The following is a translation from a Persian manuscript completed in 1731 by Khafi Khan regarding the Moghul battles with Banda Singh Bahadur. I made a few notes (in brackets) highlighting points I feel are interesting. ----------------------- (Siege of Lohgarh) The wretched chief of that sect (Banda) accompanied by his error tending, doomed followers, whom wealth seeking as well as deep faith had bound to that eternally misled one, incited and encouraged his followers to fight and resist with such fables and inducements as that whoever is killed in this battle will without delay in the very form, whether bearded or beardless, in which he dies, return and attain further progress in the stages of worldly life. Those persons who regarded the statement of their spiritual leader and chief in the matter of transmigration of souls (which is condemned by all scripture believing God praying faiths) as absolutely proved, lent their ears in agreement. --(Note: That according to this account some of the people fighting on the Sikh side were "beardless").-- Coming out of the fort with all alarcity, enthusiam and inclination, they raised the cry of "Fateh Darshan" and "Sacha Padshah" at the time of battle, and like insects threw themselves madly and bravely upon the fire of artillery and the edge of the sword and the tips of arrows and spears. They launched such rank shaking assaults on imperial entrenchments, and every day many were killed. Some Muslims also earned the eternal merit of martyrdom. Although from the lower castes of Hindus, countless people like ants and locusts had gathered around him (Banda) and lost no time in getting killed or coming to battle for his sake, yet they did not harm such Hindus of high status as Khatris of the Punjab, who were colluding in the plans and designs of that rebel (Banda), or Jats famous for their bravery, who were supporting and joining the army of that doomed one. All remaining Hindus, along with Muslims they regarded as deserving to be killed. --(Note: This clearly indicates that the Khalsa had many so-called low caste followers who fought shoulder to shoulder with Jats in these battles and showed high levels of bravery. Also for those who say that Sikhism was made to protect Hindus note the line "All remaining Hindus, along with Muslims they regarded as deserving to be killed.")-- To all observers of military conflicts it is apparent that in most armies, among two ot three thousand horsemen, if there are one or two hundred who are brave and loyal to the extent of sacrificing their lives, this becomes the cause of the honour and victory of that army. In contrast was this wretched sect, which despite most of them being foot soldiers, there was hardly anyone amonst them, either horse or foot, who did not consider being killed in the path of their spiritual leader (murshid) as his own greatest wish and aspiration. This reason and their greed for wealth, precious goods and jewels, which came to their hand through plunder, became a fresh factor for the success and triumph of those beggardly, doomed men. Ordinary people of little faith attributed it to magic and sorcery practised by that sect. --(Note: The author feels that most of the force was ideologically motivated and hence prepared to sacrifice themselves, which is in contrast to those who fight just for the booty).-- WJKK WJKF Whoops Admin, Sorry! Can You Move This To The Book Review Section Please!!!!!!!!!