Use Of Discourses As Effective Tools Of Communication By Guru Nanak

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    dalvindersingh grewal Writer Historian SPNer

    Jan 3, 2010
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    Use of Discourses as Effective Tools of Communication by Guru Nanak
    Dr. Dalvinder Singh Grewal

    A discourse is an address or a verbal expression of a religious nature in the form of verbal exchange or conversation in speech or in writing. It is considered to be a formalized way of thinking that can be manifested through language, a social boundary defining what can be said about a specific topic. Discourse is an individual communication delivery packet much larger than the dialogue packet. It is considered as the delivery of matter to a group or en-mass in a gathering and discourse competence is the competence in this delivery.
    Discourse (L. discursus, "running to and from") means either "written or spoken communication or debate" or "a formal discussion of debate."[1] The term is often used in semantics and discourse analysis.. The term discourse has several definitions. In the study of language, discourse often refers to the speech patterns and usage of language, dialects, and acceptable statements, within a community. It is a subject of study in peoples who live in secluded areas and share similar speech conventions. According to Webster Dictionary: discourse means:

    1. The capacity of orderly thought or procedure: rationality (archaic)
    2. Verbal interchange of ideas; especially: conversation
    3. (a) Formal and orderly and usually extended expression of thought on a subject
    (b) Connected speech or writing
    (c) A linguistic unit (as a conversation or a story) larger than a sentence
    4. Obsolete: social familiarity
    5. A mode of organizing knowledge, ideas, or experience that is rooted in language and its concrete contexts (as history or institutions) [2]
    Guru Nanak’s discourses cover all these categories of communication. In the social sciences, a discourse is considered to be a formalized way of thinking that can be manifested through language, a social boundary defining what can be said about a specific topic, or, as Judith Butler puts it, "the limits of acceptable speech"—or possible truth. [3] Discourses are seen to affect our views on all things. The chosen discourse delivers the vocabulary, expressions and perhaps also the style needed to communicate. Discourse is closely linked to different theories of power and state, at least as long as defining discourses is seen to mean defining reality itself. It also helped some of the world's greatest thinkers express their thoughts and ideas into what is now called "public orality." [3] Discourse and language transformations are ascribed to progress or the need to develop new or more “accurate” words to describe new discoveries, understandings, or areas of interest. [4] Iara Lessa summarizes Foucault's definition of discourse as “systems of thoughts composed of ideas, attitudes, courses of action, beliefs and practices that systematically construct the subjects and the worlds of which they speak." [5]
    Guru Nanak held discourses for all high or low and spoke/sang giving examples and advice according to the situations ensuring that the communicated person feels concerned, listens to carefully and thereafter acted on the advice given. The motto of communication was throughout maintained and the outcome was always positive. There is not a single instant where what Guru Nanak said was followed sincerely and was not opposed ever. Examples of his discourses in the form of guidance to emperors, kings, rulers, courtiers, mullah, maulvis, Brahmins, pundits, sanyasis and all those who mattered to improve the society are given next.
    Discourses to Kings, Rulers, and Monarchs
    He found kings, rulers, and monarchs lost in enjoying power, pleasures and pelf. He told them that pleasures are nothing but the poison of Maya. They get in love with pleasures and want to have more and more, stealing the wealth of others. They do not trust their own children or spouses; they are totally attached to the love of Maya. But even as they look on, Maya cheats them, and they come to regret and repent. Bound and gagged at death’s door, they are beaten and punished. He asked them not to get bound to the Maya and pleasure and only do as it pleases the Lord. [6]
    He further said: “Neither the kings, nor their subjects, nor the leaders shall remain. The shops, the cities, and the streets shall eventually disintegrate, by the Hukam of the Lord’s Command. Those solid and beautiful mansions—which they foolishly think that they belong to them will all vanish. The treasure-houses, filled with wealth, shall be emptied out in an instant. The horses, chariots, camels, and elephants, with all their decorations; the gardens, lands, houses, tents, soft beds and satin pavilion, which they believe to be their own will be gone. Have faith in The True One who is the Giver of all and is revealed through His All-powerful Creative Nature. [7]
    His advice to the worldly-minded King was that “ You may have lakhs of armies, lakhs of musical instruments and lances; lakhs of men may rise to give you honor; your dominion may extend over lakhs of miles; all that would be fruitless if you are not credited in God's account. Without God's name, the world is only trouble. You need to be admonished and put to right path lest you remain the blindest of the blind”. [8]
    He explained: “The Lord is Imperishable, Invisible and Inscrutable. The sultans, emperors, and kings shall not remain. Forgetting the Name, they shall endure the pain of death. The Name of God is the only support, survival, and salvager. The people, rulers, leaders, and chiefs — none of them shall be able to remain in the world. Death is inevitable; it strikes the heads of the false. Only the One Lord, the Truest of the True, is permanent. He who created and fashioned everything shall destroy it. One who becomes Gurmukh and meditates on the Lord is honored. [9]
    His discourse to King Harbans clarifies it further: “Man is led astray by the reading of words; ritualists are very proud. What avails it to bathe at the place of pilgrimage, if the filth of pride be in the heart? Who but the Guru can explain that the King and Emperor dwell in the heart? All men err; it is only the great Creator who errs not. He who admonishes his heart under the Guru's instruction shall love the Lord. Whom the incomparable Word has caused to meet God, shall never forget the True One. [10]
    To Pirs, Sheikhs, Qazis, Mullahs and Dervishes and other spiritual Teachers
    Guru Nanak says: “The qazis, sheiks and faqirs in religious robes call themselves great; but through their egotism, their bodies are suffering in pain. Death does not spare them, without the support of the True Guru. [9] He further said: “The Pirs, the Prophets, the spiritual teachers, the faithful, the innocents and the martyrs, the sheiks, the mystics, the qazis, the mullahs and the dervishes at His Door are blessed all the more when they continue reading their prayers in praise to Him. [11]
    Discourses to Mullah and Qazi
    He explained to mullah that the death is ultimate and it has to come, so live in the fear of God, the Creator. You are a mullah or a qazi, only when you worship the Name of God. You may be very educated, but no one can remain when the measure of life is full. You may chant your prayers five times each day; you may read the Bible and the Koran; the grave is calling you, and now your food and drink are finished says Nanak. Giving the right characteristics of a judge he said: “He alone is a qazi, who renounces selfishness and conceit, and makes the One Name his support.” [12]
    To Sheikh
    To the sheik, he beautifully explained with similes and symbols, “The knife is Truth, and its steel is totally True. Its workmanship is incomparably beautiful. It is sharpened on the grindstone of the Shabad. It is placed in the scabbard of virtue. If the sheik is killed with that, then the blood of greed will spill out. One who is slaughtered in this ritualistic way will be attached to the Lord. Guru Nanak asked the Sheikh to get absorbed into His Blessed Vision at the Lord’s door.[13] He told him further, “A beautiful dagger hangs by your waist, and you ride such a beautiful horse. But do not be too proud; you may fall headlong on the ground. They alone walk as Gurmukh, who receive the Shabad in the Sat Sangat, the True Congregation. Meditating on the True Lord, they become truthful; they carry in their robes the supplies of the Lord’s wealth. The devotees look beautiful, singing the Praises of the Lord; following the Guru’s Teachings, they become stable and unchanging. They enshrine the jewel of contemplation within their minds and the most sublime Word of the Guru’s Shabad. To them He Himself unites in His Union; He Himself grants glorious greatness. [14]
    Discourses to the Common Muslims:
    He explained to the Muslims the true religion: “It is difficult to be called a Muslim. One can be called a true Muslim only when he understands the religion of the Prophet in its true spirit and does not feel pride in his acquired material wealth. To become a true Muslim; a disciple of the faith of Mohammed; he must put aside the delusion of death and life. He must submit to God’s Will; surrender to the Creator and get rid of selfishness and conceit. By becoming merciful to all beings, he shall become a true Muslim”.
    Explaining the real importance of the prayer, he said: “There are five prayers done five times a day; known by five different names. Let the first be truthfulness, the second honest living, and the third charity in the Name of God. Let the fourth be goodwill to all, and the fifth -the praise of the Lord. Repeat the prayer of good deeds, only then you may call yourself a Muslim.” [15] You may observe the thirty fasts, and say the five prayers each day, but ‘Satan’ can undo them. You will have to walk on the Path of Death, so why do you bother to collect wealth and property so says Nanak. [16]
    Discourses to Brahmins
    He told the Brahmins: “O Brahmin, you worship and believe in your stone-god, and wear your ceremonial rosary beads. Chant the Name of the Lord. Build your boat, and pray, “O Merciful Lord, please be merciful to me.” [15] Explaining about true meditation, he says that the Brahmins wash their clothes, and scrub their bodies, and try to practice self-discipline. But they are not aware of the filth staining their inner being, while they try repeatedly to wash off the outer dirt. The blind go astray, caught by the noose of death. They see other people’s property as their own, and in egotism, they suffer in pain. Who follow Guru’s teachings, their egotism is broken, and they meditate on the Name of the Lord thereafter. They chant the Naam, meditate on the Naam, and through the Naam, they are absorbed in internal peace. [17]
    Addressing a selfish Brahman he asks him to disregard of worldly things: “He who serves the Guru knows the Lord; who recognizes the True Word his pain is finished, so repeat God's Name. On serving the true Guru you shall behold God with your eyes. The mother, father, sons, daughters, wife and the whole world; the worldly love of the women and near and dear one; the religious ceremonies performed through ostentation; the tillage did by the tiller are all entanglements. He suffers for his selfishness when the King demands revenue. An entanglement is a traffic without meditating on God. Man is never satisfied; worldly love is everywhere which has to be diffused. An entanglement is a perishable wealth which merchants amass. Without devotion to God man finds no place. Entanglements are Veds, religious discussions, and pride. By the entanglements of worldly love and sin man perishes. Those who take shelter in God's name, true Guru saves them and they are freed from entanglements, thus says Nanak. [18]
    The instruction given to a Brahman to get out of these entanglements include: “Hopes and desires are entanglements, you religious ceremonies are also entanglements. Man is born in the world as the result of bad and good acts; he perishes when he forgets the Name. Maya bewitches the world; all your religious ceremonies are worthless”. [18]
    Discourses to Pundits
    Guru Nanak explained to the Pundit through similes: “O Pundit, if you churn coagulated milk, butter shall be produced; if you churn water, you shall obtain only water; this is the way of the world. The unseen God dwells in every heart, yet without the Guru, a man wanders around and ruins his life. Maya has bound this world on all sides with her cable: without a guru, its knot cannot be untied; man grows weary in striving. This world is led astray by superstition; words are of no avail. By meeting the Guru, the fear of God enters the heart. To die in the fear of God is man's true destiny. In God's court, the Name is superior to ablutions, alms, and similar religious acts. He, who, by the Guru's guidance, has driven the Name into his heart and allows it to abide there; he shall become free from hypocrisy. [19] He further says: “Listen, O ritualistic Pandit: that religious ritual which produces happiness is the contemplation of the essence of the soul. You may stand and recite the Shaastras and the Vedas, but these are just worldly actions. Filth cannot be washed away by hypocrisy; the filth of corruption and sin is within you. This is how the spider is destroyed, by falling head-long in its own web. So many are destroyed by their own evil-mindedness, in the love of duality, they are ruined. Without the True Guru, the Name is not obtained; without the Name, doubt does not depart. If one serves the True Guru, then he obtains peace, his comings and goings are ended. True celestial peace comes from the Guru; the immaculate mind is absorbed into the True Lord. One who serves the Guru understands; without the Guru, the way is not found. What can anyone do, with greed within? By telling lies, they eat poison.” [19] [32]
    His another discourse to the Pundits was that: ‘Those who have truth as their fast, contentment as their sacred shrine of pilgrimage, spiritual wisdom, and meditation as their cleansing bath, kindness as their deity, and forgiveness as their chanting beads — they are the most excellent people. Those who take the way as their loincloth, and intuitive awareness their ritualistically purified enclosure, with good deeds their ceremonial forehead mark, and love their food, they are very rare, thus says Nanak. His advice on fasting was: “On the ninth day of the month, make a vow to speak the Truth, and your sexual desire, anger, and desire shall be eaten up. On the tenth day, regulate your ten doors; on the eleventh day, know that the Lord is One. On the twelfth day, the five thieves are subdued, and then, the mind is pleased and appeased. Observe such a fast as this, O Pandit, O religious scholar”. [20]
    The pundit has explained the method of salvation o his inquiry: “Who repeats God's Name with his mouth and ponders over it, he sees Him at the tenth door of the firmament. Who lives upon the love of God, his doubt and fear flee away. If the sentry is alert, thieves will not break in. Deem the knowledge of One God as your vermillion mark, and the consciousness that God is within you your contemplation. God cannot be overcome by other ceremonial acts. He who merely reads religious books has not found His worth. His secret is not known from the eighteen Puranas or the four Vedas. The true Guru has shown me God says the Guru. [19] He further explains: “The body like a frail earthen vessel is miserable; in birth and death it suffers further pain. How shall the dangerous ocean of this world be crossed? It cannot be crossed without the divine Guru. There is none but God. God is in all colors and forms; He pardons him on whom He looks with favor. The world’s Maya is perverse; it will neither let one dwell at home, nor meet the Beloved God. By giving his own example he explains it further: “Through the kindness of the Guru, The Beloved God has given me a favor. Reflecting on myself and chastening my heart I see that there is no friend like The God. As The God keeps me so I live; I endure woe and weal as He bestows them. I have dispelled hopes and desires, and I no longer for mammon. The holy man who has found shelter in the society of the saints obtains the fourth state. In whose heart the invisible and inscrutable God dwells, he possesses all divine knowledge, meditation, devotion, and penance. Whose heart is dyed with God's Name, he shall readily obtain devotion under the Guru's instructions, says Nanak. [21]
    Deprecation of idolatry:
    His reflections on the Hindu idol-worshippers are, “The Hindus have forgotten God, and are going the wrong way. They worship according to the instruction of Narad. They are blind and dumb, the blindest of the blind. The ignorant fools take stones and worship them. O Hindus, how shall the stone which itself sinks carry you across?
    He further says to the Pundit: “You worship goddesses and gods; what can you ask them? What can they give you? Even if a stone be washed with water, it will again sink in it. God created all things and looks on them with favor.”[19]
    Discourses to Sanyasis
    He asked the sanyasis to renounce sexual desire, anger, falsehood, and slander; to forsake Maya and eliminate egotistical pride and promiscuity, and to give up emotional attachment. Only then shall they obtain the Immaculate Lord amidst the darkness of the world. They must renounce selfishness, conceit and arrogant pride, and love for their children and spouse. They must abandon their thirsty hopes and desires, and embrace love for the Lord. Then only the True Lord shall come to dwell in their mind. Through the True Word, they shall be absorbed in the Name of the Lord”. [19] If God so pleases, one can meditate on Him. The soul is attracted and gets concentrated on Him. The soul and God have to become one. The internal strife is then killed inside only. Remembering the True Lord in meditation, one is enlightened. Then, in the midst of Maya, he remains detached. Such is the Glory of the True Guru; in the midst of children and spouses, they attain emancipation. [20]
    Guru Nanak composed the following hymn after a conversation with Samangir, a Sanyasi, at Talwandi. “The Guru maintained the excellence of his own system and the advantage of repeating God's Name is obtained from the Guru. If I turn myself into a woman, the Enjoyer will enjoy me. Love not that which appears transient, The Spouse enjoys on His couch the pious virtuous wife. Under the Guru's instruction obtain God's Name. It will act as the water which quenches the four fires. The lotus of the heart shall then bloom, and you shall be completely satiated with nectar. Make the true Guru' your friend and you shall obtain happiness in God's court, Says Nanak.”
    Ritual Purifications of External Body:
    Guru Nanak declares the folly of external purifications without internal purification: “Man washes his clothes and his body, and mortifies himself. Knowing not of the filth getting attached to his heart, he rubs and cleans himself externally. Being blind, he has led astray and falls into death's noose. He deems the property of others as his own and suffers for his pride. When pride is dispelled under the Guru's instructions, man meditates on God's name, repeats the Name, adores the Name, and through the Name is absorbed in happiness says Guru Nanak. [22]
    Exposing Pundit’s duality, Guru Nanak through his self-example clarifies: “I am not torn by duality, because I do not worship anyone else other than the God; I do not visit tombs or crematoriums. I do not enter the houses of strangers, engrossed in desire. The Name of the Lord has satisfied my desires. Deep within my heart, the Guru has shown me the home of my being and my mind is imbued with peace and poise. God is the density and is all knowing and intelligence bestowing. My mind is detached, imbued with detachment; the Word has pierced my mind. God’s Light shines continually within the nucleus of my deepest self; I am lovingly attached to the Bani, the Word of the True Lord Master. [23]
    Discourses to Yogis
    He rejected the ways of the yogis and told them not to get into physical rituals but believe in internal cleanliness and detachment. He said: “You smear your outer body with ashes, but within, you are filled with darkness. You wear the patched coat and all the right clothes and robes, but you are still egotistical and proud. You do not chant the Word of Your Lord and Master; you are attached to the expanse of Maya. Within, you are filled with greed and doubt; you wander around like a fool. You never even think of the Naam; you have lost the game of life in the gamble thus says Nanak,.” [24]
    He explained Yoga to be different than what the yogis practice: “Yoga is not a patched coat: Yoga is not the walking stick. Yoga is not smearing the body with ashes. Yoga is not the earrings and not the shaven head”. …….“Yoga is not the blowing of the horn….. Yoga is not attained by mere words,”. …….”Yoga is not wandering to the tombs of the dead; Yoga is not sitting in trances. Yoga is not wandering through foreign lands; Yoga is not bathing at sacred shrines of pilgrimage”….. “Remaining unblemished in the midst of the filth of the world is the way to attain Yoga. Meeting with the True Guru, doubt is dispelled, and the wandering mind is restrained. Nectar rains down, celestial music resounds, and deep within, wisdom is obtained. Remain dead while yet alive — practice such Yoga. When the horn is blown without being blown, then you shall attain the state of fearless dignity”. “One who looks upon all with a single eye, and knows them to be one and the same, he alone is known as a Yogi.” [25]
    Nath Jogi pressed Guru Nanak to become his disciple; the Guru replied that he had already learned the science of Yoga and does not need to learn yoga of their way. He composed the following hymn on the occasion: “Make earrings of restraint of your innermost heart and make your body like a patched coat. Reduce thy five senses to subjection and make a pure heart your staff. This way shall you obtain the way of yoga. Make the fact that there are but One Word and none other than then your devotion to tubers and roots. If God could be obtained by a mere bath, we should make a god of frogs in the Ganges. [26] He pointed out the fault on their system of Yogas and told them as to what actually the Yoga is: “O Yogi, why do you have so much deceit? Your body is mad, your mind is silly; you pass your life talking about your property. You do not think of the One God; the One who saves the three worlds. If you apply your mind to words through hypocrisy, your doubts shall never leave you. If you turn your thoughts to the feet of the one God, you will not pursue avarice and greed. If you repeat the Name of the Bright One, your soul shall be absorbed in Him.” [26]
    It is said that Guru Nanak on his excursion to the Himalayas met a Jogi called Chetnath, who reproached him with not being a Yogi, a Sanyasi, or a saint, but only pretended as a guru. Guru Nanak's reply was: “O Jogi, you build a hut and preach to the world. If abandoning your devotional attitudes, you beg from door to door, how shall you obtain the True One? You love mammon and woman and are neither an anchoret nor a worldly man. O Jogi, keep your seat and the pain of your worldly love shall depart. You are not ashamed to beg from door to door. You sing songs, but do not realize your self. How can the great fire which burns you be extinguished? If the love of God attaches you to your heart under the Guru's instruction, you shall easily enjoy the alms of contemplation. You hypocritically apply ashes to your body and shall be punished for your worldliness by death's mace. The impure vessel of your heart cannot hold the alms of love. You are bound by bonds and shall suffer transmigration. You do not restrain your seed, and yet you call yourself self-controlled. While calling the lady of the house as 'mother', you beg but fall in love with the woman. God's light does not shine in you since you are without compassion. You are immersed in every species of entanglement. With a patched coat and a bag, you assume many guises. Like a conjurer, you perform many tricks to deceive men. The fire of anxiety burns your heart. How shall you be saved without good deeds? You make rings of crystal for your ears. Without the highest divine knowledge, there is no emancipation. You are beguiled by the pleasures of the tongue and sensual organs. You have become a beast, and the mark of it shall not be removed. There are three classes of people and three classes of Yog…. He who meditates on the Word shall need no mourning. Who meditates on the way of Yog is a Jogi. By the true Word he shall become enlightened and doubt shall depart from him.[27]
    His discourse to another hypocritical Jogi was: “Men sing songs while meditating evil; they intone measures and style themselves knowing that without the Name the heart is filthy and meditates on evil. Where do you go? O man, remain at home. The pious are satiated with God's Name, and by searching within find Him easily. [28] The bodily sins of lust, wrath, and worldly love are in the mind. So are the painful greed, avarice, and pride. How can the mind be satisfied without God's Name? They who know their hearts know the True One. The holy man knows the condition of his heart. The mind obtains composure by devotion. The apostate's mind is a furious elephant which wanders distracted in the forest of worldly love. The fear of death is everywhere, while the pious ones search and find God in their hearts. Without the Guru's word, the mind is not at rest. Remember God's very pure Name and relinquish bitter pride. How can this stupid mind be happy: without realization; it shall suffer the torture of death? God will cause the man to meet the true Guru and will pardon him. The True One will thrust aside the tortures of Death.Wealth is perishable; devotion to God an abiding gain. When the body perishes, whose shall be its wealth? Without the Guru how shall God's Name be obtained? God's name is the wealth which accompanies and assists us. Day and night he is pure who fixes his attention to God. There is nothing else but God's Name? Treating pleasure and pain as the same I forsake not the Name: God will pardon and blend me with Himself. The man foolishly lost in Maya loves gold and woman; Attached to mammon he forgets the Name. Whosoever is pardoned by The God is made to recite God’s Name. Who sings His praises, death's myrmidons cannot overtake him. Only the merciful God can preserve us as pleases Him. Under the Guru's instruction, God is pleasing to my mind. The disease is removed and the pain is averted. [29]
    Explaining the essence of the Shabd, Guru Nanak says: “Listen, you hermits and Yogis! Without the Name, there is no Yog. Those who are attuned to the Name; remain intoxicated night and day; through the Name, they find peace. Through the Name everything is revealed; through the Name, understanding is obtained. Without the Name, people wear all sorts of religious robes; the True Lord Himself has confused them. The Name is obtained only from the True Guru, O hermit, and then, the Way of Yoga is found. Reflect upon this in your mind, and see that without the Name, there is no liberation, thus says Nanak. [30]
    Remain in Relationships rather than being a Wanderer
    The following was addressed to wanderer Hindu devotees whom the Guru met in his wanderings in the Himalayas: “Though man performs lip-devotion, penance, and austerities, dwells at places of pilgrimage, bestows alms and performs acts of devotion, these are nothing without the True God? As one sow so shall one reap. Human life is lost without virtue if God’s Name is not recited. Happiness is obtained by the following virtue. Those who abandon evil under the Guru's instructions shall be absorbed in the Perfect One.” [36]
    A brief poetic discourse was given to wanderer against hypocrisy, with a few precepts to obtain future happiness: “God carefully draws the touchstone over men in order to assay them. The counterfeit shall not be accepted in God's court; the genuine shall be put into His Treasury. Dispel hopes and fears, so shall your filth be washed away. Everybody asks for happiness; nobody asks for misery. Great misery attends happiness, but the perverse do not understand it. Who consider happiness and misery the same, and know the secret of the Word shall be happy. For Nanak there is but the gate of the one God; there is no other refuge. [36]
    The following was addressed by the Guru to the one who had remonstrated with him for having left his relations to lead a wanderer’s life: The Guru said “Make wisdom your mother, contentment your father, Truth your brother: People talk, but talking is of no use. Make good deeds your spouse and modesty and attention your two parents-in-law. Union with saints has been being the auspicious time for such a marriage, and separation from the world is the real wedding. From such a union should spring truth as your offspring. These are the best relationships, says Nanak. [26]
    To a Renouncer
    Explaining what a true renunciate is Guru Nanak said: “Countless detached renunciates talk of detachment and renunciation, but he alone is a true renunciate, who is pleasing to the True God. The Word is ever in his heart; he is absorbed in the fear of God, and he works to serve the Guru. He remembers the One Lord, his mind does not waiver, and he restrains his wanderings. He is intoxicated with celestial bliss, and is ever imbued with the God’s Love; he sings His Glorious Praises. The mind is like the wind, but if it comes to rest in peace, even for an instant, then he shall abide in the peace of the Name. His tongue, eyes, and ears are imbued with Truth; Only God quenches the fires of desire. In hope, the renunciate remains free of hopes; in the home of his own inner self, he is absorbed in the trance of deep meditation. He remains content, satisfied with the charity of the Naam; he drinks in the Ambrosial Amrit with ease.” He also explains as to what is not the true renunciation: “There is no renunciation in duality, not even with a particle of duality.” [31] Hope and desire are entrapments. Religious rituals and ceremonies are traps. Because of good and bad deeds, one is born into the world, forgetting the Naam, the Name of the Lord, he is ruined. This Maya is the enticer of the world, all such actions are corrupt hence need to be renounced. [32]
    Explaining what a true bairagi or intoxicated in the love of God is, he says: “Countless persons call themselves Bairagis, but only he who is pleasing to God is a Bairagi. Such a Bairagi treasures the Word in his heart: he is ever absorbed in the fear of God and serves the Guru. He thinks of One God and his mind does not waver away from Him; he thus restrains from wanderings. He is intoxicated with God's love, ever absorbed in divine pleasure, and he sings the praises of the True One. If the mind, which is like the wind, dwells even for a little on His name, the one is at ease and happiness shall result”.
    Giving the example of his Bairag he explains: “My tongue, eyes, and ears are tinctured by the True One. The God has extinguished the fire that consumed me” and further goes on to explain a Bairagi: “He is a Bairagi who abandons desires and assumes an attitude of contemplation in his own home. He who is filled with the alms of the Name is contented and quaffs nectar at his ease. As long as there is a particle of worldly love, there is no contempt of the world. The entire world belongs to The God; He alone is the Giver and none else. Perverse creatures ever abide in misery; God confers greatness on the holy. Infinite, endless, inaccessible, and inapprehensible, His worth cannot be obtained by speaking. Sun Samadh, Mahaparamarath, and Lord of the three worlds are all Names of The God.” “He whose heart is pleased with the True One is a perfect Bairagi, and naturally fortunate says Guru Nanak. [33]
    The Guru deprecates idolatry and then gives his prayer as an ideal Bairagi, or renouncer of the world. “May I not fall under the power of mammon, worship any but God, or visit tombs and places of cremation! May I not enter the strange house impelled by greed! May the Name extinguish my greed! The Guru showed me God in my own home; my heart became easily enamored of Him”. [31]
    Saint Explained
    He explained the characteristics of a saint: “Who loves worship has God's Name in his mouth. In the company of such saints and worshippers the man breaks his shackles and meditates on God. Pious men are emancipated by knowledge of God through the Guru. Who awakes in the love of God's name death's myrmidons cannot inflict pain on him. The God to whom His saints are dear abides with them. Salvation is obtained by bearing love to God, says Nanak. [31]
    A Guruward
    Explaining a Guruward (Gurmukh) he said, “The Gurmukh is the one who reflects upon the True Word (Shabd). The True Bani is revealed to the Gurmukh. The mind of the Gurmukh is drenched with the Lord’s Love. Only rare people can understand this. The Gurmukh dwells in the home of the self, deep within”. [32] “Those who serve the True Guru, their companions are saved as well. No one blocks their way and the God’s Ambrosial Nectar is on their tongue. Without the fear of God, they are so heavy that they sink and drown but the God casting His Glance of Grace, carries them across…….. Without the Guru, God’s Command is not understood, …….. The Gurmukh is honored in the Court of the God, he departs after resolving his affairs. [39] The Gurmukh meditates on the Name of the Lord; he churns and obtains the essence of reality. The Divine Light illuminates his heart deep within; he seeks the Lord and obtains Him. He Himself deludes in doubt; no one can comment on this. [40]
    The Yoga of a Guruward
    The Gurmukh realizes the One Lord alone with whom he has to have Yog (meeting the God). Without serving the True Guru, Yog with the God is not attained; without meeting the True Guru, no one is liberated and the Naam cannot be found and without meeting the True Guru, one suffers in terrible pain and there is only the deep darkness of egotistical pride. Without the True Guru, one dies, having lost the opportunity of this life, says Nanak.[30] The Gurmukh conquers his mind by subduing his ego and enshrines Truth in his heart. The Gurmukh conquers the world; he knocks down the messenger of death and kills it. The Gurmukh does not lose in the Court of the Lord as he is united in God’s Union. The Gurmukh realizes the Word says Guru Nanak. [30] The self-willed manmukh dwells in misery forever, while the God bestows greatness upon the Gurmukh. [32]
    To a Self-willed (Manmukh)
    The self-willed (manmukh) is trapped in the darkness of emotional attachment; he speaks in the love of duality. The love of duality brings pain forever; he churns the water endlessly. [40] The self-willed manmukhs suffer their punishment.[41]
    To The Followers of Hindus Religion
    When Guru Nanak went to Gorakhmata-(the present Nanakmata in Uttar Pradesh)--he found religious men of several sects assembled there and composed a hymn after a discussion with them: “He who meditates on knowledge, confers favor on others; When he corrects his evil passions he dwells at a place of pilgrimage; when he turns his heart to God the tinkling bells of ecstasy resound for him. Death does not do anything to such a person in the next world?’ …..The man who abandons desires is a Sanyasi. Jogi is continent when he enjoys his body. Who meditates for forgiveness is a Digambar: He tortures himself, but not others. Many are God’s manifestations. His wonderful play is not known. As a wife fears that she is forgotten by her spouse, so does the holy man who fears that he is neglected by God”.
    The following was addressed to a votary of Krishna, who was worshipping his god with music and dancing: “Make understanding your life, the love of God your drum. By these, joy and earnest desire is ever produced in the heart. This is devotion; this is austerity; in this perfect dance, give timely beats with your feet; deem knowing how to praise God as you beat with your feet rhythmically. Other dances are sensuous pleasures. Play truth and contentment as your pair of cymbals. Make the perpetual vision of God the bells for your feet. Make love for none other than the God for whom your measures and songs should be tuned and your beat with the feet should be properly timed. [34]
    The following was intended to show God's superiority to His creatures than Sri Ram and Sri Krishan, who are now adored as gods by the Hindus: “God has created the atmosphere supported the whole earth and set bounds to water and fire. The fatuous Ravan had his ten heads cut off; what greatness was obtained by slaying him? What praise of The God shall be uttered? God pervades everywhere in everything; He loves all His creatures. Having created living beings, He hold their hand. What greatness was obtained by putting a nose-ring on the black serpent of the Jamuna? Whose husband is He? Who is His wife? He pervades everywhere andd in all things. Brahma, the granter of favors, with his progeny went to ascertain God's greatness, but could not find His limits; what greatness was obtained by slaying Kans? When the sea of milk was churned and its gems brought what was achieved for God’s Name? [35]
    Guru Nanak discoursed to Prem Chand of Sarhind on the best way of utilizing the time: “Who praise God early in the morning and meditate on Him with the concentration of heart, are perfect kings, and die fighting evil Maya when an occasion arises. … there are many ways in which the attention of the mind is distracted by Maya. [37] Many persons fall into the fathomless water, and cannot emerge despite their concerted struggle. Hungary and thirsty are quietened by putting a morsel into their mouth. However, what is eaten becomes filth, yet man again desires food. Drowsiness comes and man closes his eyes and goes into dreamland. Rising up again in the morning, he gets into turmoil, but still thinks of and makes preparations to live a hundred years. If the man feels love for God, every moment during the eight watches of the day, God will dwell in his heart and true shall be his ablution, so says Nanak. You may earn lakhs of rupees; you may amass and spend lakhs; lakhs may come and lakhs may go; But, if your soul does not obtain credit in God's account, it is of no value? Lakhs of Shastars may be explained to you; lakhs of pandits may read the Puranas for you;-all would be unacceptable if you do not obtain credit in God's account. From the true Name--the kind Creator's name-- honor is obtained. If the Name dwells day and night in the heart, man shall be delivered by God's favorable glance. The five evil passions to dwell concealed within the heart, a man is exposed by his senses the temptations for these and make the mn wander like a pilgrim. The human mind does not remain fixed on the Merciful God. This avaricious, deceitful, sinful, and hypocritical mind is excessively attached to worldly love.”

    The following was addressed to the Hindus, who set the highest religious value on ablutions: “Why wash the body defiled by falsehood? The practice of truth is the acceptable ablution. When there is truth in the heart, the man becomes true and obtains the True One. Understanding is not obtained without favourable destiny; a man ruins himself by vain babbling. By being true wherever he sits speaks civilly, and fixes his attention on God's word. [38] The Master grants man his term of human life according to his past acts. One must not fall into a quarrel by calling any one evil. No one should enter into a quarrel with the God as it will be ruinig one self. One must not feel jealous and vex him with those ssocited with Gd. Bear what God gives you; it is forbidden to remonstrate; no nonsense should be spoken about it. The Master grants man his term of life according to past acts. God created all things and looks on them with favour. Nobody desires what is bitter; every one desires what is sweet. Everybody may ask for what is sweet, but God will do as He pleases. Alms-offerings and various good works are not equal to reciting the Name. Those who have obtained His Name are the objects of God's favour from the beginning. By God’s Command, all actions ar accounted based on which some suffer in egotism and duality; some wander in reincarnation deceived by sins and demerits and cry out in suffering. If the man comes to realize the Command of the Lord’s Will, he is blessed with Truth and Honor. Is it is so difficult to speak and hear, the True God’s Name? By praising the God, one obtains the Name and gets the satisfaction by His Grace and is united with Him. [41]
    About a Scribe
    If my body were to become the paper and my mind the inkpot; if my tongue became the pen, I would write, and contemplate, the Glorious Praises of the True Lord. Blessed is that scribe who writes the True Name, and enshrines it within his heart. [41]
    To a Soul-Bride
    Through simie of a bride Guru Nanank warned the soul not to be proud. He asked all the souls to consider God as the real bridegroom and said, “Within the home of your own self, enjoy the Love of your Lord. Your Husband Lord is so very near. Why to search Him from outside? Apply the fear of God as the maascara to adorn your eyes, and make the love of the Lord your ornament. You shall be known as a devoted and committed soul-bride, when you enshrine love for the God, the real Husband Lord. A bride is not pleasing to her Husband Lord if she does not win His love. Even if she pleads and implores time and again, she shall not reach the mansion of the Lord’s Presence. Without the good deeds, nothing is obtained, although she may run around frantically. She is intoxicated with greed, pride and egotism, and engrossed in Maya. She cannot obtain her Husband Lord in these ways as she remains foolish by not following the right path. Guru Nanank asked the soul to go and ask the happy, pure soul-brides, how they obtained their Husband Lord. The happy bride would tell her that whatever the Lord does, accept that as good; do away with your own cleverness and self-will. By His Love, true wealth is obtained; link your consciousness to His lotus feet. As your Husband Lord directs, so you must act; surrender your body and mind to Him, and apply this perfume to yourself. The Husband Lord is obtained this way. She woukd further ask you to give up your selfhood, and this way obtain your Husband Lord as no otherclever tricks is of no use. When the Husband Lord looks upon the soul-bride with His Gracious Glance, that day is historic; the bride obtains the nine treasures. The one who is loved by her Husband Lord, is the true soul-bride; she is the queen of all. Thus she is imbued with His Love. Intoxicated with delight; day and night, she is absorbed in His Love. She is beautiful, glorious and brilliant; she is known as truly wise. [42]
    Guru Nanak gives further guidance to the soul-bride: “You may chant and meditate, practice austerities and self-restraint, and dwell at sacred shrines of pilgrimage; you may give donations to charity, and perform good deeds, but without the True One, what is the use of it all? As you plant, so shall you reap. Without virtue, this human life passes away in vain. O young bride, be a slave to virtue, and you shall find peace. Renouncing wrongful actions, following the Guru's Teachings, you shall be absorbed into the Perfect One. [43]
    Comparing a dedicated and committed human being to a good soul-bride he explains: “She is decorated with the Word of the Guru’s Shabad; her mind and body belong to her Husband Lord. With her palms pressed together, she stands, waiting on Him, and offers her True prayers to Him. Dyed in the deep crimson of the Love of her Darling Lord, she dwells in the Fear of the True One. Imbued with His Love, she is dyed in the color of His Love. She is said to be the hand-maiden of her Beloved Lord; His sweetheart surrenders to His Name. True Love is never broken; she is united in Union with the True One. Attuned to the Word of the Shabad, her mind is pierced through. That bride, who is absorbed into the True Guru, shall never become a widow. Her Husband Lord is Beautiful; His Body is forever fresh and new. The True One does not die, and shall not go. He continually enjoys His happy soul-bride; He casts His Gracious Glance of Truth upon her, and she abides in His Will. The bride braids her hair with Truth; her clothes are decorated with His Love. Like the essence of sandalwood, He permeates her consciousness, and the Temple of the Tenth Gate is opened. The lamp of the Shabad is lit, and the Name of the Lord is her necklace. She is the most beautiful among women; upon her forehead, she wears the Jewel of the Lord’s Love. Her glory and her wisdom are magnificent; her love for the Infinite Lord is True. Other than her Beloved Lord, she knows no man. She enshrines love for the True Guru. Asleep in the darkness of the night, how shall she pass her life-night without her Husband? Her limbs shall burn, her body shall burn, and her mind and wealth shall burn as well. When the Husband does not enjoy His bride, her youth passes away in vain. The Husband is on the Bed, but the bride is asleep, and so she does not come to know Him. While she is asleep, her Husband Lord is awake. Where does she go for advice? The True Guru leads her to meet Here Lord and she dwells in the fear of God. Her love is always with God, says Guru Nanak. [49]
    To a Merchant
    He guides the banker and the merchant: “Man is a banker's shop, the unrivalled Name is his capital. The merchant who meditates on the Guru's instructions secures the capital. Blessed are the merchants who, on meeting the Guru, engage in such traffic. [19]
    The following is a homily addressed to a trader called Ramu whom the Guru met at Kartarpur: “Buy such goods as shall depart with you in the next world. He is a wise Merchant who will be careful in selecting the real article that is utterances of God's name with attention. Take with you God's praise as your merchandise, so that, when the Merchant sees it, He shall be satisfied. How shall they be happy whose wares are not genuine? By trading in counterfeit goods, the soul and body become counterfeit.
    Like a deer shared in a noose, such a trader shall suffer great misery and always lament.
    The counterfeit shall not be received in the great God's treasury, and they shall not behold Him. The counterfeit have neither caste nor honour; the counterfeit are none of them acceptable. The counterfeit who do counterfeit work, shall lose their honour in transmigration. Say Guru Nanak: “Instruct your heart by the Guru's word and advice. They who are imbued-with the love of God's Name has no load of sin and no superstition. In whose hearts The God dwells are without fear and are great They shall gain by repeating His name. [44]
    To the Common Man
    Guru Nanak’s discourse to the common man is to listen to the True Teachings. Opening His ledger, God will call the person to account. Those rebels who have unpaid accounts shall be called out. Azraa-eel, the Angel of Death, shall be appointed to punish them. They will find no way to escape coming and going in reincarnation; they are trapped in the narrow path. Falsehood will come to an end, and Truth will prevail in the end, says Guru Nanak. [45]
    Guru Nanak explains to the common man that: “One may make a cave in a mountain of gold, or in the water of the nether regions; one may remain standing on his head, upside-down, on the earth or up in the sky; one may totally cover his body with clothes, and wash them continually; one may shout out loud, the white, red, yellow and black Vedas; one may even live in dirt and filth. And yet, all this is just a product of evil-mindedness, and intellectual corruption. One was not, one is not, and one will never be anything at all without His Name. The reality is in meditating on the Word of the Shabad.”[46]
    Guru Nanak further explains: “Destiny has brought together and united the body and the soul. God, who created them, also separates them. The fools enjoy their pleasures; they must also endure all their pains. From pleasures, arise diseases and the commission of sins. From sinful pleasures come sorrow, separation, birth and death. The fools try to account for their misdeeds, and argue uselessly. The judgement is in the hands of the True Guru, who puts an end to the argument. Whatever the Creator does, comes to pass. It cannot be changed by anyone’s efforts”. [47]
    He explains further to the common man: “O Siblings of Destiny, service to the Guru alone who is True. When the True Guru is pleased, we obtain the Perfect, Unseen, Unknowable Lord. The True Guru, who bestows the True Name deserves committiting one’s soul and body to him”. He further explains, “With each breath and morsel of food, do not forget the Guru, the Embodiment of Fulfillment. None is seen to be as great as the Guru. Meditate on Him twenty-four hours a day. As He casts His Glance of Grace, we obtain the True Name, the Treasure of Excellence. The Guru and the Transcendent Lord are one and the same, pervading and permeating amongst all. Those who have such pre-ordained destiny, meditate on the Naam. One must seek the sancturalry of the ever-living Guru (The God), who does not die, or comes and goes in reincarnation. [48]
    Guru Nanak explains the reality further: “One class of people does not like the other, when one has been made great. Greatness is only in His Great Hands; He gives to those with whom He is pleased. By His Command, He Himself regenerates, without a moment’s delay. Human beings cry out rfequesting for “more! more!” with the idea of receiving. How great should we call the Giver who goes on giving? His Gifts are beyond estimation since He goes on giving to every one but there is no deficiency and His storehouses are always age after age despite of continuouos giving to the entire universe”. [48]
    To A Farmer
    The reality of farming is explained to the farmer through simile and symbols in a lucid verse, in a to the point and exact manner:“Make the fear of God your farm, purity the water, truth and contentment the cows and bulls, humility the plow, consciousness the plowman, remembrance the preparation of the soil, and union with the Lord the planting time. Let the Lord’s Name be the seed, and His Forgiving Grace the harvest. Do this, and the whole world will seem false. If He bestows His Merciful Glance of Grace, then all your separation will be ended. [50]
    He explains it further: “Why do you irrigate the barren, alkaline soil? You are wasting your life away! This wall of mud is crumbling. Why bother to patch it with plaster? Let your hands be the buckets, strung on the chain, and yoke the mind as the ox to pull it; draw the water up from the well. Irrigate your fields with the Ambrosial Nectar, and you shall be owned by God the Gardener. Let sexual desire and anger be your two shovels, to dig up the dirt of your farm, O Siblings of Destiny. The more you dig, the more peace you shall find. Your past actions cannot be erased. The crane is again transformed into a swan, if God, the merciful Lord, so wills. [16] Make good deeds the soil, and let the Word of the Shabad be the seed; irrigate it continually with the water of Truth. Become such a farmer, and faith will sprout. This brings knowledge of heaven and hell. [51]
    To A Tailor
    To a tailor, he explains: “The cotton is ginned, woven and spun; the cloth is laid out, washed and bleached white. The tailor cuts it with his scissors, and sews it with his thread. Thus, the torn and tattered honour is sewn up again, through the Lord’s Praise, and one lives the true life. Becoming worn, the cloth is torn; with needle and thread, it is sewn up again. It will not last for a month, or even a week. It barely lasts for an hour, or even a moment. But the Truth does not grow old; and when it is stitched, it is never torn again. The Lord and Master is the Truest of the True. While we meditate on Him, we see Him, thus says Nanak”. [52]
    To A Fisherman
    To a fisherman, he advises: “This soul is the fish, and death is the hungry fisherman. The blind man does not even think of this and suddenly, the net is cast. He is unconscious of the reality and he departs, bound by anxiety. But if the Lord bestows His Glance of Grace, He unites the soul with Himself. [52]
    To An Addict/Intoxicant
    The following was addressed to a man addicted to intoxicants and explains about the real addiction: “The Giver gave the man a pill of the intoxicant illusion. In his intoxication, he forgot death and enjoyed pleasure for four days. The abstainers obtained truth to keep them in God's court. It must be known that the True God alone is true and all else is the falsehood. By serving Him, man obtains happiness and proceeds with honour to His court. The true wine is that which contains the True Name; it is prepared without molasses. Man is known as properly intoxicated when he obtains a place in God's court. Bathe in the water of virtues; apply the perfume of truth to your body; Then shall your face become bright, and the One Giver bestow hundreds of thousands of gifts on you. Inform God, with whom rests the happiness who removes your unhappiness. Why forget Him who owns your soul and life? All clothing and food are impure without Him. All else is false; what pleases God is acceptable”. [53].[54]
    The following is supposed to have been composed by the Guru on the death of his father: “Abandon love of family and love of everything. Abandon worldly love; it is all sinful.
    Abandon worldly love and superstition. Repeat the true Name with your tongues and your hearts. His children do not weep and his mother does not afflict herself for him
    who possesses the nine treasures of the true Name. The world is ruined by such love as the worldly feel; Only some rare pious man may be saved. Through such love, as that one is born again He who feels such love goes to the city of Death. Practise acceptance of the Guru's instructions as thy devotion and penance. He who does not break with worldly love shall not be accepted. If God looks on a man with favour such worldly love shall depart and he shall be absorbed in God. [54]
    Our souls and bodies are all His capital; He alone is the one who kills and re-animates. The Guru reflects on the power of the deadly sins which lead men to destruction. Facing the five evils being alone cannot protect his house. These evils always assail and plunder the being. To whom should a being complain? Uttering the God's holy name is the answer to this. Before a being is fierce and numerous Death's army of these evils. God erected a palace, put doors to it, and the woman (soul sits within. Deeming the world sweet, the sould plays with life but these five men rob her. When Death destroys the palace, her chamber is sacked, and her being is captured alone. She is beaten by Death's mace, and his chains are riveted on her neck; the five men have taken flight. The housewife wants gold and silver; friends want banquets. Who commit sin for these things shall go bound to Death's city. After the naked body is burnt the soul regrets lost opportunities”.[54]
    To a Robber:
    While confronting robber or thug like Sajjan he addresses him through the words indirectly towards his self: “The dogs of greed are with me. In the early morning, they continually bark at the wind. Falsehood is my dagger; through deception, I eat the carcasses of the dead. I live as a wild hunter, O Creator! I have not followed good advice, nor have I done good deeds. I am deformed and horribly disfigured. Your Name alone, O Lord, saves the world. This is my hope; this is my support. With my mouth, I speak slander, day and night. I spy on the houses of others; I am such a wretched low-life! Unfulfilled sexual desire and unresolved anger dwell in my body, like the outcasts who cremate the dead. I live as a wild hunter, O Creator! I make plans to trap others, although I appear gentle. I am a robber; rob the world. I am very clever; I carry loads of sin. I live as a wild hunter, O Creator! I have not appreciated what You have done for me, Lord; I take from others and exploit them. What face shall I show to You, O Lord? I am a sneak and a thief. I live as a wild hunter, O Creator!” [55]
    Guru Nanak had held discourses in poetic discussions extensively. He traces the role of discourses in wider social processes of legitimating and power, emphasizing the construction of current truths and the Ultimate truth, how they are maintained and what power relations they carry with them. He travelled globally and came across all high and low. Since the time was of turmoil, tragedies and tyrannies and religious bigotry had reached to the extreme and rites and rituals had waylaid spirituality, Guru Nanak created platforms for mutual discussions for all religions and through his discourses, provided the right ways to enlightenment in the darkness of confusion and ignorance. His delivery of discourse started with his aura and humanistic mannerism and proceeded with beautiful songs accompanied by the Rabab of Mardana to expose the wrong in detail and leading to the reality for which he gave a clear answer to get rid of the ignorance and confusion. The power of his poetic delivery comes to be instant and its applicability is for all times to come, proving him to be a Guru whose teaching will be increasingly followed due to the very essence and the energy under which it is created. We have seen that he delivered discourdes to Emperors, kings, courtiers, judges, religious teachers and tradesmen of all professions, Taking the similes and symbols from their original background he expounded the spiritual message in a very lucid, lyrical and understandable manner which straightway stirred the soul and body and removed inhibitions, creating an emergent sense of acceptance. This is the reason we find his followers all over the globe from all regions and religions since his message is universally applicable and acceptable till date and will be so in future as well. Built on vast multitudes in different thought processes in long period of his age, the majestic poetic creation of these discourses by Guru Nanak proves to be a master piece for all ages to come.
    1. Compact Oxford Dictionary (2001). Thesaurus and Word power Guide. Oxford University Press, New York.
    3. Foucault. 1972. Archaeology of knowledge. New York: Pantheon. ISBN 0-415-28752-9
    4. Strega, 2005. The view from the poststructural margins: Epistemology and methodology reconsidered. In L. Brown, & S. Strega (Eds.), Research as resistance (pp. 199–235). Toronto: Canadian Scholars' Press.
    5. Lessa Lara 2006.(February 2006). Duscursive sftruggles within social welfare: Restaging Teen Motherhood. The British Journal of Social Work. Oxford Joirnals. 36 (2): 283&ndash, 298. doi:10.1093/bjsw/bch256
    6. SGGS, p.1245
    7. SGGS, p.141
    8. SGGS. p.227
    9. SGGS. p.53
    10. SGGS. p. 273
    11. SGGS, p.24
    12. SGGS, p.730
    13. SGGS, M.1. p.24
    14. SGGS. M 1, p. 956
    15. Ibid
    16. SGGS. P. 635
    17. SGGS, p.1244
    18. SGGS, p.141
    19. SGGS. p.139
    20. SGGS. p. 336
    21. SGGS, p.662
    22. SGGS, p. 309
    23. SGGS. p. 281
    24. Sirirag, M.1, p.24
    25. SGGS, p. 1 (Japuji Sahib)
    26. SGGS. p. 312
    27. SGGS. p. 295
    28. SGGS. p. 351
    29. SGGS. p. 315
    30. SGGS. p. 946
    31. SGGS. p. 316
    32. SGGS. p. 333
    33. SGGS. Sorth,
    34. SGGS. p. 305.
    35. SGGS. p. 306
    36. SGGS. p. 270
    37. SGGS. p. 287
    38. SGGS. p. 328
    39. SGGS. p. 635
    40. SGGS. p. 955
    41. SGGS. p. 635
    42. SGGS. p.722
    43. SGGS. p.43
    44. SGGS. p.265
    45. SGGS. p. 953
    46. SGGS. p.139
    47. SGGS. p.147
    48. SGGS. p.53
    49. SGGS. p.54
    50. SGGS. p.955
    51. SGGS. p.24
    52. SGGS. p.955
    53. SGGS. p.264
    54. SGGS. p.293-294
    55. SGGS. p.24
    56. SGGS. p.147
  2. sukhsingh

    sukhsingh Writer SPNer

    Aug 14, 2012
    Likes Received:
    Dr ji are your writings available as pdfs?
  3. dalvindersingh grewal

    dalvindersingh grewal Writer Historian SPNer

    Jan 3, 2010
    Likes Received:
    This is part of the forthcoming book, "Guru Nanak Dev ji as communicator par excellence' being published by Guru Nanak Foundation which will be in PDF later.
  4. Logical Sikh

    Logical Sikh Writer SPNer

    Sep 22, 2018
    Likes Received:
    o balle XD

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