How do we define God?
Monotheism: Monotheism from the Greek [mono] meaning one and [theos] meaning God. The belief in one God. The term is applied particularly to Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. "There were none before God and there will be none after Him."
Augustine rejected pantheism on the following grounds:
"Concerning the rational animal himself,—that is, man,—what more unhappy belief can be entertained than that a part of God is whipped when a boy is whipped? And who, unless he is quite mad, could bear the thought that parts of God can become lascivious, iniquitous, impious, and altogether damnable? In brief, why is God angry at those who do not worship Him, since these offenders are parts of Himself?"
Pantheism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
People often interpret a dualistic monotheism or Dvaita to Gurbani. But Gurbani more closely philosophically resembles Gaudiya Vaishnava schools. Vaishnava is primarily a Dvaitic teaching, focusing on the One Supreme Personality of the Godhead as Bhagavan Krishna and excluding worship of demi-gods. But Vaishnava Vedanta incorporated an Advaitic element in the Achintya Bheda Abheda of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu which is a kind of synthesis of Dvaita-Advaita characteristic of the Vaishnav tradition. Gurbani includes both Dvaitic and Advaitic definitions of God, explaining characteristics within duality and non-duality.
A particularly distinct part of the Gaudiya Vaishnava philosophy espoused by Chaitanya Mahaprabhu is the concept of Achintya Bheda Abheda, which translates to: inconceivable oneness and difference in the context of the soul's relationship with Krishna, and also Krishna's relationship with his other energies (i.e. the material world).
ਨਾਨਕ ਬ੍ਰਹਮ ਗਿਆਨੀ ਆਪਿ ਪਰਮੇਸੁਰ ॥੬॥
naanak breham giaanee aap paramaesur ||6||
O Nanak, the God-conscious being is Himself the Supreme Lord God. ||6||
~SGGS Ji p. 273
On simple glance, there are no such concepts within the entire Abrahamic framework as Guru-disciple, Shabda-Jyot, mukti-merging, Brahm-gyani, jivan-mukta, reincarnation at all. These are entirely Indic concepts set within an ancient Indic revelation of Sruti known as the Vedas. And to wrench Sikh philosophy away from it's ancient Indic sources Vedas, Upanishads, Puranas, Simritis will not give a credible interpretation. Some scholars try to say the Guru rejected the Vedas and Upanishads. This is not correct. Guru shows that the Vedas, Upanishads, Puranas are not enough to be a boat of mukti in the Kaliyug because the era is corrupted, because creation has a pattern of degeneracy, towards decay. In this Kaliyug, the previous forms of spirituality and approaching the Divine Principle are not enough, they are corruptible.
The obverse of such an argument would be that Guru "accepted" the dualistic monotheism of the Katebas which is essentially a pure form of Dvaita. And this is not correct. Guruji hardly mentions the teachings of Kateb, yet strewn throughout the Shri Guru Granth Sahib Ji are constant references to Vedic and Upanishadic concepts and definitions, points of debates most notably between Dvaitic and Advaitic schools of philosophy and clarification of misunderstandings about the nirgun and sargun nature of the One Uncreated Parabrahm. Even the very essence of Sufi mysticism is Advaita, which means "not two" in reference to the Vedantic philosophy of a framework underlying all multiplicity in creation as deriving from a Primordial Oneness. In Sufi mysticism it refers to the atman in relation to the Paramatman, as the "shell" (atman) and the "kernel" (Paramatman). The degree of reality defined by spiritual proximity to the Real Self, the true nature, the cosmic Reality which is the Uncreated nirgun hidden One. So the body nature, and the karmic defilements and obscurations, the personality, the emotional attachments, the panj dhoots, the ego-centric husk is essentially part of the Maya illusion. It is dying and repeating a cycle of bondage. It exists in a condition of "stuckness" and ever degenerating darkness and desperation. It is a "creature" a "slave." Every thought it conceives is another bondage. Because every thought and word it speaks is another step outward away from the inner circle, the inner Fire, the inner Reality.
ਨਿਰੰਕਾਰ ਆਕਾਰ ਆਪਿ ਨਿਰਗੁਨ ਸਰਗੁਨ ਏਕ ॥
nirankaar aakaar aap niragun saragun eaek ||
He Himself is formless, and also formed; the One Lord is without attributes, and also with attributes.
ਏਕਹਿ ਏਕ ਬਖਾਨਨੋ ਨਾਨਕ ਏਕ ਅਨੇਕ ॥੧॥
eaekehi eaek bakhaanano naanak eaek anaek ||1||
Describe the One Lord as One, and Only One; O Nanak, He is the One, and the many. ||1||
~SGGS Ji p. 250
All thoughts and words and descriptors and imaginings and reactivity are reflections of bondage. We tend to translate the concept and identity of God in egoistic ways which are self-promoting. Spiritual practice is translated as this superficial show, of being seen by others speaking holy words, doing holy deeds. And the very egoistic defilement profanes all these right actions and perpetuates the bondage. So we need another way out. And every religious tradition, including Sikhism makes the all important distinction between the superficial and the kernel-core. The outer, sense oriented, ego identified superficiality is completely corrupted and corruptible. Sadhana, which is the disciplined path to enlightenment is an interior process. The goal is to interiorize the spiritual energy, to draw it back to the center by closing the nine gates of sense perception. This helps purify our sanchita karma, where our past actions are imbedded in the framework of our minds. Dualism postulates that because of the nature of the created material universe in which we experience reality, we perceive things as separate when they are not at a higher level of dimensional existence. Just as ice, steam and water appear to be different forms, when in actuality they are the same thing at different temperatures. Dualism asserts the reality of the differences. Non-duality accepts they are one and the same. Duality is a flaw of human perception, filtered through the way we experience and process and thus define. Dualistic monotheism is a concept that sees an Earth filled with individual identities. I am separate from you. Compare for yourselves which philosophy is closer to what Gurbani explains, Advaita or dualistic monotheism of the Kateb.
"To resolve such passages in the Upanishads, Advaita Vedanta maintains that really Brahman is devoid of all attributes, and is therefore known as nirguna. Brahman may be described as in the Upanishads, as Truth (satyam), Knowledge (jnanam), Infinite (anantam), or as Being (sat), Consciousness (cit), Bliss (Ananda), but none of these terms can be truly interpreted as attributes of brahman as a Super-person/God. Rather, it is because Brahman exists, that this whole universe is possible. It is because Brahman exists that man ascribes attributes to Brahman. However, Brahman's true nature cannot be captured in words, for all these attributes are ultimately just words. Hence, it is man's ignorance of Its true nature that postulates attributes to Brahman, thereby describing It in sarguna terms (with attributes). This sarguna Brahman is Isvara, the Lord, whose essential reality as Brahman is not dependent on anything else, and does not change because of the production of this universe. Therefore, Advaita holds that Brahman's own nature (svarupa- lakshana) is devoid of any attributes (nirguna), while It is seen for the temporary purposes of explaining creation (tatastha- lakshana) to be Isvara, with attributes (sarguna).
So much for sarguna and nirguna Brahman. If Brahman cannot be held to have suffered any change because of creation of the universe, then what is the status of this universe? Since the cause does not undergo any change in the process of producing the effect, it is held that the cause alone is Real. The universe only partakes in reality inasmuch as it is to be considered as dependent on Brahman. Therefore the Upanishads say, "Sarvam. Khalvidam. Brahma." If the universe is considered to be independent of Brahman, then it has no real Reality, although the world of human perception can never reveal this truth. This is simply because
Brahman Itself is never an object of human perception. It is this characteristic of dualistic knowledge, derived from perception alone, that prompts the Advaitin to call it mithyajnana (false knowledge)."
The Advaita Vednta Home Page - The Philosophy of Advaita
"Augustine, one of the most influential early Christian thinkers, described the soul as "a special substance, endowed with reason, adapted to rule the body". Some Christians espouse a trichotomic view of man, which characterizes humans as consisting of a body (soma) , soul (psyche), and spirit (pneuma), however the majority of modern Bible scholars point out how spirit and soul are used interchangeably in many biblical passages, and so hold to dichotomy: the view that man is body and soul. Paul said that the "body wars against" the soul, and that "I buffet my body", to keep it under control. Philosopher Anthony Quinton said the soul is a "series of mental states connected by continuity of character and memory, [and] is the essential constituent of personality. The soul, therefore, is not only logically distinct from any particular human body with which it is associated; it is also what a person is". Richard Swinburne, a Christian philosopher of religion at Oxford University, wrote that "it is a frequent criticism of substance dualism that dualists cannot say what souls are.... Souls are immaterial subjects of mental properties. They have sensations and thoughts, desires and beliefs, and perform intentional actions. Souls are essential parts of human beings..."
The origin of the soul has provided a sometimes vexing question in Christianity; the major theories put forward include creationism, traducianism and pre-existence. According to creationism, each individual soul is created directly by God, either at the moment of conception, or some later time..."
Soul - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Since the Abrahamic theologies must keep the human soul forever separate from the God, they struggle with conceptions of soul creation being separate from bodily creation, since they believe in an afterlife following demise of the body, and thus a soul-nature which exists outside of Time, and in eternity. None of these bizarre conceptual difficulties are found in Shri Guru Granth Sahib Ji because the soul is accepted to be the atma. But these bizarre permutations of belief exist so that hasidic Judaism teaches there are different kinds of souls, and that a Yiddiche Neshama (Jewish Soul) is qualitatively different and closer to God then a Gentile soul. Some Dvaitic schools argue there is a kind of Brahmin soul, a Kshatri soul, male souls, female souls, etc. So where do the differences and multiplicities end? Certainly not with death of the body. So how can true merging occur, if the soul, jiva, atma core essential being of the creation is forever caught in linear time, and conceptually in linear space and remaining forever distant, forever separate? That would be a condition of perpetual bondage.
What is a soul?
Ātman, sanskrit: आत्मन्*) is a philosophical term used within Hinduism and Vedanta to identify the soul. It is one's true self (hence generally translated into English as 'Self') beyond identification with the phenomenal reality of worldly existence... The concept of the jiva (Sanskrit: जीव) is similar, but not necessarily identical to, the concept of the soul as presented in Abrahamic religions. The word itself originates from the Sanskrit Jivás, with the root jīv- 'to breathe'. It has the same Indo-European root as the Latin word Vivus: "Alive".
In Hindu theology, Paramatman or Paramatma is the Absolute Atman or Supreme Soul or Spirit (also known as Supersoul or Oversoul) in the Vedanta and Yoga philosophies of India. Paramatman is one of the aspects of Brahman: "Learned transcendentalists who know the Absolute truth call this nondual substance Brahman, Paramatma or Bhagavan." Also known as the divine self or the one object, Paramatman is situated in the heart of every individual jiva in the macrocosm. Rigveda and Upanishads compare Atman and Paramatman to two birds sitting like friends on a tree (body). Atman eats its fruits (karma) and Paramatman only observes his friend as a witness (sākşhī) of his actions.
Atman - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jiva - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
We can clearly see that Guruji is using a classic Advaitic definition in Gurbani, even the words He choses are the same: Parabrahm, Atma, Jeea, as well as the Upanishadic definitions of all-pervading non-dual Oneness. So these would be the concepts most inclined to the truest interpretation of Gurbani, and not implied dualistic monotheism of the Kateb. Guruji talks about the separation, but also of the Oneness which is all-Pervading and our ultimate Source of True Merging. Dualistic monotheism cannot tolerate a concept of merging any more than it can tolerate a concept of avtaara. Liberation, mukti in Advaita is in gaining the perception, the insightful wisdom that the atma self is a construct of forces which impel bondage to the sensual world. The Real Self is the same as the Nirgun Supreme Uncreated, which contains universes within itself, because ultimately, in truest Reality, there is only the Absolute without qualities who remains uncorrupted by the imperfections of the perceivable universe. Just as the man who went to a Zen teacher and told him, "I have a problem with anger." And the teacher said, "Please show me your anger." And the man replied, "Well I'm not angry right now." The Zen teacher told him, "Then anger must not be a constant part of your personality if it's something that comes and goes. Anger is like clouds that drift along the sky, but are not the sky itself. So anger is not a real part of who you are. So learn to let it go and stop attracting it by identification." The whole point of Naam jappa is to identify, to attune, to vibrate in sync, in harmony with the energy Reality of the Lord Himself. So that we are freed from the illusions of the senses and the kalpas and the defining points we call "personality." It's a way of washing the inner mirror so we can stop seeing only the shadow self which blocks the Light.
So to reconcile the seeming contradiction of how there can be a Supreme Uncreated Paramatman and a created individual lesser atman we have to look at the Gurbani. And the Gurbani says the individual atman will obtain Self-realization. This condition of Self-realization is God-consciousness. The ego-identity which is merely shadows which obstruct the light have been brushed aside, and what is reflected back is what has always been Present, the One Divine Uncreated. Because it isn't a divination of the human being at all, it's the removal of the illusions of separation. In this place, this created world of the appearance of duality, is illusion. We do not perceive the full Reality.
In a sense, this existence can be said to be like a dream world, where we are dreaming a certain illusion of form. But getting beyond the illusions of thought, kalpas, and misperception, and the ignorance, avidya of body-identification and sense perception, beyond all these things is the Fourth state of consciousness. So we cannot even deal with concepts like ego, and body and time when speaking of a dimensionality which is outside of time and space. Without space, of course, there is no such thing as this body sitting in this chair. Those are reality in this world. That is not the deepest Reality. Those are physical manifestations of something quite beyond the limitations of a human personality. And our core nature is something beyond the limitations of the merely human. So we cannot be, at our core essence, the frailty of a created being. When all creation passes away, when all forms fade to dust and there isn't even a speck of dust, do we cease to exist? Is this physical universe all there is? You see, these are the issues being related in the concept of atma. And there is no concept of atma without a concept of Paramatma.
According to dualistic monotheism, the atma is forever separate from Paramatma. But by strict Advaitic definition, the Paramatma is the fullest and deepest reality of atma. Atma is just the reflection of light through a prism of glass to manifest here. Atma is an illusion of creation. The Reality is, there is no creation. Ultimately, beyond time, every sargun manifestation recedes back to what has always preceded, the nirguna. There is only the One, not two, not three, not three hundred thirty million, not uncountable infinities. One. Everything else is an illusion of the Time dimension. Even the very thoughts of your mind. And after passage of time, end of time, and outside of time, the illusions cease to exist. Within a concept of eternity, even the sun and stars will vanish. What will you be then if there is nothing left to be? You see it isn't the individual forms, but the consciousness itself which persists beyond time.
Paramatman is beyond knowledge and ignorance, devoid of all material attributes (upadhi). In Vaishnava texts such as the Bhagavad Gita, ch. 13, it is described as four-armed Lord Vishnu residing in the hearts of all beings and in every atom of matter. He is the overseer and the permitter of their actions and reminds him how to act according to his advancement. Paramatman is different from five elements (mahabhutas), senses, mind, pradhana and jiva.
In today's Hinduism, the word Paramātmā is invariably used to refer to God, interchangeably with Ishvara (the Supreme Lord) and Bhagavan (divine, holy). The word invariably conjures the concept of the infinite, non-corporeal God in a monotheistic sense to today's Hindus, even though Bhagavan etc. may be applied as epithets to many devas or the demi-gods of Hinduism. Some, like the sect of Brahma Kumaris, like to visualize Paramatman as a point of light.
In Advaita philosophy, individual souls are called Jīvātman, and the Highest Brahman is called Paramātman; the Jivatman and the Paramatman become one and the same when the Jivatman attains the true knowledge of the Brahman.
Paramatman - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Knowledge of God. Breham Gyani. Brahma-Jnana. The epitome of liberation. The realization of the true Self hidden behind all forms.
And this goes to the concept of mukti. How can there be liberation at all from the ego-identity if you don't cease to exist as separate? It is the ideas of separation and individual identity which have frozen the light of your own being and caused material manifestation. These kalpas and skandas and kaleshas and karams are what form your individuality. Without these false thoughts and suffering identity which is darkness obsuring the light, there is only light.
ਜੋਤੀ ਜੋਤਿ ਮਿਲਾਈਐ ਸੁਰਤੀ ਸੁਰਤਿ ਸੰਜੋਗੁ ॥
jothee joth milaaeeai surathee surath sanjog ||
When one's light merges into the Light, and one's intuitive consciousness is joined with the Intuitive Consciousness,
ਹਿੰਸਾ ਹਉਮੈ ਗਤੁ ਗਏ ਨਾਹੀ ਸਹਸਾ ਸੋਗੁ ॥
hinsaa houmai gath geae naahee sehasaa sog ||
then one's cruel and violent instincts and egotism depart, and skepticism and sorrow are taken away.
ਗੁਰਮੁਖਿ ਜਿਸੁ ਹਰਿ ਮਨਿ ਵਸੈ ਤਿਸੁ ਮੇਲੇ ਗੁਰੁ ਸੰਜੋਗੁ ॥੨॥
guramukh jis har man vasai this maelae gur sanjog ||2||
The Lord abides within the mind of the Gurmukh, who merges in the Lord's Union, through the Guru. ||2||
~SGGS Ji p. 21
Is God in Sikhism defined as the Lord divided like fractions into uncountable millions of existences? Is He divided into 330 different Devas and demi-gods? Or is there only 1 God separate from the rest of creation? That would be dualistic monotheism, or Dvaita, a belief in 1 separate God and the rest of creation. The other interpretation is Advaita. Everything that is, is only one. The nothingness of zero nirgun is = to uncountable infinities. Because the uncountable infinities are only sargun saroop of the nothingness. In Tibetan Buddhism they teach the nirguna as Shunyata, which means essential emptiness. But Shunyata has a unique characteristic in that it is the union of emptiness and light. By this definition, the Geshes assert that the emptiness is pregnant with potential. Consider the integer zero. You can express it as a set (0). Or even a subset 0(0). But it remains nothing. With this mathematical exception, the emptiness is actually a placeholder, because it can move forward or backwards in positive or negative numbers. So it would like like a basic number set of potential infinities in both directions. -4, -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 ad infinitum. This shows how creation is dependant on the nirgun emptiness. But if you multiplied any infinity against zero, your result would be zero. So the zero sum is not dependant on the infinity. The ultimate equation of everything that is, is nothing. It is no thing. Just as negative integers reflect an imaginary quotient because they don't exist except as constructs of the mind, so does reality have an illusionary quality. So from our human perspective, we exist, the material world exists, we have a real experience here, and ideas that the world is unreal or doesn't exist defy logic.
The infinite and uncountable varieties of forms are really only illusory, a play of light and shadows, of particle and thought, tendancies to exist, holographic motion. There is only One.
"Brahma Satyam. Jagat Mithya. Jivo Brahmaiva Na Parah."
These can be translated in English as follows:
God only is real. The world is unreal. The individual is none other than God.
ਝੂਠਾ ਤਨੁ ਸਾਚਾ ਕਰਿ ਮਾਨਿਓ ਜਿਉ ਸੁਪਨਾ ਰੈਨਾਈ ॥੧॥
jhoothaa than saachaa kar maaniou jio supanaa rainaaee ||1||
The body is false, but they believe it to be true; it is like a dream in the night. ||1||
ਜੋ ਦੀਸੈ ਸੋ ਸਗਲ ਬਿਨਾਸੈ ਜਿਉ ਬਾਦਰ ਕੀ ਛਾਈ ॥
jo dheesai so sagal binaasai jio baadhar kee shhaaee ||
Whatever is seen, shall all pass away, like the shadow of a cloud.
ਜਨ ਨਾਨਕ ਜਗੁ ਜਾਨਿਓ ਮਿਥਿਆ ਰਹਿਓ ਰਾਮ ਸਰਨਾਈ ॥੨॥੨॥
jan naanak jag jaaniou mithhiaa rehiou raam saranaaee ||2||2||
O servant Nanak, one who knows the world to be unreal, dwells in the Sanctuary of the Lord. ||
~SGGS Ji p. 219
"Why does human perception fail to see brahman directly? SankarAcArya attributes it sometimes to avidyA (ignorance) and sometimes to mAyA (the power to deceive). As the bRhadAraNyaka upanishad puts it, "vijnAtAram. are kena vijAnIyAt?" - How is the Knower Itself to be known? It also stands to reason, therefore, that any effort at characterizing brahman falls far short of brahman. No words reach brahman; how can mere verbal descriptions claim to describe It? advaita now turns to the ancient technique of adhyAropa-apavAda (sublation of superimposition) to explain this. Thus, although brahman is called the instrumental and material cause of the universe, advaita tells us that this is only a preliminary view of brahman, motivated by a need to explain creation of the universe. In order to understand brahman, one has to go beyond this preliminary view, and understand brahman in Itself, not necessarily in relation to the universe. Then it is understood that the whole universe is only superimposed on the underlying Reality that is brahman."
The Advaita Vednta Home Page - The Philosophy of Advaita
Maya is of the nature of mind. Maya generates different degrees of illusions. Maya pervades everywhere. If your mind is destroyed by discrimination and Vichara, then Maya will not afflict you. ~Upanishads
ਏਕਾ ਜੋਤਿ ਜੋਤਿ ਹੈ ਸਰੀਰਾ ॥
eaekaa joth joth hai sareeraa ||
The One Light is the light of all bodies.
ਸਬਦਿ ਦਿਖਾਏ ਸਤਿਗੁਰੁ ਪੂਰਾ ॥
sabadh dhikhaaeae sathigur pooraa ||
The Perfect True Guru reveals it through the Word of the Shabad.
ਆਪੇ ਫਰਕੁ ਕੀਤੋਨੁ ਘਟ ਅੰਤਰਿ ਆਪੇ ਬਣਤ ਬਣਾਵਣਿਆ ॥੧॥
aapae farak keethon ghatt anthar aapae banath banaavaniaa ||1||
He Himself instills the sense of separation within our hearts; He Himself created the Creation. ||1||
~SGGS Ji p. 125
"Sankara explains tattvamasi as follows. tat is a common designation for brahman in the upanishads, while tvam (thou) addresses the student. The sentence states an equation of two seemingly different entities tat - that, and tvam - thou, by means of the verb asi - are. In general, Brahman (Tat) is commonly understood as Isvara (sarguna Brahman), with an infinity of attributes, including the power of creation. Tvam is the individual who is bound, who is embodied, and who is in need of liberation. The difference between Tvam and Tat seems to be a matter of common knowledge for all individuals. What is the reason for the Upanishad to teach an identity then? An identity cannot be stipulated, even in infallible Sruti, if there is a real difference. Keeping in mind that Sruti is infallible, Advaita therefore concludes that really there is no ultimate difference between Tat and Tvam.
The identity expressed in a statement like tattvamasi is therefore held to be Real, and its realization constitutes the height of knowledge (jnana). Direct experience of this jnana is in fact moksha. It also follows that since this identity is not perceived normally, difference arises out of avidya, ignorance of the true nature of Reality. Since Sruti is superior to perception, this identity is indeed the supreme truth, all difference being in the realm of relative perception. If non-dualism is the true nature of Reality, why is this difference perceived in the first place? Given Advaita's basis on the non-dualistic scriptures, the perception of difference remains, in the final analysis, inexplicable. This is labeled "anirvacya/anirvacanIya" in Advaita - something that can never be fully understood by the human mind. Since perception of duality presupposes avidya, no amount of logical analysis, itself based on this duality, will satisfactorily explain avidya."
The Advaita Vednta Home Page - The Philosophy of Advaita
This mind which ever hankers after sensual objects is the seed of Maya. If the mind is annihilated Maya will vanish. You will attain the state of quiescence. Brahma-Jnana will dawn in you. ~Upanishads
Darshana: sight, to see, to behold something bright. "Perspectives, ways of seeing." To have Darshan subtly changes the perceiver. It changes your perspective. It cleanses clouds and darkness from your mind. It is to receive the truest apprehension of jnana, gyan. Gyan is received. It can't be obtained through self-effort. That's why the most brilliant scholars continue to study and search what is endless, and the very simple and most humble have become brahm-gyani. To become brahm-gyani you must be receptive to the Light. It has nothing to do with education. Divine wisdom isn't knowledge or collection of facts. It has to do with inward vision, and thus intuition of what is inwardly perceived. It is to recognize the Self-reflection. How can people talk about spirituality, let alone mukti, when they don't even change their ordinary consciousness? When all frames of reference are based on the sense objects of the sansaara? We are here (in this space in time) and God is over there somewhere (in another spatial dimension). Space and time do not exist outside the limitation of our dimensionality.
When I stand on a clear night and look up at the stars billions of years distant from me, I am seeing the light as it was billions of years distant. Because it took the light billions of years to travel to the distance of my eyes. So when I see the stars, I'm only seeing the past. I can't see them as they are in this present moment of time. But in the God-conscious Fourth state, there is no time. So naturally the perception will be different. Outside of Time, there is only the Timeless Oneness. Maya and duality are building blocks of the time dimension. Like the Christian descriptor of God's name, "I am" in Hebrew actually translates "I shall be there." It is active, future, past and present participle. The name is a verb. It is motion and life. It is affirmation of perpetual Presence. Everlastingness is outside of time. Like the definitions of God's Presence in sansaara through vehicle of sargun saroop of Das Avtaara, "I will keep coming back to you until you find your self in Me."
Like a mirror, we behold the darshan of the holy and the beautiful in the terrible injustices and evils of fake world. Darkness is blackboard on which the chalk of righteousness writes. Through the righteousness of Dharma we perceive Darshan of what we could be. Darshan of what we should be. Darshan of what we are, if only we could die to self. Here is one truth about Abrahamic teachings that heaven is the ultimate: And that is, "Heaven wouldn't be heaven without you, and you, and you." There can be no ultimate liberation until all the lost and separated sparks are united in the One Divine Fire. That is why only merging can be the ultimate. And merging requires a pantheistic perspective, of Seeing the actual Reality and Presence of the True One hiding behind all forms. Bhairaagi, detachment from the suffering world of forms which pass away and longing for the Original Ground of Being, the True Bliss. That is the way to find God. Bhagkti, the abandoning of the illusionary world of forms and shadows to have Real experience through the force of love, seeking to unite the lover with the Divine Beloved One.
"Bhakti is the seeking after one's real nature." -Adi Shankara
yatha hy avahito vahnir
darushv ekah sva-yonishu
naneva bhati visvatma
bhuteshu ca tatha puman
~Srimad Bhagavatam 1.2.32
The Lord, as Supersoul, pervades all things, just as fire permeates wood, and so He appears to be of many varieties, though He is the absolute one without a second.
Srimad Bhagavatam Canto 1 Chapter 2 Verse 32
ਏਕ ਕ੍ਰਿਸਨੰ ਸਰਬ ਦੇਵਾ ਦੇਵ ਦੇਵਾ ਤ ਆਤਮਾ ॥
eaek kirasanan sarab dhaevaa dhaev dhaevaa th aathamaa ||
The One Lord Krishna is the Divine Lord of all; He is the Divinity of the individual soul.
ਆਤਮਾ ਬਾਸੁਦੇਵਸ੍ਯ੍ਯਿ ਜੇ ਕੋ ਜਾਣੈ ਭੇਉ ॥ਨਾਨਕੁ ਤਾ ਕਾ ਦਾਸੁ ਹੈ ਸੋਈ ਨਿਰੰਜਨ ਦੇਉ ॥੪॥
aathamaa baasudhaevasiy jae ko jaanai bhaeo || naanak thaa kaa dhaas hai soee niranjan dhaeo ||4||
Nanak is a slave to anyone who understands this mystery of the all-pervading Lord; he himself is the Immaculate Divine Lord. ||4||
~SGGS Ji p. 469
ਜਿਸ ਤੇ ਉਪਜਿਅੜਾ ਤਿਨਿ ਲੀਆ ਸਮਾਈ ਰਾਮ ॥
jis thae oupajiarraa thin leeaa samaaee raam ||
We originated from Him, and into Him we shall merge once again.
ਮਿਲਿ ਬ੍ਰਹਮ ਜੋਤੀ ਓਤਿ ਪੋਤੀ ਉਦਕੁ ਉਦਕਿ ਸਮਾਇਆ ॥
mil breham jothee outh pothee oudhak oudhak samaaeiaa ||
I merge into God's Light, through and through, like water merging into water.
ਜਲਿ ਥਲਿ ਮਹੀਅਲਿ ਏਕੁ ਰਵਿਆ ਨਹ ਦੂਜਾ ਦ੍ਰਿਸਟਾਇਆ ॥
jal thhal meheeal eaek raviaa neh dhoojaa dhrisattaaeiaa ||
The One Lord permeates the water, the land and the sky - I do not see any other.
ਬਣਿ ਤ੍ਰਿਣਿ ਤ੍ਰਿਭਵਣਿ ਪੂਰਿ ਪੂਰਨ ਕੀਮਤਿ ਕਹਣੁ ਨ ਜਾਈ ॥
ban thrin thribhavan poor pooran keemath kehan n jaaee ||
He is totally permeating the woods, meadows and the three worlds. I cannot express His worth.
~SGGS Ji p. 545
ਜਨ ਨਾਨਕ ਹਰਿ ਮੇਲਾਇਆ ਮੇਰੀ ਜਿੰਦੁੜੀਏ ਘਰਿ ਵਾਜੇ ਸਬਦ ਘਣੇਰੇ ਰਾਮ ॥੨॥
jan naanak har maelaaeiaa maeree jindhurreeeae ghar vaajae sabadh ghanaerae raam ||2||
Servant Nanak has merged into the Lord, O my soul; the many melodies of the Shabad resound within his heart. ||2||
~SGGS Ji p. 538
Guru Nanak Dev Ji achieved non-duality, according to Gurbani. A condition in which He has God-consciousness, and is no longer the individual consciousness of limited personality or jeev. From this merged fourth state of Turiya consciousness, Satguru is in fact completely one with Vaheguru. There is no difference between Satguru and God. Because there is no longer sansaaric personality. It is merged. It is mukt. It is free. It has returned to the origin, so Guruji is no longer the human physicality or the jeevatman. Guruji is the Uncreated Parabrahm. How can the created become the Uncreated? Because the created doesn't exist as an independant shadow obstructing the Light. There is only Shabad-Jyot of the One all-pervading Vaheguru. Guruji is merged. He can no longer be distinguished from the source, origin and ground of original being, which is the realized Self, Uncreated nirgun Paramatman. So there is no longer any separate object. There is no "I" and "Thou." It's not like we can picture Guruji in a heavenly place somewhere enjoying darshan of Vaheguru by staring at God as a separate entity and listening intently so he can infallibly relate what words he hears direct from God's lips. It's not anything like the dualistic monotheism of Abrahamic convention. Guruji never questioned His Creator, because He came into the world as a God-Realized soul. So everything we know about 10 forms of Guru, and 1 form of Shri Guru Granth Sahib is already in a state of being merged. They are indistinguishable. The Shabda-Jyot has come into sansaara through vehicle of Guru Nanak Dev Ji direct from the imperceivable nirguna. There was no human personality ever standing in it's way. He is the Satguru of the Kaliyug.
ਖਿਨ ਮਹਿ ਉਪਜੈ ਖਿਨਿ ਖਪੈ ਖਿਨੁ ਆਵੈ ਖਿਨੁ ਜਾਇ ॥
khin mehi oupajai khin khapai khin aavai khin jaae ||
In an instant, one is born, and in an instant, one dies. In an instant one comes, and in an instant one goes.
ਸਬਦੁ ਪਛਾਣੈ ਰਵਿ ਰਹੈ ਨਾ ਤਿਸੁ ਕਾਲੁ ਸੰਤਾਇ ॥
sabadh pashhaanai rav rehai naa this kaal santhaae ||
One who recognizes the Shabad merges into it, and is not afflicted by death.
~SGGS Ji p. 58
ਸਹਸਾ ਇਹੁ ਸੰਸਾਰੁ ਹੈ ਮਰਿ ਜੰਮੈ ਆਇਆ ਜਾਇਆ ॥
sehasaa eihu sansaar hai mar janmai aaeiaa jaaeiaa ||
This world is an illusion; it dies and it is re-born-it comes and it goes in reincarnation.
~SGGS Ji p. 138
ਜੈਸਾ ਸਾ ਤੈਸਾ ਦ੍ਰਿਸਟਾਇਆ ॥
jaisaa saa thaisaa dhrisattaaeiaa ||
As God is, so does He appear;
ਅਪੁਨੇ ਕਾਰਜ ਮਹਿ ਆਪਿ ਸਮਾਇਆ ॥
apunae kaaraj mehi aap samaaeiaa ||
in His Own creation, He Himself is pervading.
ਸੋਧਤ ਸੋਧਤ ਸੋਧਤ ਸੀਝਿਆ ॥
sodhhath sodhhath sodhhath seejhiaa ||
Searching, searching, searching, and finally, success!
ਗੁਰ ਪ੍ਰਸਾਦਿ ਤਤੁ ਸਭੁ ਬੂਝਿਆ ॥
gur prasaadh thath sabh boojhiaa ||
By Guru's Grace, the essence of all reality is understood.
ਜਬ ਦੇਖਉ ਤਬ ਸਭੁ ਕਿਛੁ ਮੂਲੁ ॥
jab dhaekho thab sabh kishh mool ||
Wherever I look, there I see Him, at the root of all things.
ਨਾਨਕ ਸੋ ਸੂਖਮੁ ਸੋਈ ਅਸਥੂਲੁ ॥੫॥
naanak so sookham soee asathhool ||5||
O Nanak, He is the subtle, and He is also the manifest. ||5||
ਨਹ ਕਿਛੁ ਜਨਮੈ ਨਹ ਕਿਛੁ ਮਰੈ ॥
neh kishh janamai neh kishh marai ||
Nothing is born, and nothing dies.
ਆਪਨ ਚਲਿਤੁ ਆਪ ਹੀ ਕਰੈ ॥
aapan chalith aap hee karai ||
He Himself stages His own drama.
~SGGS Ji p. 281
ਆਪਾ ਪਦੁ ਨਿਰਬਾਣੁ ਨ ਚੀਨ੍ਹ੍ਹਿਆ ਇਨ ਬਿਧਿ ਅਭਿਉ ਨ ਚੂਕੇ ॥੨॥
aapaa padh nirabaan n cheenihaaa ein bidhh abhio n chookae ||2||
He does not realize the dignity of the self, and Nirvaanaa; because of this, his doubt does not depart. ||2||
ਕਹੀ ਨ ਉਪਜੈ ਉਪਜੀ ਜਾਣੈ ਭਾਵ ਅਭਾਵ ਬਿਹੂਣਾ ॥
kehee n oupajai oupajee jaanai bhaav abhaav bihoonaa ||
The soul is not born, even though he thinks it is born; it is free from birth and death.
ਉਦੈ ਅਸਤ ਕੀ ਮਨ ਬੁਧਿ ਨਾਸੀ ਤਉ ਸਦਾ ਸਹਜਿ ਲਿਵ ਲੀਣਾ ॥੩॥
oudhai asath kee man budhh naasee tho sadhaa sehaj liv leenaa ||3||
When the mortal gives up his ideas of birth and death, he remains constantly absorbed in the Lord's Love. ||3||
~SGGS Ji p. 475
ਤੂ ਸਚਾ ਸਚਿਆਰੁ ਜਿਨਿ ਸਚੁ ਵਰਤਾਇਆ ॥
thoo sachaa sachiaar jin sach varathaaeiaa ||
You are True, O True Lord; You dispense True Justice.
ਬੈਠਾ ਤਾੜੀ ਲਾਇ ਕਵਲੁ ਛਪਾਇਆ ॥
baithaa thaarree laae kaval shhapaaeiaa ||
Like a lotus, You sit in the primal celestial trance; You are hidden from view.
ਬ੍ਰਹਮੈ ਵਡਾ ਕਹਾਇ ਅੰਤੁ ਨ ਪਾਇਆ ॥
brehamai vaddaa kehaae anth n paaeiaa ||
Brahma is called great, but even he does not know Your limits.
ਨਾ ਤਿਸੁ ਬਾਪੁ ਨ ਮਾਇ ਕਿਨਿ ਤੂ ਜਾਇਆ ॥
naa this baap n maae kin thoo jaaeiaa ||
You have no father or mother; who gave birth to You?
ਨਾ ਤਿਸੁ ਰੂਪੁ ਨ ਰੇਖ ਵਰਨ ਸਬਾਇਆ ॥
naa this roop n raekh varan sabaaeiaa ||
You have no form or feature; You transcend all social classes.
ਨਾ ਤਿਸੁ ਭੁਖ ਪਿਆਸ ਰਜਾ ਧਾਇਆ ॥
naa this bhukh piaas rajaa dhhaaeiaa ||
You have no hunger or thirst; You are satisfied and satiated.
ਗੁਰ ਮਹਿ ਆਪੁ ਸਮੋਇ ਸਬਦੁ ਵਰਤਾਇਆ ॥
gur mehi aap samoe sabadh varathaaeiaa ||
You have merged Yourself into the Guru; You are pervading through the Word of Your Shabad.
ਸਚੇ ਹੀ ਪਤੀਆਇ ਸਚਿ ਸਮਾਇਆ ॥੨॥
sachae hee patheeaae sach samaaeiaa ||2||
When he is pleasing to the True Lord, the mortal merges in Truth. ||2||
~SGGS Ji p. 1279
ਗੁਰੁ ਨਾਨਕੁ ਸਚੁ ਨੀਵ ਸਾਜਿ ਸਤਿਗੁਰ ਸੰਗਿ ਲੀਣਾ ॥
gur naanak sach neev saaj sathigur sang leenaa ||
Guru Nanak laid the foundation of Truth; He is blended with the True Guru.
ਗੁਰੁ ਅਰਜੁਨੁ ਘਰਿ ਗੁਰ ਰਾਮਦਾਸ ਅਪਰੰਪਰੁ ਬੀਣਾ ॥੩॥
gur arajun ghar gur raamadhaas aparanpar beenaa ||3||
In the House of Guru Raam Daas, Guru Arjun has appeared as the Embodiment of the Infinite Lord. ||3||
ਖੇਲੁ ਗੂੜ੍ਹ੍ਹਉ ਕੀਅਉ ਹਰਿ ਰਾਇ ਸੰਤੋਖਿ ਸਮਾਚਰਿ੍ਯ੍ਯਓ ਬਿਮਲ ਬੁਧਿ ਸਤਿਗੁਰਿ ਸਮਾਣਉ ॥
khael goorrho keeao har raae santhokh samaachariyou bimal budhh sathigur samaano ||
The Sovereign Lord King has staged this wondrous play; contentment was gathered together, and pure understanding was infused in the True Guru.
ਆਜੋਨੀ ਸੰਭਵਿਅਉ ਸੁਜਸੁ ਕਲ੍ਯ੍ਯ ਕਵੀਅਣਿ ਬਖਾਣਿਅਉ ॥
aajonee sanbhaviao sujas kaly kaveean bakhaaniao ||
KALL the poet utters the Praises of the Unborn, Self-existent Lord.
ਗੁਰਿ ਨਾਨਕਿ ਅੰਗਦੁ ਵਰ੍ਯ੍ਯਉ ਗੁਰਿ ਅੰਗਦਿ ਅਮਰ ਨਿਧਾਨੁ ॥
gur naanak angadh varyo gur angadh amar nidhhaan ||
Guru Nanak blessed Guru Angad, and Guru Angad blessed Guru Amar Daas with the treasure.
ਗੁਰਿ ਰਾਮਦਾਸ ਅਰਜੁਨੁ ਵਰ੍ਯ੍ਯਉ ਪਾਰਸੁ ਪਰਸੁ ਪ੍ਰਮਾਣੁ ॥੪॥
gur raamadhaas arajun varyo paaras paras pramaan ||4||
Guru Raam Daas blessed Guru Arjun, who touched the Philosopher's Stone, and was certified. ||4||
ਸਦ ਜੀਵਣੁ ਅਰਜੁਨੁ ਅਮੋਲੁ ਆਜੋਨੀ ਸੰਭਉ ॥
sadh jeevan arajun amol aajonee sanbho ||
O Guru Arjun, You are Eternal, Invaluable, Unborn, Self-existent,
ਭਯ ਭੰਜਨੁ ਪਰ ਦੁਖ ਨਿਵਾਰੁ ਅਪਾਰੁ ਅਨੰਭਉ ॥
bhay bhanjan par dhukh nivaar apaar ananbho ||
the Destroyer of fear, the Dispeller of pain, Infinite and Fearless.
ਅਗਹ ਗਹਣੁ ਭ੍ਰਮੁ ਭ੍ਰਾਂਤਿ ਦਹਣੁ ਸੀਤਲੁ ਸੁਖ ਦਾਤਉ ॥
ageh gehan bhram bhraanth dhehan seethal sukh dhaatho ||
You have grasped the Ungraspable, and burnt away doubt and skepticism. You bestow cooling and soothing peace.
ਆਸੰਭਉ ਉਦਵਿਅਉ ਪੁਰਖੁ ਪੂਰਨ ਬਿਧਾਤਉ ॥
aasanbho oudhaviao purakh pooran bidhhaatho ||
The Self-existent, Perfect Primal Lord God Creator has taken birth.
ਨਾਨਕ ਆਦਿ ਅੰਗਦ ਅਮਰ ਸਤਿਗੁਰ ਸਬਦਿ ਸਮਾਇਅਉ ॥
naanak aadh angadh amar sathigur sabadh samaaeiao ||
First, Guru Nanak, then Guru Angad and Guru Amar Daas, the True Guru, have been absorbed into the Word of the Shabad.
ਧਨੁ ਧੰਨੁ ਗੁਰੂ ਰਾਮਦਾਸ ਗੁਰੁ ਜਿਨਿ ਪਾਰਸੁ ਪਰਸਿ ਮਿਲਾਇਅਉ ॥੫॥
dhhan dhhann guroo raamadhaas gur jin paaras paras milaaeiao ||5||
Blessed, blessed is Guru Raam Daas, the Philosopher's Stone, who transformed Guru Arjun unto Himself. ||5||
~SGGS Ji p. 1407
~Bhul chak maaf karni ji