travels Sheriff of Mecca was Barakat II bin Muhammed (Barakat Efendi) (1497–1525) under Mamluk Empire (1254-1517 AD) and also later during the empire of Shah Selim (1517-1520 AD) who were liberal and treated persons from other religions with respect. Visit of other than Muslims to Mecca was not banned. George sandy a Christian mentions of his travels to Mecca, Medina and other areas of Turkish Empire in 15-16th century. He also mentions of Indian caravans reaching Mecca for trade.  Q3.Did Mecca rotate in the same direction Guru's feet were moved? Ans 3: Though there are instances where Guru Nanak is recorded as showing miracles but it is also recorded that Guru Nanak said, “I perform no miracles. It is all by the Grace of God. “ It is a known fact that Guru Nanak had a rare power of convincing by actions and reasoning out. Mecca event too appears to be reasoning out that Jeevan, Ruqun Din etc., understood and realized and it should be taken as such and nothing more since lot of myth has been added into hagiographies of Guru Nanak. Q4: Did the Guru leave Khadavan at Mecca as mentioned by Bhai Gurdas? Ans 4: Relics of Guru Nanak are found at number of places. It is also likely that Guru nana left his khadavan at Mecca/Medina as given out by Bhai Gurdas, Giani Gian Singh and a host of other writers. However it is not traceable at present. Nothing material should be assumed. Understanding his teachings and living these is more important than the material artifacts Q5 How could the Guru go so far? Ans 5. I have the privilege on walking across almost all India and neighbouring country searching for the footsteps of Guru Nanak for over 40 years. I have found these existing without a break. Bhai Bala’s saying that he flew from this hill to that appears all myth added to have spice in the story. Guru Nanak actually travelled on foot, boats, horse carts etc., to all these places and I have no doubt about it. He used boats and ships wherever whatever suited. He wore special dresses suiting these areas. From Mecca, the Guru went to the nearby town of Amara. It was in Amara that the Guru granted benediction to the town’s chief, Janab Imam Gulam Kadar, the son of Imam Jafar. To display his gratitude, the Imam dedicated his mosque to the Guru and his teachings. To this day, according to Mushtaq, this mosque is known as Masjide Wali Hind (Mosque of the Indian Prophet). The town’s people had to build a separate mosque for themselves.