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Dr. D. P. Singh

Apr 7, 2006
Nangal, India


Dr. D. P. Singh

Guru Tegh Bahadur fell as a martyr to the freedom of consciousness and belief, under orders of Aurangzeb, a ruler, who with his puritanical views had an attitude of narrow exclusiveness in the matters of religion [1]. Sikhism, of which Guru Tegh Bahadur was the Ninth Apostle, has all through upheld the spiritual approach in matters of faith, and its message has been free from the rancor of any kind against any set of beliefs. The great sacrifice made by Guru Tegh Bahadur to vindicate the right of the people to profess and practice the faith, meant, in fact, the assertion of the principle of justice for which the ruling Mughal rulers of the day had very scant regard. For this reason, the life, career, and teachings of Guru Tegh Bahadur are of immense significance even in contemporary times, when the forces of hate, fanaticism, and tyranny are still very dominant and assertive.

Guru Tegh Bahadur was a multifaceted genius. He was not only a martyr and a prophet but was also a great poet. In addition to his 57 Salokas, 59 of his other compositions (Shabads), written in 15 Raagas (measures) are included in Sri Guru Granth Sahib (SGGS) [2-4]. His hymns deal with the pathos of human predicament. Though he articulates [5] on the unreality of human passions and possessions, yet his hymns have been a source of spiritual succor and solace to millions of people in their hours of personal grief and affliction. He brightens our awareness of the ephemerality of the material phenomena, however instead of creating a sense of despair and depression, elevates the human mind and imbues it with the hope which permeates the cosmos. He fortifies our faith in human nature and makes it possible for us to rise above the irritants of the immediate problems of existence and keep our attention focused on the everlasting and eternal.

Guru Tegh Bahadur [1-18] inherited his vision or worldview from his predecessor Gurus. He stood [1] for the same system of moral, social, and spiritual values as had been emphasized by the previous Gurus. Still, his compositions, as enshrined in SGGS, have an identity of their own for how certain elements in Sikh philosophy are emphasized and brought into focus. As a whole, his hymns present a central, unifying theme: a coherent and dynamic vision of humans, their predicament as a part of nature, the way out of this predicament, and the resultant awareness of the unique spiritual nature that is within them. In this way, the Guru helps humans to redefine their relationship with the world and to make them grow spiritually. As a result of it, humans will be able to project their minds beyond the limited zone of self-will to let it partake of Truth and abide by the Will of God. Guru Tegh Bahadur's poetry seeks to redeem life from meaninglessness and fear, to enlarge and enliven humans' consciousness, and to open their inward eye to the glory of all-redeeming, ever-existent truth. Herein, a few of his ideas, on the various aspects of life, are being reported.

God - The Absolute Truth
In the vision of Guru Tegh Bahadur, the central issue [5-8] is the distinction between absolute truth and relative truth. Absolute truth is the only reality, the only lasting, permanent and eternal existence, which gives substance to everything else. It is the God Almighty, Creator of the universe, Omnipresent, Omniscient and Omnipotent, Most High and Most Gracious. Guru Tegh Bahadur articulates;

ਜਨ ਨਾਨਕ ਸਭ ਹੀ ਮੈ ਪੂਰਨ ਏਕ ਪੁਰਖ ਭਗਵਾਨੋ ॥
Devotee Nanak says: the One Primal Being, God, is permeating everywhere. (SGGS, M. 9, P. 1186)
ਸਭ ਸੁਖ ਦਾਤਾ ਰਾਮੁ ਹੈ ਦੂਸਰ ਨਾਹਿਨ ਕੋਇ ॥
God is the giver of all peace and comfort. There is no other at all. (SGGS, M. 9, P. 1426)​

Creation - The Relative Truth
All things in the universe are God's creation and last for a short period [9-14]. They are like a dream, a wall of sand, or a shadow of a cloud. In contrast with the truth of God's eternity, the universe is false, precisely because it is not everlasting. Guru Tegh Bahadur enunciates;

ਜਿਉ ਸੁਪਨਾ ਅਰੁ ਪੇਖਨਾ ਐਸੇ ਜਗ ਕਉ ਜਾਨਿ ਇਨ ਮੈ ਕਛੁ ਸਾਚੋ ਨਹੀ ਨਾਨਕ ਬਿਨੁ ਭਗਵਾਨ
One must understand that this world is like a dream or a show.
Nanak says, except God, none of this is eternal. (SGGS, M. 9, P. 1427)​

The whole life of a person has an air of unreality about it. The wealth one accumulates, the buildings one constructs, one's whole complex of social relations - such as wife, children, parents, relatives, friends, acquaintances, professional colleagues, etc., are all of the ephemeral characters. And one who is engrossed in them is engaged in the pursuit of unreality. He asserts;

ਦਾਰਾ ਮੀਤ ਪੂਤ ਰਥ ਸੰਪਤਿ ਧਨ ਪੂਰਨ ਸਭ ਮਹੀ ਅਵਰ ਸਗਲ ਮਿਥਿਆ ਜਾਨਉ ਭਜਨੁ ਰਾਮੁ ਕੋ ਸਹੀ
Wife, friends, children, carriages, property, total wealth, the entire world - know that all of these
things are illusory (unreal). The Lord's meditation alone is eternal (real). (SGGS, M. 9, P. 631)​

But it was not his thinking that because these things are not everlasting, they have no value at all. He has stressed again and again that while chasing them, their real character should never be lost sight of. They are not bad in themselves but become bad only when a person gets so inextricably entangled in them that he forgets all about the absolute truth and begins to think of these very things as the final goal. By this process of thinking, he repeatedly reminded us of the all-important distinction between ephemeral (the relative truth) and everlasting (the absolute truth).

Creation and Its Primal cause
Humans have been staring up into space for thousands of generations, to have a rational and coherent description [19] for the creation and evolution of the universe. Guru Tegh Bahadur offers an elegant explanation of the origin and creation of the universe. His views strongly align with the worldview of his predecessor Gurus. He articulates:

ਸਾਧੋ ਰਚਨਾ ਰਾਮ ਬਨਾਈ
Holy Ones! God has fashioned the creation. (SGGS, M. 9, P. 219)
Guru Tegh Bahadur proclaims that the Creator is the primal cause for the existence of the creation. It has both the sargun (manifested) and nirgun (unmanifested) forms. The multiplicity of species, colors, and other phenomena is its manifested form.

ਅਪਨੀ ਮਾਇਆ ਆਪਿ ਪਸਾਰੀ ਆਪਹਿ ਦੇਖਨਹਾਰਾ ॥ ਨਾਨਾ ਰੂਪੁ ਧਰੇ ਬਹੁ ਰੰਗੀ ਸਭ ਤੇ ਰਹੈ ਨਿਆਰਾ॥
He spreads out the expanse of his creation (Maya) and beholds it. He assumes so many forms, colors and
plays so many games, and yet remains detached from it all. (SGGS, M. 9, P. 537)​

Describing the continuous process of production and destruction in the creation, Guru Tegh Bahadur proclaims;

ਜੈਸੇ ਜਲ ਤੇ ਬੁਦਬੁਦਾ ਉਪਜੈ ਬਿਨਸੈ ਨੀਤ ॥ ਜਗ ਰਚਨਾ ਤੈਸੇ ਰਚੀ ਕਹੁ ਨਾਨਕ ਸੁਨਿ ਮੀਤ ॥
As the bubbles in the water well up and disappear again, so is the universe created; says Nanak, listen, O my friend! (SGGS, M. 9, P. 1427 )​

Guru Tegh Bahadur asserts that it happens under the natural laws (divine will) set by the Creator.

ਕਹੁ ਨਾਨਕ ਸੁਨਿ ਰੇ ਮਨਾ ਹਰਿ ਭਾਵੈ ਸੋ ਹੋਇ ॥
Says Nanak, listen, mind: whatever pleases God comes to pass. (SGGS, M. 9, P. 1428)
The ultimate fate of the creation is a mind-bogglingly thing to think about. So what's the outcome for it all? Guru Tegh Bahadur dares to predict the end of the creation. He enunciates that in the furthest reaches of time, it will be the end not only of life but everything that’s ever existed. No more matter, no more light, no more particles, no more nothing. It's a distressing reality to fathom, but it's one we need to reckon. Talking about the end of creation, Guru Tegh Bahadur articulates;

ਜੋ ਉਪਜੈ ਸੋ ਸਗਲ ਬਿਨਾਸੈ ਰਹਨੁ ਨ ਕੋਊ ਪਾਵੈ ॥
Everything that has been created, will be destroyed; nothing will remain. (SGGS, M. 9, P. 1231)​

Human Body
Sikh worldview [15-19] reports that a human being consists of a body, mind, and soul. Humans and the universe are similar to each other, having common essence and cosmic unity. A profound relation lies between the two. As the universe is made up of the five classical elements (air, water, fire, soil, and space), so is the human body. Human is like a microcosm to the macrocosm universe. After a human's life span is over, his/her body merges back into the constituting elements of the universe. Guru Teg Bahadur expresses such a view in his hymns as;

ਪਾਂਚ ਤਤ ਕੋ ਤਨੁ ਰਚਿਓ ਜਾਨਹੁ ਚਤੁਰ ਸੁਜਾਨ ॥ ਜਿਹ ਤੇ ਉਪਜਿਓ ਨਾਨਕਾ ਲੀਨ ਤਾਹਿ ਮੈ ਮਾਨੁ ॥
O, Wise One! Know it well that your body is a build-up of the five elements. Nanak says: It is a fact that you
shall merge again into the same, from whom you had originated. (SGGS, M. 9, P. 1427)​

According to Guru Tegh Bahadur, the human body is impermanent (false) because it is perishable, subject to decay, sickness, and death. He articulates:

ਅਸਥਿਰੁ ਜੋ ਮਾਨਿਓ ਦੇਹ ਸੋ ਤਉ ਤੇਰਉ ਹੋਇ ਹੈ ਖੇਹ ॥
You believed that this body was permanent, but it shall turn to dust. (SGGS, M. 9, P. 1353)
ਬਿਨਸਤ ਨਹ ਲਗੈ ਬਾਰ ਓਰੇ ਸਮ ਗਾਤੁ ਹੈ ॥
Your body is like a hail-stone; it melts away in no time at all. (SGGS, M. 9, P. 1352)​

In Sikhism, from a spiritual perspective, anything which is perishable and changeable is a projection of Nature and illusory. Whoever craves for impermanent things is bound to suffer from the duality of attraction and aversion. Like all other objects, the human body is also a formation or appearance. Hence, it is not the real Self. So are the mind, the senses, and all other parts and aspects of the human body. They constitute the physical self. Identifying with the body and accepting it as the real self is a delusion caused by the impurities of the mind. According to Guru Tegh Bahadur, accepting one's mind and body as real is responsible for bondage and rebirth. He cautions us that indulgence in worldly attachments takes us away from our real Self (the divine essence within us).

ਕਾਮ ਕ੍ਰੋਧ ਮੋਹ ਬਸਿ ਪ੍ਰਾਨੀ ਹਰਿ ਮੂਰਤਿ ਬਿਸਰਾਈ ਝੂਠਾ ਤਨੁ ਸਾਚਾ ਕਰਿ ਮਾਨਿਓ ਜਿਉ ਸੁਪਨਾ ਰੈਨਾਈ
Having been in the grip of sexual desire, anger, and emotional attachment,
mortal beings have forgotten God, the Immortal Being. The body is temporary,
but they believe it to be eternal; it is like a dream in the night. (SGGS, M. 9, P. 219)​

Guru Tegh Bahadur asserts that one should look beyond the human body to experience oneness with the real Self, or the divine essence (God), which is hidden in all. Thereby, in his hymns, he urges that one must cultivate detachment towards one's body and become established in God, which is real, eternal, and indestructible.

ਸਾਧੋ ਇਹੁ ਤਨੁ ਮਿਥਿਆ ਜਾਨਉ ॥ ਯਾ ਭੀਤਰਿ ਜੋ ਰਾਮੁ ਬਸਤੁ ਹੈ ਸਾਚੋ ਤਾਹਿ ਪਛਾਨੋ ॥
O Wise Ones! know that this body is false. Recognize that the Lord God,
who dwells within it, is really alone. (SGGS, M. 9, P. 1186)​

Purpose of Life
We all need a goal to move forward in life. It is as vital as our need to breathe air to survive. Humans are engaged in an eternal quest to know the "purpose of life" that brings it absolute and everlasting happiness. Happiness is a state of mind. It is difficult to equate the happiness of one person with another. But it is one thing that everybody strives for. Many of us think that the purpose of life is to accumulate wealth because money can fetch us everything including happiness. Wealth is an important determinant of people's satisfaction with their lives, but it is far less crucial than most people think. Happiness depends on many other factors more than it depends on wealth. Some people opine that the purpose is to live an intelligent life. Many scientists think that the main motive of life is evolution. Others believe that to live a happy life, a combination of wealth, happiness, intelligent life, and evolution, in some proportion, is the purpose of life.

But Guru Tegh Bahadur emphasizes that we should have a sound knowledge of life, and this knowledge should enable us to lead an authentic life on this planet. "Know Thyself" and never forget your innate divinity are encouraged in his hymns. He proclaims;

ਜਨ ਨਾਨਕ ਬਿਨੁ ਆਪਾ ਚੀਨੈ ਮਿਟੈ ਨ ਭ੍ਰਮ ਕੀ ਕਾਈ ॥
Devotee Nanak says: Without knowing oneself, the delusion (ignorance) is not removed. (SGGS, M. 9, P. 684)
Guru proclaims that though the human body is the false (illusory), yet it can also be a source of true liberation (Mukti). A person, who keeps his body and mind under control, and engages in desireless actions (in a detached manner) becomes liberated from the bondage of birth and death. By detaching oneself from the self-gratification, by controlling one's mind, by becoming wary of the play of the passions, by continuously fixing one's mind on the real Self (the divine essence or God), and by performing the daily duties with a sense of detachment, one can achieve true liberation and eternal peace. Thereby he encourages us to try for attaining liberation from the cycle of birth and death. He articulates:

ਮਾਨਸ ਦੇਹ ਬਹੁਰਿ ਨਹ ਪਾਵੈ ਕਛੂ ਉਪਾਉ ਮੁਕਤਿ ਕਾ ਕਰੁ ਰੇ ॥
You shall not obtain this human body again; make the effort - try to achieve liberation! (SGGS, M. 9, P. 220)​

To achieve liberation, Guru Tegh Bahadur urges us to seek the sanctuary of God.

ਕਲ ਮੈ ਮੁਕਤਿ ਨਾਮ ਤੇ ਪਾਵਤ ਗੁਰੁ ਯਹ ਭੇਦੁ ਬਤਾਵੈ ॥
In this Age, liberation comes from the love of God (Naam). The Guru has revealed this secret. (SGGS, M. 9, P. 831)
The Guru proclaims that to live an authentic life one must imbibe love of God in one's life.

ਸੁਫਲੁ ਜਨਮੁ ਨਾਨਕ ਤਬ ਹੂਆ ਜਉ ਪ੍ਰਭ ਜਸ ਮਹਿ ਪਾਗਿਓ ॥
Nanak says: A life becomes fruitful, only when it is imbued with the love of God (leading a virtuous life). (SGGS, M. 9, P. 1008 )​

Human Mind and its Fickleness
The human mind [20] is the most amazing, powerful, and complex creation of Nature. It gives us the ability to discern things, know ourselves, and the world in which we live. It intelligently acts and reacts to the problems and threats in our environment. It helps us to adapt to our environment or change it to ensure our survival and wellbeing. With our minds, we can fathom the mysteries of the world and the universe and make informed decisions.

The human mind is so powerful that it can force a person to do anything varying from best of best to worst of worst. Although the human mind is the highest expression of Nature in the mortal world, yet it is inherently restless[20]. This nature of mind is the source of all misery one faces in one's life. Many factors contribute to the mind's instability. The restless nature of mind and its cause has been pointed out by Guru Tegh Bahadur in his compositions as;

ਸਾਧੋ ਇਹੁ ਮਨੁ ਗਹਿਓ ਨ ਜਾਈ ॥ ਚੰਚਲ ਤ੍ਰਿਸਨਾ ਸੰਗਿ ਬਸਤੁ ਹੈ ਯਾ ਤੇ ਥਿਰੁ ਨ ਰਹਾਈ ॥
O, Wise Ones! This mind cannot be restrained. Fickle desires dwell with it, and so it cannot remain steady. (SGGS, M. 9, P. 219)​

Gurbani defines fickleness of mind as, "continuously running after fleeting things, entangled in a dream (illusion, ignorance or absence of Self-knowledge), craftiness, under the sway of the evil passions and which remains unsatisfied, and begs for more." Guru Teg Bahadur points out this fact in his hymns as;

ਮ੍ਰਿਗ ਤ੍ਰਿਸਨਾ ਜਿਉ ਝੂਠੋ ਇਹੁ ਜਗ ਦੇਖਿ ਤਾਸਿ ਉਠਿ ਧਾਵੈ ॥
Like the deer's delusion (mirage), this world is unreal (false), and yet, beholding it, one's mind chase after it. (SGGS, M. 9, P. 219)
This fickleness of mind not only pushes away success in our day-to-day life but also is the biggest hindrance [21-22] on the path of spiritual attainment. Until the causes of restlessness of the mind, are not removed, one does not experience peace. Spiritual success is the eradication of the fickleness of the mind. It comes with an honest, regular, and consistent focus in a specific direction. It is not only about intention, but like a river to reach up to the ocean, every drop has to flow in a specific direction. Through the self-effort of concentration and meditation, we draw the grace for the mind to be changed and transformed. Guru Tegh Bahadur urges us to focus on the love of God, to tame the fickle mind.

ਮਨ ਰੇ ਸਾਚਾ ਗਹੋ ਬਿਚਾਰਾ ॥ ਰਾਮ ਨਾਮ ਬਿਨੁ ਮਿਥਿਆ ਮਾਨੋ ਸਗਰੋ ਇਹੁ ਸੰਸਾਰਾ ॥
O, Mind! Embrace true contemplation. Without the Lord's Name, know that this whole world is false. (SGGS, M. 9, P. 703)​

In his hymns, Guru Teg Bahadur enunciates that the human mind is based on two factors. One factor is the evolutionary past of our species. This past is dominated by five inborn urges of lust, anger, avarice, attachment, and narcissism. The second factor is the realization in a man of his finite existence and his aspiration to transcend his finitude by relating himself to the transcendent God. Only too often, the urges to God-realization lies submerged in mind, and we live an ego-centered life. The ego-centered life is built on a false view of a world, called 'Maya' (illusion). Transitory things allures man towards falsehood (Maya). It deprives him of that potentiality of mind, which enables man to rise to the vision of God, the Eternal Truth. Thus contemplation on God (imbibing love of God in one's life) helps restrain the mind and attain everlasting peace. He proclaims;

ਮਾਈ ਮੈ ਧਨੁ ਪਾਇਓ ਹਰਿ ਨਾਮੁ ॥ ਮਨੁ ਮੇਰੋ ਧਾਵਨ ਤੇ ਛੂਟਿਓ ਕਰਿ ਬੈਠੋ ਬਿਸਰਾਮੁ ॥
O, Mother! I have gathered the wealth of the Lord's Name. My mind has stopped its wanderings,
and now, it has come to rest. (SGGS, M. 9, P. 1186)​

Role of Guru
Guru is a Sanskrit term [23] for a "teacher, guide, expert, or master" of specific knowledge or field. In pan-Indian traditions, the Guru is more than a teacher. In Sanskrit, Guru means the one who dispels the darkness (of ignorance) and takes towards the light (of knowledge). Traditionally, he/she is a reverential figure to the student, serving as a "counselor, who helps mold values, shares experiential as well as literal knowledge." He/She is an exemplar in life, an inspirational source, who helps in the spiritual evolution of a student". A Guru is also one's spiritual guide, who helps one to discover the same potentialities that the Guru has already realized. Guru Tegh Bahadur emphasizes the importance of Guru in one's life as:

ਹਰਿ ਕੇ ਨਾਮ ਬਿਨਾ ਦੁਖੁ ਪਾਵੈ ॥ ਭਗਤਿ ਬਿਨਾ ਸਹਸਾ ਨਹ ਚੂਕੈ ਗੁਰੁ ਇਹੁ ਭੇਦੁ ਬਤਾਵੈ ॥
Without imbuing the love of God in one's life, one experiences only disquietude. Without devotional worship
(living a virtuous life), duality is not dispelled; the Guru reveals this secret. (SGGS, M. 9, P. 830)
ਬਾਹਰਿ ਭੀਤਰਿ ਏਕੋ ਜਾਨਹੁ ਇਹੁ ਗੁਰ ਗਿਆਨੁ ਬਤਾਈ ॥
Outside and inside, know that there is only One Lord; the Guru imparts this wisdom. (SGGS, M. 9, P. 684)​

Role of Sadh Sangat
Sadh Sangat [24] means the company of disciplined spiritual people. Sadh comes from Sadhu, a person who does Sadhana. Sādhanā [25] means "methodical discipline to attain desired knowledge or goal." Sadhana is, also, done for attaining detachment from worldly things, which can be a goal of a Sadhu. Sangat means a group of people gathered together for a purpose. The best translation of Sadh Sangat is "the company of people who do Sadhana" or "the company of the holy." When people who do Sadhana come together, the group aura is quite strong, and this stimulates the meditative energy of all and produces an uplifting and inspiring atmosphere. Coming together in community to do Sadhana, kirtan, and meditation enhances the effects of all, for all. The Sadh Sangat is not exclusive. It includes any person who comes gracefully and sincerely to meditate and relate to his or her higher consciousness in the protection of the holy company. The Sadh Sangat is Sachkhand itself, the Realm of Truth, the highest Reality. Guru Tegh Bahadur urges us to join the company of the holy to enhance our contemplation on God, as such a practice, help in dispelling evil-mindedness.

ਰੇ ਮਨ ਰਾਮ ਸਿਉ ਕਰਿ ਪ੍ਰੀਤਿ॥ ਸ੍ਰਵਨ ਗੋਬਿੰਦ ਗੁਨੁ ਸੁਨਉ ਅਰੁ ਗਾਉ ਰਸਨਾ ਗੀਤਿ॥ ਕਰਿ ਸਾਧਸੰਗਤਿ ਸਿਮਰੁ ਮਾਧੋ ਹੋਹਿ ਪਤਿਤ ਪੁਨੀਤ॥
O mind! Love the Lord. Listen to the glorious praises of the Lord and sing His eulogies. Join the company of the holy,
and meditate on the Lord; In doing so, even a sinner can become a saint. (SGGS, M. 9, P. 631)​

The Guru proclaims that the company of the holy persons, help in dispelling evil-mindedness.

ਜਬ ਹੀ ਸਰਨਿ ਸਾਧ ਕੀ ਆਇਓ ਦੁਰਮਤਿ ਸਗਲ ਬਿਨਾਸੀ॥ ਤਬ ਨਾਨਕ ਚੇਤਿਓ ਚਿੰਤਾਮਨਿ ਕਾਟੀ ਜਮ ਕੀ ਫਾਸੀ॥
Whenever one comes to the sanctuary of the Holy Saints, one's all evil-mindedness is dispelled.
Nanak says then on remembering the God, the noose of death gets snapped. (SGGS, M. 9, P. 633)​

Social Ethics
The ideology of Guru Tegh Bahadur, like his predecessor Gurus, was based on a recognized sense of social commitment [15-18]. Spiritual development founded on renunciation of worldly life, and disownment of social responsibility was considered of little merit, and a life lived away from society was not commended. Living amid society, and facing all its challenges bravely, was a hallmark of this mode of thinking of Guru Tegh Bahadur. He proclaims;

ਕਾਹੇ ਰੇ ਬਨ ਖੋਜਨ ਜਾਈ ॥ ਸਰਬ ਨਿਵਾਸੀ ਸਦਾ ਅਲੇਪਾ ਤੋਹੀ ਸੰਗਿ ਸਮਾਈ ॥
Why do you go looking for Him (God) in the forest? Although He is unattached, He dwells everywhere.
He is always with you as your companion. (SGGS, M. 9, P. 684)​

The Guru emphasized that the basis of all social life must be Dharma (morality). Whatever activities one may indulge in, the governing principle of one's conduct should always be the moral values based on truthfulness.

ਸਾਚੀ ਰਹਤ ਸਾਚਾ ਮਨਿ ਸੋਈ
Through truthful living, the True Lord comes to dwell in one's mind. (SGGS, M. 9, p. 831)​

In his hymns, Guru Tegh Bahadur emphasized self-discipline and self-reflection. The mind, if not mastered, is drawn towards five vices: lust, anger, greed, attachment, and ego. As a person is enslaved by these passions more and more, he/she gets removed away, more and more. from the inner divine consciousness. This gross worldly state of an individual is the condition of spiritual sterility. The Guru enunciated that an individual's troubles are due to his/her mental pride and ego-intoxicated moods. The company of the holy (saints) is a practical tool for cleansing the mind of the vices. So, he rightly exhorts;

ਸਾਧੋ ਮਨ ਕਾ ਮਾਨੁ ਤਿਆਗਉ ॥ ਕਾਮੁ ਕ੍ਰੋਧੁ ਸੰਗਤਿ ਦੁਰਜਨ ਕੀ ਤਾ ਤੇ ਅਹਿਨਿਸਿ ਭਾਗਉ ॥
O Wise ones! Forsake the pride of your mind. Persistently avoid vices such as lust, anger,
and the company of evil people. (SGGS, M. 9, P. 219)​

The Guru insists on the transformation of consciousness. Man must demolish the barriers of the self-centered ego that separates him from God. For him, to turn toward God is not an external act of ritualistic demonstrations, but a psychological act of inwardness, of imbibing the virtues of humility and inner purification. He asserts:

ਤੀਰਥ ਬਰਤ ਅਰੁ ਦਾਨ ਕਰਿ ਮਨ ਮੈ ਧਰੈ ਗੁਮਾਨੁ ॥ ਨਾਨਕ ਨਿਹਫਲ ਜਾਤ ਤਿਹ ਜਿਉ ਕੁੰਚਰ ਇਸਨਾਨੁ ॥
Going on pilgrimages to sacred shrines, observing ritualistic fasts, and making donations to charities, but taking pride (ego) in one's mind,
Nanak says: one's such actions are useless, like the elephant, who takes a bath and then rolls in the dust. (SGGS, M. 9, P. 1428)

ਤੀਰਥ ਕਰੈ ਬ੍ਰਤ ਫੁਨਿ ਰਾਖੈ ਨਹ ਮਨੂਆ ਬਸਿ ਜਾ ਕੋ ॥ ਨਿਹਫਲ ਧਰਮੁ ਤਾਹਿ ਤੁਮ ਮਾਨਹੁ ਸਾਚੁ ਕਹਤ ਮੈ ਯਾ ਕਉ ॥
Bathing at sacred shrines of pilgrimage, and adhering to fasts, but having no control over one's mind,
the fact is such a religion is of no use to the person. (SGGS, M. 9, P. 831)​

Truth is the quintessence of the Guru's teachings. In so far as our worship, he said, is rendered in the light of this truth, it is meaningful. Otherwise, mere ritualistic exercises and sectarian pilgrimages are exercises in self-deception. The way of truth alone will lead to a life of fullness, love, sympathy, service, humility, and honesty. In the sunshine of this truth, and with the cultivation of the spiritual root, all other essences of humanitarian potential unfold as naturally as buds on a tree. The man endowed with this vision does not turn away from this world as in a "vale of soul-making'. He truly transcends the barriers of caste, color, creed, and attendant feelings of hatred and aversion. The upholder of truth would rather lay down his head than compromise with unrighteousness. Thereby, he warns us against wasting our lives in worldly passions.

ਸਾਚ ਛਾਡਿ ਕੈ ਝੂਠਹ ਲਾਗਿਓ ਜਨਮੁ ਅਕਾਰਥੁ ਖੋਇਓ ॥
By abandoning Truth, and clinging to falsehood; one's life is uselessly wasted away. (SGGS, M. 9, P. 633)​

Recognizing the power of human will, the Guru proclaims that it is within an individual's ability to control his/her lower passions and to establish contact with God.

ਪਰ ਨਿੰਦਾ ਉਸਤਤਿ ਨਹ ਜਾ ਕੈ ਕੰਚਨ ਲੋਹ ਸਮਾਨੋ॥ ਹਰਖ ਸੋਗ ਤੇ ਰਹੈ ਅਤੀਤਾ ਜੋਗੀ ਤਾਹਿ ਬਖਾਨੋ॥
One who does not slander or praise others, who looks upon gold and iron alike,
who is free from pleasure and pain - he alone is called a true Yogi. (SGGS, M. 9, P. 685)
The Guru is, of course, critical of the person who revels in ignorance and overlooks the spiritual will in him. He asserts that one need not run to the forest for spiritual enlightenment. By righteous living and having faith in and devotion to God, one can achieve it, even while living a householder's life.

ਘਟ ਹੀ ਮਾਹਿ ਨਿਰੰਜਨੁ ਤੇਰੈ ਤੈ ਖੋਜਤ ਉਦਿਆਨਾ ॥
The Immaculate Lord is within your heart, and yet you search for Him in the wilderness. (SGGS, M. 9, P. 632)
Change is a fact of life. Moments come and go. Days pass by, turning into weeks, then months, then years. We and our lives are continuously changing [19]. Nothing is permanent. This fact we have to accept and work with, says Guru Tegh Bahadur. To feel the pain of impermanence and loss can be a profoundly beautiful reminder of what it means to exist. Impermanence is the cornerstone of Guru Tegh Bahadur's teachings. He proclaims: "all that exists is impermanent; nothing lasts."

ਇਹੁ ਮਾਰਗੁ ਸੰਸਾਰ ਕੋ ਨਾਨਕ ਥਿਰੁ ਨਹੀ ਕੋਇ ॥
Nanak says: This is the way of the world that nothing is permanent. (SGGS, M. 9, P. 1429)​

Therefore nothing can be grasped or held onto in this world. When we don't fully appreciate this simple but profound truth, we suffer, as did the Sikhs who descended into misery and despair at the Guru Tegh Bahadur's passing. When we understand the ephemerality of life and the world, we have real peace and understanding, as did the disciples who remained fully mindful and calm. According to Guru Tegh Bahadur, impermanence is the number one inescapable fact of life. Attachment to possession and achievement invariably leads to disappointment and disillusionment because everything is impermanent. He asserts;

ਜੋ ਦੀਸੈ ਸੋ ਸਗਲ ਬਿਨਾਸੈ ਜਿਉ ਬਾਦਰ ਕੀ ਛਾਈ ॥
Whatever is visible, all shall pass away, like the shadow of a cloud. (SGGS, M. 9, P. 219)​

But Guru Tegh Bahadur says it is possible to find ease and grace in the world of change. It is possible to restrain the mind and achieve liberation within the impermanent world. One means of reducing clinging to worldly things/passions is to see the transient nature of what we cling to. This insight can show us the futility of trying to find lasting happiness in what is impermanent. It can also encourage us to examine thoroughly why do we cling. Impermanence is not only to be overcome and conquered. It is also to be lived and appreciated. Though impermanence is making suffering a built-in factor of human life, yet permanence is like the petal emerging from the sepal of a flower of impermanence. It makes happiness possible. Impermanence is an ongoing process of living and dying in time. Permanence is salvation, bliss, cessation of attachment. Guru Tegh Bahadur emphasizes the eternal nature of God and urges us to imbibe His love in our lives to transcend impermanence.

ਨਾਨਕ ਥਿਰੁ ਹਰਿ ਭਗਤਿ ਹੈ ਤਿਹ ਰਾਖੋ ਮਨ ਮਾਹਿ ॥
Nanak says: only devotional worship of God is permanent; enshrine this in your mind. (SGGS, M. 9, P. 1429)​

Freedom through Bairaag (non-attachment)
The root of happiness is non-attachment (Bairaag). Bairaag is not a fleeting impulse that can make a person run away from objects of enjoyment, but the non-attachment of an aesthete, enabling him/her to enjoy without being bound to the object. However, the person does not crave for enjoyment. The feeling is not just one of dissatisfaction with worldly pleasures. It is positively of the nature of pangs of separation (birha) from the Beloved [7]. So intensely is the Beloved missed, and so profoundly is the union with Him desired that the whole being resounds with His Naam (Love of God). Yet, this love is as dispassionate as it is intense.

Gurbani proclaims that one's happiness is not dependent upon one's possessions or how one's family and friends are doing. It comes from one's connection to God. That is where the practice of Bairaag leads to. When one releases attachment to things outside, one stops looking for pleasure externally and turn inward, the only place where lasting happiness resides. Non-attachment doesn't mean you stop caring or stop working to do the things that matter. It is simply about seeing the impermanence of the physical world. It is about enjoying what life has to offer without becoming identified with it or attached to it.

The concept of Bairaag is ably delineated [18] in the hymns of Guru Tegh Bahadur. He advises us on the meaning to live and give freely with no attachment to the result. This teaching is a reminder that whether a situation goes one's way or turns one's life upside down, one's ship (of life) is steadied by the connection to one's higher self. That will allow the person to continue moving forward along his/her path without becoming stuck on something positive or negative that comes his/her way. He proclaims:

ਜਿਹਿ ਬਿਖਿਆ ਸਗਲੀ ਤਜੀ ਲੀਓ ਭੇਖ ਬੈਰਾਗ ॥ ਕਹੁ ਨਾਨਕ ਸੁਨੁ ਰੇ ਮਨਾ ਤਿਹ ਨਰ ਮਾਥੈ ਭਾਗੁ ॥
One who has forsaken all sin and corruption, and has adopted an attitude of non-attachment,
Nanak says: Listen, O Mind! that person is blessed. (SGGS, M. 9, P. 1427)
A person doesn’t need to renounce all his/her possessions to practice bairaag. He/She can simply recognize that all material things are impermanent. Guru Tegh Bahadur proclaims that a person, whose understanding is unattached everywhere, who has subdued himself and from whom desire has fled, he/she through the renunciation of attachment, has attained the supreme state.

ਜਿਹਿ ਮਾਇਆ ਮਮਤਾ ਤਜੀ ਸਭ ਤੇ ਭਇਓ ਉਦਾਸੁ ॥ ਕਹੁ ਨਾਨਕ ਸੁਨੁ ਰੇ ਮਨਾ ਤਿਹ ਘਟਿ ਬ੍ਰਹਮ ਨਿਵਾਸੁ ॥
One who renounces Maya (possessiveness), and is unattached from everything,
Nanak says; Listen, O, Mind! God abides in his heart. (SGGS, M. 9, P. 1427)
If the bairaag is born of an awakening intuition and a direct knowledge of the essence of self and every object, then, in the person arises a complete and automatic indifference to the worldly phenomena. This indifference is neither born of disgust nor satiety but is of a preoccupation with something exceptional and all-pervading. It claims all his attention. Such a spiritually awakened man, is in a state of universal acceptance, seeing all things as alike and equally good. He is full of unqualified bliss. Guru Tegh Bahadur articulates that such a person achieves salvation and is capable of helping others to attain such a state.

ਜੋ ਪ੍ਰਾਨੀ ਮਮਤਾ ਤਜੈ ਲੋਭ ਮੋਹ ਅਹੰਕਾਰ ॥ ਕਹੁ ਨਾਨਕ ਆਪਨ ਤਰੈ ਅਉਰਨ ਲੇਤ ਉਧਾਰ ॥
That mortal who renounces possessiveness, greed, emotional attachment, and egotism
- Nanak says: he is saved, and he saves many others as well. (SGGS, M. 9, P. 1427)​

Also, Bairaag is a key to attain a state of fearlessness, for which Guru Tegh Bahadur himself is an outstanding example.

With deep insight, one realizes [18] that the things one fears most are predominant completely out of one's control. Fear of the future, fear of the past, fear of not being loved, fear of pain, fear of sorrow, fear of the outcome, etc. It all leads to the basic fear of death, which is our survival instinct and which is at the core of everything we do. A beautiful poem, written by Rabindra Nath Tagore, inspires [26] the quality of a peaceful warrior. He wrote; "Let me not pray to be sheltered from dangers but to be fearless in facing them. Let me not beg for the stilling of my pain, but for my heart to conquer it. " In reality, fearlessness coexists with the practice of non-attachment (bairaag). The idea of non-attachment was emphasized by Sikh Gurus in their hymns over and over again. Guru Tegh Bahadur, in his hymns, articulates such a view as;

ਸੁਰਗ ਨਰਕ ਅੰਮ੍ਰਿਤ ਬਿਖੁ ਸਭ ਤਿਉ ਕੰਚਨ ਅਰੁ ਪੈਸਾ ਉਸਤਤਿ ਨਿੰਦਾ ਸਮ ਜਾ ਕੈ ਲੋਭੁ ਮੋਹੁ ਫੁਨਿ ਤੈਸਾ
ਦੁਖੁ ਸੁਖੁ ਬਾਧੇ ਜਿਹ ਨਾਹਨਿ ਤਿਹ ਤੁਮ ਜਾਨਉ ਗਿਆਨੀ
They, to whom heaven and hell, ambrosial nectar and poison, gold and copper, are all alike. So are the praise and slander,
greed, and attachment, all the same to them. They are not bound by pleasure and pain. Know that they are truly wise. (SGGS, M. 9, P. 220)​

Though it appears impossible to practice non-attachment in this age, where attachment seems so steeped in human beings. This idea of practicing letting go is possible if one allows oneself to find a moment of clarity in which he/she asks himself/herself, that what would I do if I wasn't afraid, or hurt or needing something else.....? What would I do if my slate was clean? Most likely one would allow one's true nature to shine and one would most likely be not willing to harm oneself or others. Chances are that the person would act out of love and courage steeped in full potential. Guru Tegh Bahadur proclaims this state as;

ਭੈ ਕਾਹੂ ਕਉ ਦੇਤ ਨਹਿ ਨਹਿ ਭੈ ਮਾਨਤ ਆਨ ॥ ਕਹੁ ਨਾਨਕ ਸੁਨਿ ਰੇ ਮਨਾ ਗਿਆਨੀ ਤਾਹਿ ਬਖਾਨਿ ॥
One who does not frighten anyone, and who is not afraid of anyone else
-says Nanak, listen, O Mind! call him spiritually wise. (SGGS, M. 9, P. 1427)​

So how do one practice fearlessness? By pausing and allowing oneself to see the situation as is in all it's entirety. Which takes moral courage, especially when one faces things one wishes not to see. Once you look at them with detachment, they become much smaller and less scary and simply whatever they are and nothing more. Then asking oneself what would one do if one weren't afraid? Space emerges, a space for breath, for clarity and the one'll know how to proceed or even more one won't stand in one's way, but one'll allow oneself to come to play. Guru Tegh Bahadur, who has willingly sacrificed his life, against unusual odds, for a greater good, is an exemplar for such a state of fearlessness. He attained this state of fearlessness, through his non-attachment to worldly things and passions and also with his moral strength obtained by his dedication to the Eternal Truth (God). He articulates;

ਕਹੁ ਨਾਨਕ ਤਿਹ ਭਜਨ ਤੇ ਨਿਰਭੈ ਪਦੁ ਪਾਵੈ ॥
Nanak says: by meditating on the Lord (God), you shall obtain the state of fearlessness. (SGGS, M. 9, P. 726)
Love/Worship of God
True to his exalted vision, Guru Tegh Bahadur dedicated [18] his life to the high ideals he had set before himself. He led a householder's life and didn't shy away from his personal and social responsibilities. But he always avoided getting bogged into any entanglements and devoted most of his time to spiritual advancement, as from his childhood, he was known to be fond of solitude. Thereby, he implores us all to practice the love of God in our lives and to worship Him. The Guru articulates:

ਨਾਨਕ ਹਰਿ ਗੁਨ ਗਾਇ ਲੇ ਛਾਡਿ ਸਗਲ ਜੰਜਾਲ
Nanak says: sing the Glorious Praises of the Lord and give up all other entanglements. (SGGS, m. 9, P. 1429)​

Sikhs worship God, the Creator, being the epitome of virtues. By contemplation of God, one willfully tries to imbibe similar virtues in oneself. In Sikhism, each moment is considered holy and living an act of devotion. Sikhs are expected to remain God-conscious at all times. Their prayers exhort the need for self-exploration, self-knowledge and self-realization, and the running of their daily lives following the Guru's teachings (Gurmat). Guru Tegh Bahadur proclaims this fact in his hymns as;

ਰਾਮੁ ਸਿਮਰਿ ਰਾਮੁ ਸਿਮਰਿ ਇਹੈ ਤੇਰੈ ਕਾਜਿ ਹੈ ॥ ਮਾਇਆ ਕੋ ਸੰਗੁ ਤਿਆਗੁ ਪ੍ਰਭ ਜੂ ਕੀ ਸਰਨਿ ਲਾਗੁ॥ ਜਗਤ ਸੁਖ ਮਾਨੁ ਮਿਥਿਆ ਝੂਠੋ ਸਭ ਸਾਜੁ ਹੈ ॥
Meditate on the Lord; meditate on the Lord. This alone shall be of use to you. Abandon your association with Maya,
take shelter in the Sanctuary of God. Remember that the pleasures of the world are false; this whole show is just an illusion. (SGGS, M. 9, P. 1352)​

Praise and worship is a crucial part of our walk with God. Worship is the act of expressing reverence and adoration towards God. True worship comes from the heart, and it is authentic. It's commanded by God and is followed by blessings. When we choose to worship in faith, God sets in motion things only seen in the spiritual realm. What goes on in the spiritual realm will eventually show up for our eyes to see in the worldly domain. When we take our focus off of ourselves, off of the circumstances around us, and place it on God's Worship, our worry would be replaced with trust and acceptance. Thus, we become beneficiaries of worship, but it should not be our primary motive. Our motivation to worship should be more than that. True worship is never self-serving or self-centered. Guru Tegh Bahadur encourages us to follow the path of love of God, to lead an authentic life.
ਰਾਮ ਨਾਮੁ ਉਰ ਮੈ ਗਹਿਓ ਜਾ ਕੈ ਸਮ ਨਹੀ ਕੋਇ ॥ ਜਿਹ ਸਿਮਰਤ ਸੰਕਟ ਮਿਟੈ ਦਰਸੁ ਤੁਹਾਰੋ ਹੋਇ ॥
Enshrine the Love of God (Naam) in your heart. There is nothing as good as is it. Meditating on God,
one's troubles go away; and the person receives the blessed vision of God. (SGGS, M. 9, P. 1429 )​

Salvation through Spiritual Enlightenment
Guru Tegh Bahadur regarded [1] the attainment of Nirban Pad (also called Amar Pad, Achal Pad, and Mukat Pad) as the highest goal of one's life. By it, he meant a blissful state where joy and sorrow, pleasure and pain, praise and condemnation, respect and contempt do not affect. It is a state of perfect emancipation from the bonds of life. He pointed out that the best way to achieve the goal was to lead a life of full dedication (Bhagti) to the Supreme Reality. It may be possible only through the cultivation of an attitude of complete detachment from the various allurements of life, which impede all progress on the path to spiritual advancement. But in doing this, individuals are well-advised not to develop any unhealthy prejudice against family and social life, which is a cardinal doctrine of Sikhism. He articulates;

ਸੁਰਗ ਨਰਕ ਅੰਮ੍ਰਿਤ ਬਿਖੁ ਏ ਸਭ ਤਿਉ ਕੰਚਨ ਅਰੁ ਪੈਸਾ॥ ਉਸਤਤਿ ਨਿੰਦਾ ਏ ਸਮ ਜਾ ਕੈ ਲੋਭੁ ਮੋਹੁ ਫੁਨਿ ਤੈਸਾ॥
ਦੁਖੁ ਸੁਖੁ ਏ ਬਾਧੇ ਜਿਹ ਨਾਹਨਿ ਤਿਹ ਤੁਮ ਜਾਨਉ ਗਿਆਨੀ॥ ਨਾਨਕ ਮੁਕਤਿ ਤਾਹਿ ਤੁਮ ਮਾਨਉ ਇਹ ਬਿਧਿ ਕੋ ਜੋ ਪ੍ਰਾਨੀ॥
They, to whom heaven and hell, ambrosial nectar and poison, gold and copper, are all alike. So are the praise and slander,
greed, and attachment, all the same to them. They are not bound by pleasure and pain. Know that they are truly wise.
O Nanak, recognize those mortal beings as liberated, who live this way of life. (SGGS, M. 9, P. 220)

ਮਾਨ ਮੋਹ ਦੋਨੋ ਕਉ ਪਰਹਰਿ ਗੋਬਿੰਦ ਕੇ ਗੁਨ ਗਾਵੈ ॥ ਕਹੁ ਨਾਨਕ ਇਹ ਬਿਧਿ ਕੋ ਪ੍ਰਾਨੀ ਜੀਵਨ ਮੁਕਤਿ ਕਹਾਵੈ ॥
A person who lays aside both pride and attachment and sings the Glorious Praises of Lord (God).
Nanak Says: That person is said to be 'jivanmukta' (liberated while still alive). (SGGS, M. 9, P. 831)​

Guru Tegh Bahadur enunciates that such a person attains God-like status.

ਸੁਖੁ ਦੁਖੁ ਜਿਹ ਪਰਸੈ ਨਹੀ ਲੋਭੁ ਮੋਹੁ ਅਭਿਮਾਨੁ ॥ ਕਹੁ ਨਾਨਕ ਸੁਨੁ ਰੇ ਮਨਾ ਸੋ ਮੂਰਤਿ ਭਗਵਾਨ ॥
One who is not touched by pleasure or pain, greed, emotional attachment, and egotistical pride,
Nanak says: Listen, O mind! such a person is the very image of God. (SGGS, M. 9, P. 1427)​

Emancipated person
The dispassionate love (bairaag) culminates [16] into a state of perfect harmony - a complete, conscious, and spontaneous union with God. This state is called Sahaja (state of equipoise), amarapad (state of immortality), nirvanapad (desireless state), nirbhaipad (a state without fear), mukti (state of liberation). One who has attained it has been variously called Gurmukh (guru-oriented person), Brahma Jnani (a knower of Brahma), or simply jnani, Jeevan Mukta (liberated during life) or simply Mukta. Guru Tegh Bahadur in his compositions has, time and again alluded to the various characteristics of such an Emancipated person. He articulates;

ਜੋ ਪ੍ਰਾਨੀ ਨਿਸਿ ਦਿਨੁ ਭਜੈ ਰੂਪ ਰਾਮ ਤਿਹ ਜਾਨੁ ॥ ਹਰਿ ਜਨ ਹਰਿ ਅੰਤਰੁ ਨਹੀ ਨਾਨਕ ਸਾਚੀ ਮਾਨੁ ॥

That mortal who meditates on the Lord (God) night and day, know him to be the embodiment of the Lord.
There is no difference between the Lord and the humble servant of the Lord; Nanak says know that this is true. (SGGS, M. 9, P. 1427-28)
A seeker of spiritual enlightenment, with his/her devotion to God, becomes an ideal image of God and eventually attains salvation.
ਜਿਹ ਘਟਿ ਸਿਮਰਨੁ ਰਾਮ ਕੋ ਸੋ ਨਰੁ ਮੁਕਤਾ ਜਾਨੁ ॥ ਤਿਹਿ ਨਰ ਹਰਿ ਅੰਤਰੁ ਨਹੀ ਨਾਨਕ ਸਾਚੀ ਮਾਨੁ॥
That person, who meditates on the Lord in his heart, is liberated, know it well.
There is no difference between that person and the Lord: Nanak says: accept it as the truth. (SGGS, M. 9, P. 1428 )
Thus, according to the Guru, spiritual enlightenment is achievable. Humans must make the best of their lives to achieve it. The state of spiritual enlightenment releases the resources of inwardness, fearlessness, and courage to face the troubles and turmoil of life. It even provides the resoluteness to sacrifice one's life for the well-being of others. It is gloriously exemplified in the life of the Guru himself.

Guru Tegh bahadur's life and works have a shining message for us. In times of deep distress and acute difficulties, we should not run away from the situation but must face it with full moral and social responsibility. Self-transcendence is not merely reaching out to the divine within, but it is also reaching out to the other human beings through selfless service and sacrifice. A person's aim is not only a personal liberation but to help others to attain liberation. One must shoulder one's social duties with full responsibility for the good of all and must act in complete accord with the divine will. The Guru's life history teaches us that we should not look vainly for miraculous interventions in life but should build inner strength to accept all adversities cheerfully.

Real progress demands a commitment to honest living, a life of self-discipline, and the development of our essential human nature, which is divine. To reach the divine is to reach the pinnacle of human evolution, and liberation from fear. Guru asserts that human life is precious as it affords opportunities for self-refinement and spiritual enlightenment. Guru Tegh Bahadur emphasizes that for an individual as well as for social uplift, the creative role of the divine in man must actively be brought into operation. That is the only panacea to purify the spheres of private, family, social, and political relationships.

1. Fauja Singh and Gurbachan Singh Talib, Guru Tegh Bahadur- Martyr and Teacher, 1996, Punjabi University, Patiala, Punjab, India. p. v-viii, 85-94.
2. Sri Guru Granth Sahib, 1983 (Reprint), S. G. P. C., Amritsar, p 1-1430.
3. Sant Singh Khalsa, English translation of S. G. G. S., http://www.srigranth.org/servlet/gurbani.gurbani?S=y
4. Sahib Singh, Sri Guru Granth Darpan, Siri Guru Granth Sahib Translation in Punjabi by Professor Sahib Singh
5. Surjit Singh Chawla, Martyrdom of Guru Tegh Bahadur - Message for Mankind, 1991, Harmony Publishing House¸ Gurgaon, Haryana, India.z
6. Puran Singh, The Life, and Teachings of Sri Guru Tegh Bahadur, 1908, Pub. by Bhai Amar Singh, The Khalsa Agency, Amritsar, India.
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21. Purify your mind, Purify your mind - SikhiWiki, free Sikh encyclopedia.
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Sadh Sangat - The Company of Disciplined Spiritual People – Sikh Dharma International
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