In the Footprints of Guru Nanak-Fourth Itinerary Dr Dalvinder Singh Grewal Dalvinder45@rediffmail.com 919815366726 Guru Nanak proceeded for his fourth Journey towards Middle East. His visit included Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Palestine, Egypt, Uganda, Sudan, Abyssinia, Israel, Syria, Turkey, Italy, Rome, Azerbaijan, Iran, Turkestan, Afghanistan, and North West Frontier Province of Pakistan (NWFP). Reliable evidence is available about his visit to Muslim countries like Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Iran and Afghanistan while evidence to other countries including the centers of Christianity, Africa, Turkey and Russia needs further investigation. Purpose of the visit was to deliver to one and all the message of eternal truth as revealed to him in a manner that touched the heart and kindled the dormant spark of devotion in souls ready to receive it. He showed the true way out of the dark of superstition and formalism and the path of integration. He propagated love amongst all since God prefers those who love His beings. He came to lift the humble and the downtrodden and to endow the weak and faltering with power of faith. He came to remove the divisions of caste, creed, colour, religion and boundaries and to propagate One God of all and to practice Divine Name and path of truth while forbidding from the meaningless ritual practices. He delivered the message through dialogue, discussions and practical examples accompanied with melodious music. Sources Various sources for the ‘Travels of Guru Nanak’ in Udasi to the West include Varan Bhai Gurdas Vaar 1,  Puratan Janamsakhi edited by Bhai Veer Singh  Puratan Janamsakhi edited by Shamsher Singh Ashok  Janamsakhi Bhai Bala edited by Dr Surinder Singh Kohli  Janamsakhi Meharban in Janam Sakhi Prampra edited by Dr Kirpal Singh  Janamsakhi Bhai Mani Singh in Janam Sakhi Prampra  Janamsakhi Sri Guru Nanak Devji, (B-40) edited by Piar Singh , Twareekh Guru Khalsa, Part 1, Guru 1 by Giani Gian Singh,  Sri Guru Panth Parkash by Giani Gian Singh,  Giani Gian Singh, Gurdham Sangreh,  Bhai Kahn Singh Nabha, Gurdham Deedar,  ‘Mahankosh’ by Kahn Singh Nabha  Guru Khalsa Twareekh by Giani Lal Singh Sangrur , Vir Singh (Bhai), 1955, Shri Guru Nanak Chamatkar,  Sahib Singh (Prof), Jeevan Birtant Guru Nanak Devji,  Tarlochan Singh (Dr.), 1970, Jeevan Charitar: Guru Nanak Dev,  Teja Singh Sodhi, 1972, Vachitar Jeewan Shri Guru Nanak Devji,  Teja Singh, Ganda Singh, 1985, Sikh Itihas,  Kohli Surinder Singh, 1970, Travels of Guru Nanak,  Major Gurmukh Singh, Historical Sikh Shrines,  Grewal J.S., 1969, Guru Nanak in History, Chandigarh  Kalra, Balwant Singh, 'Guru Nanak's Visit to Uch Sharif, Sikh Review 18 (188)  Kalra, Mohan Singh : 'Guru Nanak's Mission to the Muslims in Punjab Past and Present, 3 (1-2)  Sewa Ram Singh, 'Guru Nanak at Baghdad', Punjab Past and Present, 3 (1-2) 1969 Kartar Singh, 1984, Life Story of Guru Nanak  and Pandit Arjan Muni Kaviraj 1923, Gurduara Darpan  Prof. Himmat Singh  mentions three new manuscripts about Guru Nanak’s visit to Saudi Arabia. These are: ‘Syahto Baba Nanak Fakir’ (1509 AD) written by Taj-u-deen Naqshbandi,  Twareekh-i-Arab’ (1505-06 AD) written by Khwaja Zain ul Abideen and Gunitusalehin (1506-07) written by Abdul Rahman.  Details of some Gurdwaras in Pakistan are available in Historical Sikh Shrines in Pakistan by Iqbal Qaiser.  Lot of other material still needs to be assessed, but due to the limit of time this could not be done. Period of journey Dates of Guru Nanak’s visit to the West are not found in any of the Janamsakhis and also in Janamsakhi Prampara edited by Dr Kirpal Singh. Period of Journey given by various researchers is as 1519 to 1521 AD by Giani Gian Singh, 1518 to 1521 AD by Giani Lal Sangrur and Bhai Kahn Singh Nabha, 1517 to 1521 AD by Dr. Surinder Singh Kohli and Dr Sukhdial Singh and 1521 to 1523 AD by Dr Tarlochan Singh. Drs Teja Singh and Ganda Singh give only the date or return as 1521 AD. Dates of visits to other places during Udasi to the West are given only by Giani Gian Singh and Dr Surinder Singh Kohli Giani Gian Singh gives the dates of Guru Nanak’s travels to West Asia in Twareekh Khalsa Guru 1 Part 1: 1. Talwandi Chetra 1576 Bikrami (March 1519 AD), (pp.232-233). Katas Teerath, Baisakhi Fair, 1576 Bikrami, (April, 1519 AD) (p. 233), 3. Baghdad, Fagan 1577 Bikrami (February, 1520 AD) (p. 283) 4. Hasan Abdal Baisakh 1578 Bikrami (1521 AD), (p.286), 5. Emnabad 4 Katak 1578 Bikrami (October 1521 AD) and 6. Return to Kartarpur 7 Maghar 1578 Bikrami (November 1921 AD) (p.488-93) In Travels of Guru Nanak, Dr Surinder Singh Kohli mentions Guru Nanaks’s visit to Aden in 1517 A.D. (p.138), Baghdad in 1518 AD (p.143), Inscription in Baghdad on a stone mentions his visit to Baghdad in 917 Hijri which corresponds to 1511-12 A.D. (p.146), and Turkey (Room Desh) in 1519 AD (p. 152). Since these two sets of dates also do not tally these cannot be taken at their face value. All the sources however agree that on his return journey Guru Nanak visited Saidpur (Emnabad) at the time when Babar attacked the city. Bhai Kahn Singh Nabha in Mahankosh (Emnabad, p.132) gives the year of Babar’s attack on Saidpur as Bikrami 1578 i.e., 1521 AD which has been generally agreed by most of the researchers. Areas Visited Starting from Punjab, Guru Nanak visited Sind and Baluchistan on foot and possibly on boat via Sind River. He travelled by sea to Jeddah and Aden and went to Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Palestine, Egypt, Uganda, Sudan, Abyssinia, Syria, Turkey, Italy, Rome, Azerbaijan, Iran, Turkestan, Afghanistan, North West Frontier Province of Pakistan (NWFP) primarily on foot before he finally returned to Punjab and settled at Kartarpur on the bank of river Ravi and breathed his last declaring Guru Angad his successor. In Saudi Arabia he visited Jeddah and Aden before walking on to Mecca and Medina. From Medina his probable route is via Egypt then known as Kaikei. He is also stated to have visited the land of the black Habash, Abyssinia and a few islands in the Indian Ocean including Sudan, Ethiopia and Uganda.  He is also said to have visited Palestine and Israel and then to Turkey visiting Istanbul. Some evidence is also produced about Guru Nanak’s visit to Italy and Rome. He is also stated to have visited Baku and Astarkhan wherefrom he returned to Iran, visiting Tehran, Isfahan and Mashhad. He then visited Turkistan’s Uzbekistan. From Uzbekistan he returned to Afghanistan where he visited Mazhar Sharif, Kabul, Qandahar, Ghazni, Chitral and Jalalabad and entered India through Khyber Pass. Evidence beyond Mecca however needs final testing and detailed analysis for confirmation. Route According to Dr Surinder Singh Kohli (1969) route of Guru Nanak in 4th Udasi: Punjab includes Kartarpur, Talwandi, Pakpattan, Multan, Uch, Sukkur, Hyderabad, Udyare Lal, Hinglaj, Karachi, Sonmiani, Aden, Jeddah, Mecca, Amara, Medina, Ajara, Mashhad, Ali, Karbala, Kaikei, Sudan, Ethiopia, Uganda, Syria, Turkey, Greece, Rome, Europe, Baghdad, Iran, Baku, Russia, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Afghanistan and Punjab. From Sultanpur he went to Pakpattan (Ajodhan) to renew his old contacts with Sheikh Ibrahim Farid II. From there he proceeded to Multan to meet Baha-ud-Din, a descendant and successor of famous Sheikh Baha-ud-Din Zakria, founder of Suhrawardi Sufi Silsila in India. From Multan, Guru Nanak proceeded to Uch (Deogarh). Here Guru Nanak had a meeting with Sheikh Haji Abdulla Bukhari (d.1526 CE), a successor of Kalal-ud-Din Bukhari. From Uch he went to Sukkur and then to Lakhpat (Basta Bander) probably by boat (in river Sind?). There is an old Gurdwara in Lakhpat in the memory of Guru Nanak's visit. From here he proceeded to the sea shore where at Kuriani, he visited old temples of Koteshwar and Narayna Swami. From there he proceeded further to Sonmiani (or simply Miani). Before boarding a boat to Mecca he visited a Hindu temple in Hinglaj. There is a Nanak Dharamsala (inn) in this town. According to Fauja Singh and Kirpal Singh, Guru Nanak boarded a boat which sailed from Sonmiani through Gulf of Eden and Red Sea to Jeddah (Al Aswad), a port near Mecca. They say that after visiting Mecca and Medina, Guru Nanak travelled directly to Baghdad in Iraq then to Tehran and Kabul and finally back to (Talwandi) Kartarpur. They argued that Guru Nanak followed direct and shortest route to Baghdad than that of long route through Palestine, Syria, and Turkey as mentioned in some Janam Sakhis. According to Fauja Singh and Kirpal Singh, Guru Nanak boarded a boat which sailed from Sonmiani through Gulf of Eden and Red Sea to Jeddah (Al Aswad), a port near Mecca. They say that after visiting Mecca and Medina, Guru Nanak travelled directly to Baghdad in Iraq then to Tehran and Kabul and finally back to (Talwandi) Kartarpur. They argued that Guru Nanak followed direct and shortest route to Baghdad than that of long route through Palestine, Syria, and Turkey as mentioned in some Janam Sakhis. However, Giani Gian Singh and Dr Trilochan Singh have reported of Guru Nanak’s visit to Cairo (Egypt) where during the war Sikh soldiers were shown a place on the out skirts of the town where there was a stone memorial (Captain Bhag Singh, Founding Managing Editor of the Sikh Review, was told about the existence of this monument when he was at Cairo during World War II. Unfortunately he could not go there and see. Dr Trilochan Singh has also reported from the work of Sydney Nettleton Fisher that in Egypt or in Istanbul (Turkey) Guru Nanak had met the Emperor of Rum Salem-I (1511-1520 AD). Dr Trilochan Singh further says that Guru Nanak might have visited Jerusalem. According to Giani Lal Singh Guru Nanak visited Turkey and Rome as well. This point has been further elaborated by Harpal Singh Kasoor and Sohan Lal Chauhan. Dr Chahal mentions the details of Guru Nanak’s visit to Istanbul and Baku. Because of lack of any solid evidence, Fauja Singh and Kirpal Singh further strengthened their views that the shortest route from Baghdad to Mecca was first marked and prepared for Caliph Haran Rashid's wife, Subside Begum, for Hajj (the pilgrimage) to Mecca. And then during 14th century Ibn Batuta adopted the same route for his journey from Baghdad to Mecca. They have ignored the fact that the passage to Palestine, Syria, and Turkey and then to Baghdad might be easier than that of direct route proposed by them. They have also ignored another fact that while in Mecca, Guru Nanak was very close to the center of ancient civilization in Cairo (Egypt) and the center of the Jews, Jerusalem (Israel), and a Sufi center established by Hazrat Moulana Jallaluddin Rumi in Konya (Turkey), whose philosophy was very prevalent not only in the Middle East but also in India and in the West. Since Guru Nanak has not left any place connected with Sufism, and religious centers, therefore, there is every possibility that Guru Nanak might have visited the ancient civilization in Cairo (Egypt); Wailing Wall of Herod's Temple in Jerusalem, Sufi center started by Sufi Rumi in Konya (Turkey) and might have met the Emperor of Rum, Salim, in Istanbul (Turkey). If the inscription on the newly discovered monument confirms that it is a memorial to Guru Nanak then it will confirm that Guru Nanak did not proceed from Mecca directly to Baghdad but went to Cairo, Jerusalem, Syria, and Konya and Istanbul in Turkey and then to Baghdad.  In his paper ‘Centuries of Travels and Tale’, A.D.Moddie, writes: One of Bharat’s greatest travelers in the spiritual tradition was Guru Nanak, the founder of Sikhism. He spent twenty three years on the road of his unique mission, visiting Assam in the east, Sri Lanka in the south, Mt. Kailas beyond the Himalaya and Mecca in Arabia. To that extent he was a far wider pilgrim travel of holy place than even Shankracharya. Nanak passed through historical places in India’s history; Kurukshetra, from the days of Mahabharata wars, and Panipat, the thrice decisive battleground of Indian History. Then on Bharat’s oldest Grand Trunk Road of the spirit, Hardwar, Joshimath, Badrinath, Kedarnath, Ayodhya, Varanasi spreading his new inclusive mission of a simple faith embracing all God’s creatures. None other than Nanak, among the great religious leaders of India from Shankracharya to Vivekananda, ever made the Hajj to the holy place of Islam, to Mecca, Medina and Baghdad over vast, wild, desert lands via Baluchistan. No subsidized Hajj flights then! For him Ram and Rahim were one, the true God had been forgotten. A Hindu monk, Ananda Acharya of the 20th century wrote of Nanak’s meeting with a Muslim Pir Bahlol in Baghdad: What peace from Himalaya’ lonely caves and forests thou didst carry; to the vine groves and rose gardens of Baghdad! What light from Badrinath’s snowy peak than didst bear to illuminate the heart of Bahlol, the saintly Persian disciple.’ .. Between Buddha’s disciples and the Jesuits, religion has been a great spur to travel and exploration into new lands to find the soul of men. Guru Nanak was one outstanding example.  Contemporaries of Guru Nanak Guru Angad (Bhai Lehna); Born at Naage di Serai, succeeded Guru Nanak June 14, 1539, joined light eternal at Khadur Sahib on March 29, 1552 Guru Amar Das: Born At Basarke, May 5, 1479 and joined light eternal at Goindwal September 1, 1574 Contemporary Rulers of India Bahlol Khan Lodhi: Crowned 1450 A.D died 1488 A.D. Sikandar Lodhi, Son of Bahlol Lodhi, Crowned 1488 A.D, died 1517 A.D. Ibrahim Lodhi, Son of Sikandar Lodhi, Crowned 1517 A.D, died Rajjab 7, 932 Hijri, April 19, 1526 Babur, Zahir Ud-Din Muhammad Badshah: born 1483 A.D, became Emperor of India 1526 A.D. April, died 1530 A.D. Humayun, Nasir-Ud-Din Muhammad Badshah: born Kabul, Zi-Qada 24, 913 Hijri March 26, 1508 A.D. Crowned 1530 A.D. died 1556 A.D. Governors of Lahore: Daulat Khan 1500/04-1524 A.D. Mir Abdul Aziz (Dipalpur), Muhammad Ali Tajik (Kalanaur) 1524 - 25 A.D. Dilawar Khan Son of Daulat Khan (Sultanpur) Mir Yunis Ali 1527-30 A.D. Mirza Kamran 1530-1540 A.D. Governors of Multan: Hussain Khan Langah 1469-1498 AD, Sultan Mahmud (Grandson Of Hussain Khan) 1498-1525 AD Sultan Hussain Langah (Younger Son Of Mahmud Langah) 1525-1527 AD Langah Khan (On Behalf of Mirza Askari Son of Emperor Babur) 1528-1530 AD Contemporary Muslim Rulers in Middle East, Egypt and Russia 1. Abbasid Dynasty (Egypt) (a) al-Mustasmik (Ist reign) A.H. 903-914 /A.D. 1497-1508, (b) al-MutaWakkil III (Ist reign) A.H. 914-922/ A.D 1508-1517, (c) al- Mustasmik (2nd reign) A.H. 922-923./A.D. 1516-1517, (d) al-MutaWakkil III (2nd reign) A.H. 923/ A.D 1517 2. Mamluk Dynasty (Circassia (Burji)) 3. Janbalat A.H. 905-906/ AD 1500-1501 (a) al -‘Adil Tuman Bay A.H. 906/A.D. 1501 (b) Qanush al-Ghawri A.H.906-922/A.D. 1501-1517 (c) Al-Ashraf Tuman Bay A.H. 922/A.D. 1517 4. Tahirid Dynasty (Yemen) A.D. 850-923/ A.D. 1446-1517 5. Dhu-I-Qadrid Dynasty A.H. 738-914/A.D. 1337-1508 6. Aq Quyunly Dynasty A.H. 780-914/A.D. 1378-1508 7. Ottoman Dynasty (a) Bayezid II A.H. 886-918 /A.D. 1481-1512 (b) Selim I Yavuz A.H. 918-926/ A.D. 1512-1520 (c) Suleiman I Kanuni (18.70.8) A.H. 926-974/A.D. 1520-1566 8. Great Mongol A.H. 603-1043/ A.D. 1206-1634 9. Khans of Kazan A. H.841-959/1438-1552 10. Khans of Kasimof A.H. 854-1089/A.D. 1450-1678 10. Khans of Khiva A.H. 921-1290/A.D. 1515-1872 11. Khans of Crimea A.H. 823-1197/A.D. 1420-1783 Iran after the Mangols 12. Safavid Dynasty A.H. 907–1145 / A.D. 1501–1732 13. Timurid dynasty A.H. 771-912/ A.D. 1370-1507: Mahmud ibn Sa’id A.H. 899-906/A.D. 1494-1500 14. Shaybanid dynasty A.H. 905-1007/A.D. 1500-1598 Peers of Multan Sheikh Shahar Allah Son of Sheikh Muhammad Yusuf Qureshi, died 23 Zil-Hajj 920 A.H. February 8, 1515 A.D. Makhdum Baha-Ud-Din Sani (Second) S/O Sheikh Shahar Allah became Sajjada 23 Zil-Hajj, 920 A.H., and February 8, 1515 A.D. Sajjada-Nashins of Pak Pattan: (Khanqah of Baba Farid) 8th Sajjada Nashin Sheikh Mohammad (Hazrat Yunis): Died 856-877 Hijri, (1452-1472/73 A.D.) 9th Sheikh Ahmad, 877-895 Hijri , (1472/73-1489/90 A.D.) 10th Sheikh Ata-Ulla: 895-917 Hijri, (1489/90-1511/12 A.D.) 11th Sheikh Muhammad, 917- Hijri- (1511-12/ A.D.) 12th Sheikh Ibrahim (Farid Sani Ii) Also Known As Shah Braham or Sheikh Braham. Some Important Travelers, Reformists, Saints and Scholars Travelers: Columbus (discovered America in 1942 AD) and Vasco-Da-Gama (discovered sea route to India in 1498), Eminent reformists, sages and saints : Guru Nanak (1469-1538AD) Kabir (1440-1518 AD) Namdev (1217-1351 AD), Sankardev (1490-1637 AD) Mira Bai (1499-1570 AD), Eknath (1528-1595/1609 AD), Dadoo (1544-1603 AD), Tuka Ram (1608-1648 AD), Isasmus (1466-1536 AD), Zawang (1484-1531 AD) Calvin (1564-1605 AD) and Saint Francis Xavier (1506-52 AD), Kabir: 1456-1575 Bk. (1399-1518 A.D.) Disciple of Ramanand, According; to Duncan Greenlees, His Dates are 1440-1518 A.D. Chaitanya, (1486-1533 A.D.), Rup Brothers, Vaishnava Monks, Sanatan Disciples of Chaitanya, both died 1554 , Jiv Goswami, Nephew of Rup and Sanatan, 1511-1596 AD. Vallabhacharya, Pushti-Marga Vaishnava, 1479-1530 AD. Shankardev (Bengal, Tirhut, Orissa and Assam), 1490-1569 AD Ravi (Rayee) Das, Contemporary of Saint Kabir, born Varanasi, disciple of Ramanand Dhani Dharm Das, 1490-1600 Bk. (1433-1543 A.D.) disciple of Kabir Sain Das, Born Baddo-Ki Gosain, near Gujranwala-West Pakistan, 1525 Bk. (1468 A.D.) Ratan Chandra Upadhyaya (Received The Title of Upadhyaya), 1515-1521 Bikrami, 1458-1464 A.D. [ 33 ] Jin Chandra Suri, died 1530 Bk., 1473 A.D., Jin Samundra Suri, died 1555 Bk., 1498 A.D., Jin Hans Suri, died 1572 Bk.. 1515 A.D., Jin Manikya Suri, died 1612 Bk., 1555 A.D. Tulsi Das: 1511-1637 A.D., Sur Dass: 1479-1585 A.D., Vidyapati: 1400-1507 A.D. Christians Martin Luther: (1483-1546 AD), Nicholas, Copernicus (1473-1543 AD) Catholic Pope (Leo-X) Leo-x, (1475-1521 AD) (Pope from 1513-1521) The Roman Emperor Charles-V (1500-1558 AD), Jean Calvin, born at Noyon 1509, died May 27, 15 Some names from Puratan Janam Sakhi: Bala Sandhu, Ajita Randhawa, Burha Randhawa, and Firna Khehra; Saido and Gheho Jatt; Siho the calico printer (chhimba); Hassu the blacksmith (lohar); Mardana; the bard (mirasi); Some names in Vars of Bhai Gurdas: Taru Popat, Mula Kirh, Pirtha, Soiri, Kheda Soiri, Pirthi Mal, Saihgal, Rama Didi, Bhagta, Ohri, Shihan, & Gajan Uppal (9 Khatris), Gujar (lohar) blacksmith, Dhinga barber (nai). Mode of Travel; Guru Nanak travelled by boat in Sind River and by ship to Jeddah. Thereafter he travelled either on foot, horse cart or boat as the situation allowed. References  Gurdas Bhai: Varan, Amritsar, S.G.P.C.  Bhai Vir Singh (ed.), August 1926 , Puratan Janamsakhi, New Delhi, Sahit Sadan, Jan 2006, 15th edition  Ashok, Shamsher Singh (Ed.), 1969, 'Puratan Janamsakhi: Sri Guru Nanak Devji, Amritsar SGPC.  Kohli, Surinder Singh, Dr, (ed.) Janamsakhi Bhai Bala, Punjab University, Chandigarh, 1990, (2nd edn),  Kirpal Singh (Dr.), 1969, Janamsakhi Prampra, Patiala, Punjabi University.  Piar Singh (ed), 1974, Janamsakhi Sri Guru Nanak Devji, (B-40) Amritsar, Guru Nanak Dev University.  Giani Gian Singh, Twareekh Guru Khalsa, first published in Samwat 1936 (1880 AD) by Mutzadi press Delhi; 2nd edition published by Guru Gobind Singh Press, Sialkot, on 189-1891 (Part 2 in 1892).  Giani Gian Singh, 1970, Sri Guru Panth Parkash, Patiala, Bhasha Vibhag, Punjab.  Giani Gian Singh, Gurdham Sangreh, SGPC Amritsar  Kahn Singh Nabha, March 2005, Gurdham Deedar, Dharam Parchar Committee, SGPC, Sri Amritsar,  Kahn Singh, Nabha 1981,® Gurshabad Ratnakar, Mahan Kosh. Patiala.  Giani Lal Singh Sangrur, 1995, Guru khalsa Twareekh, Ludhiana, Lahore Book Shop.  Vir Singh (Bhai), 1955, Shri Guru Nanak Chamatkar, Amritsar, Khalsa Samachar  Sahib Singh (Prof), Jeevan Birtant Guru Nanak Devji, Amritsar, Singh Bros, 1984.  Tarlochan Singh (Dr.), 1970, Jeevan Charitar: Guru Nanak Dev, Delhi Sikh Gurdwara Board.  Teja Singh Sodhi, 1972, Vachitar Jeewan Guru Nanak Devji, Amritsar, Bhai Chatter Singh Jeewan Singh.  Teja Singh and Ganda Singh, 1985, Sikh Itihas, Patiala, Punjabi University.  Kohli Surinder Singh, 1970, Travels of Guru Nanak, Chandigarh, Punjab University, vii, 200 p.  Gurmukh Singh (Major), Sept 1995, Historical Sikh Shrines, Sri Amritsar, Singh Bros. 1st Edition  Grewal J.S., 1969, Guru Nanak in History, Chandigarh, Punjabi University, R 1979, 348. p.  Kalra, Balwant Singh, 'Guru Nanak's Visit to Uch Sharif, Sikh Review 18 (188) March 1969: 11-12.  Kalra, Mohan Singh, ‘Guru Nanak's Mission to the Muslims', Punjab Past and Present, 3 (1-2) 1969  Sewa Ram Singh, 'Guru Nanak at Baghdad', Punjab Past and present, 3 (1-2) 1969, 340 : 343.  Kartar Singh, 1984, Life Story of Guru Nanak. New Delhi: Hemkunt Press. p. 18. ISBN978-8170101628  Pandit Arjan Muni Kaviraj 1923, Gurduara Darpan, Partap Hari Press, Lahore, 20 June, reproduced in The Punjab Past and Present, Vol III, 1969 at pp. 91-96, edited by Dr Ganda Singh.  Himmat Singh (Prof) (2011), Guru Nanak Viaktitav: Ati Parmaneek Punravlokan, (Tatkaleen Arbi-Farsi srotan anusaar),paper published in seminar proceedings: Guru Kaal de Sarotan vich Guru Nanak Sahib: Jiwan te Shakhshiat, 22-23 November, 2011, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, pp. 135-140  Taj-u-deen Naqshbandi (1509 AD, unpublished) ‘Syahto Baba Nanak Fakir’, original in Mecca State Library, translated into Punjabi by Sayyad Prithipal Singh in 1927-30, presently with Prof Himmat Singh (Reference 4)  Khwaja Zain ul Abideen (1505-06 AD, unpublished) Twareekh-i-Arab, translated by Mohammed Iqbal, manuscript presently with Prof Himmat Singh (Reference 4)  Abdul Rahman (1506-07), Gunitusalehin, manuscript presently with Prof Himmat Singh (Reference 4)  Iqbal Qaiser, Gurdwaras in Pakistan are available in Historical Sikh Shrines in Pakistan. Guru Nanak Jayanti  Gursikhi Jivan: Guru Nanak in Turkey Part 2  Ganda Singh, edited, 1969, Guru Nanak Commemorative Volume, The Punjab Past and Present Vol III, pp. 353-356.  Based on the first Sarat Chandra Das memorial lecture, delivered at the Himalayan Club, (Kolkata Section) in 2004.