Gurus Guru Nanak In Sikkim

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    GURU NANAK IN SIKKIM
    Dr Dalvider Singh Grewal

    Perched in the lap of the Eastern Himalayas, below Kanchandzonga It is bounded by Tibetan plateau (north), Nepal (west), Chumbi valley of Tibet & Bhutan (east) and West Bengal (south). Its area is hilly, heights ranging from 800 to 28000 feet above sea level. Originally, it was the country of Lepchas and Bhutias (Buddhis and Lamas), but later the Gurkhas from Nepal flooded the state and became a majority. Lepchas and Bhutias are now mainly restricted to north and East Sikkim, while Nepalese dominate the rest of the countryside. In fifteenth century, Lepcha and Bhutia dominated entire Sikkim except the North difficult areas where Nyingmapa Karmapa migrants from Tibet had started establishing settlements after having been thrown out of Tibet.

    Guru Nanak visited North Sikkim during his Sumer Udasi (third itinerary) around the year 1516 A.D. I have been able to discuss the background of Lamas, Lepchas & Guru Nanak's visit in Sikkim during my stay in 1971 and later from 1987 to 1991. The details of Guru Nanak's visits to Tibet, Sikkim and beyond were told to me by various Lamas and local people. Lamas of Thanggu, Lachen, Lachung and Muguthang gave most of the details which have been examined and incorporated here.

    Guru Nanak is stated to have visited Sikkim from Tibet where he had gone on the invitation of Trasung Deochung, the then local Nyingmpa chief/king, to help him in the reconstruction of Sakya Monastery. Guru Nanak is said to have reached this place in the ninth month of Tibetan Calendar. According to a Karmapa legend Guru Nanak is said to have reached this place, tied the witches and turned them into masks (immobile/inactive). On the day of annual celebrations of this monastery these witch masks are stated to be shedding tears and dance bound by chains. Guru Nanak was presented a robe by the local chief/king that is now preserved in Lachen Monastery (North Sikkim). This writer examined it at Lachen.

    From Tibet, the Guru entered Sikkim through Chorten-Nyi-ma-la. Near Chorten Nyi-ma-la, there are 108 small lakes commemorating Guru's visits. As per this legend, seeing the natural beauty of the area, Guru Nanak got in ecstasy and broke his rosary. The 108 beads spread around and formed into small lakes. This added to the beauty of the area further.

    After crossing Chorten Nyi-ma-la pass, Guru Nanak came to Dolma Sampa and Tongpen eroute of Muguthang. He also visited Kedang, Bendu, Sherang, Lyingka, and number of other hutmets sprung up during the upsurge of Nyingmapa-Karmapa sect from Tibet.

    In Muguthang valley, there is a lake which, according to local legend, had demons who used to swallow human beings possibly Cannibals as Cannibalism was prevalent in that area. Local people requested Guru Nanak for protection. Guru Nanak picked a huge boulder and threw it towards the lake. Sensing the danger, the lake-devils, a male and a female came out of the lake and requested for forgiveness. Guru Nanak forgave them and held the falling stone with rope. The same stone with lake marks can still be seen hanging over the lake. These two devils were forbidden from eating human flesh and were redeemed by guiding them to True Name, the Name of the God. An annual local fair honouring Guru's visit is held every year at the place since then. Guru Nanak, thereafter, visited Kedang, Sherang and Culang valleys. At Kedang, he was enchanted by the beauty of the green lush valley. He blessed the valley as happy bewitching and called it 'ki dang' (which astonishes).

    From Muguthang through Guru Nanak went to Lawu Gompha where from he proceeded towards Gurudongmar. In Gurudongmar lake area, the graziers approached Guru Nanak to solve their problem of water shortage as the lakes all around froze in winter due to low temperature at that altitude (17500 feet). Guru Nanak hit the water with his stick. The ice melted giving way to milky water. Since then, the water of the lake is stated to have never frozen. The lake and the hill feature atop came to be known as the Gurudongmar Lake and hill respectively. This writer found these names even in the maps printed in nineteenth century. The water of the lake has been found unaffected even in December-January, when the snow falls up to 10 feet and the temperature falls to minus 30 degrees.

    Some graziers projected another problem to Guru Nanak. Due to the effect of altitude, their virility was affected. They requested him to do something about it. Guru Nanak blessed the Gurudongmar lake saying whoever takes the water of this lake would gain virility and strength'. The people of these areas have firm faith in Guru's words and the water of the lake is considered as nectar by them.

    This is the original site wherefrom River Teesta originates. Guru Granth Sahib is also established since 1980s, though the service of a regular priest could not be obtained despite my best efforts. It was because of extreme cold conditions there. The 800 X 500 square yards rope became a place of great attraction soon after my earlier articles on this subject. A helipad has been constructed and a well-constructed track leads up to the Gurdwara and lake site. Groups of Sikhs especially from Delhi visit this p lace each year in March and September, as these are the best months to visit this glacial belt.

    As per historical records Guru Nanak travelled to North during his third Udasi [1]. He visited Sumer [2] Nepal [3] Tibet [4] Sikkim [5] Bhutan [6] Arunachal Pradesh [7] Burma and China [8]. In Sikkim, he visited Lachen [9] Chungthang [10] Thanggu [11] and Gurudongmar [12] among other places. Gurdwaras were constructed in Nepal [13], Chungthang [14] Gurudongmar [15] and Menchukha [16] to commemorate his visit to these places. Record of visit of Guru Nanak to Sumer in Tibet by Bhai Gurdas (1551-1636 AD) [2] and to Sikkim by Giani Gian Singh (1824-1884 A.D) are some of the oldest records found so far. His visit to Kanchanjunga Hill area is also first recorded by Giani Gian Singh.[5] His contact with Siddhas and Lamas has also been recorded by these writers.

    Guru Nanak visited the place in 1516 A.D. On the request of Yak graziers for a perpetual source of water, he hit the frozen lake by the side of Kanchanjanga [17] with his stick which he always carried during his journeys.[18] Lo! The ice broke never to be frozen again displaying diamond like water for the locals as a perpetual source of water. The board earlier displayed narrated this all.

    Now this board has been replaced by a new board showing that it was Guru Padmasambhva who broke the ice with stick (not Guru Nanak). The Nishan Sahib flag too has been removed. Sri Guru Granth Sahib is kept packed in a Palki in a room with some Buddhist and Hindus idols duly displayed along with.

    A team of SGPC consisting Sukhdev Singh Bhaur General Secretary SGPC, S Rajinder Singh Mehta Executive Member SGPC, S Balwinder Singh Jaura Singha Additional Secretary Dharam Prachar SGPC, S. Satbir Singh Ex secretary SGPC and Col Dr Dalvinder Singh Grewal (the author) appointed by President SGPC to assess the situation of Gurdwaras in Sikkim visited all the places related to the visit of Guru Nanak. The team found no Parkash or Sukhasan or prayers as per rehat maryada. People entered even bare-headed. Smoking etc. is not banned. Gurdwara’s independent identity and sanctity do not exist anymore

    As told by eyewitnesses at Chungthang, Lachen, and Gurudongmar and later at Siliguri, desecration of Gurdwaras in Sikkim has been done sequentially in a planned manner, initially by some Hindu fanatics and later by Lepcha Buddhists. As the foundation stone still existing on the walls of the Gurdwara show, the foundation of the Gurdwara was laid by Major Gen PPS Bindra AVSM and Brig Charanjit Singh on 6 September 1997. Previous to this only structure existed in which Sri Guru Granth Sahib was placed and regular functions were organized. The author of this book was present in 1987 at Gurudongmar when a function was organized at the Gurdwara which showed that the Gurdwara existed even before that. In March 2001, Sardar Harbhajan Singh Setia who had been a regular visitor to the Gurdwara went to Gurudongmar along with 14 other Sikhs and reported that the religious sanctity of the historic Sikh Gurdwara constructed to commemorate Guru Nanak’s visit has been changed to a Sarva Dharma Mandir and idols have been placed inside the sanctum sanctorum along with Guru Granth Sahib earlier installed. [19] Later in 2007 AD onwards Lepcha Boddhis managed to get the control into civil hands and changed it into a Boddhi complex by 2012 AD removing the ‘Sarv Dharm Mandir’ tag, Khandas and Nishan sahibs which eixted till 2012. The earlier identity and sanctity of Gurdwara Gurudongmar Nanak Lama does not exist anymore as this author visited the Gurdwara in 2015 twice.

    There was no monument or flag of any religion in 1970 when this author visited the site while posted in Sikkim. Gurdwara and Nishan Sahib and a board giving details of Guru Nanak’s visit to the place came up in nineteen eighties. After 22 years, a yellow (Hindu) flag came up in 2002 and Later a small box type Mandir was erected seeing the visitors and large fund collection. The development was reported in ‘The Sikh Review’ May 2001 [19] issue. The photos show the situation in 2002 as published in Col Dr Dalvinder Singh Grewal’s book, Amazing Travels of Guru Nanak, May 2002, and So Than Suhawa, 2002, published by Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee, Sri Amritsar. Case was taken up by Col Grewal with President SGPC S. Gurcharan Singh Tohra, who took it up with the then Def Min George Fernandez. He told Army Chief not to disturb Gurdwara’s sanctity. Accordingly Mandir and flag were removed. But again in 2005, a Sarav Dharma Mandir was created by Army. As per report from Siliguri Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee, Sikkim Govt took over the Gurdwara complex in 2007, in connivance with the Army Commander of Sukhna clandestinely and converted it to a Boddh complex as can be seen from the photographs and from the visit of SGPC team. It is important to get a gurdwara with independent identity and sanctity constructed at Gurudongmar for development of Sikhism. Baba Surinder Singh kar sewa wale is already eager to build this complex if given the signal. Future potential of Gurudongmar, Lachen and Chungthang complexes in Sikhs hands is not less than Hemkunt sahib. Further Karmapa & Nyingmapa lamas consider Guru Nanak as their Guru and have his idols in their Gompha Development of this complex will help develop of Sikhism into Nepal, Tibet, Bhutan, Arunachal Pradesh and even in Bihar, Bengal and Assam from this epicenter hence it has tremendous future scope. The sanctity and identity of the places connected with Guru Nanak i.e., Gurudongmar, Thanggu, Lachen, Lachung and Yumthang is needed to be restored amicably by having discussions with Lamas and Govt of Sikkim. Baba Surinder Singh kar sewa wale is already eager to build this complex if given the signal.

    Thanggu

    From Gurudongmar, Guru Nanak came to Thanggu. At Thanggu, he relaxed under a boulder stone. The people having heard about his miracles already, thronged to him. He blessed the devotees and delivered sermons. His foot marks were stated to be existent on a huge boulder by the side of Teesta River but the ignorant road construction party blew off the boulder stone in 1987. The stone fell into the river and was recovered by Lachen Lama and preserved in Lachen Monastery. At Thanggu in Guru's memory a Gompa and a Chorten were constructed in which small 1002 idols of Guru Nanak are preserved. A Gurdwara was constructed in the engineer company area to commemorate Guru Nanak's visit to the place.

    Lachen

    His next stay was at Lachen. In Lachen Gompha, Guru Nanak's foot mark is preserved on a piece of stone. A dress given to him by the then Tibetan king is also preserved. This writer visited the place number of times from 1987 to 1990 and had the privilege of discussing Guru Nanak’s visit to Lachen and surrounding areas and seeing the footmarks on the stone, the robe presented by King of Tibet to Guru Nanak and his kamandel. Interview with Lachen lama is given at annexure of the book.

    From Lachen, Guru Nanak proceeded towards south and relaxed near Munsithang where he found a hot water spring. His body marks are stated to be existing near this location.

    From Munsithang, Guru Nanak moved to south Chungthang (height 6000 feet.) Local people call Chungthang as Nanakthang. Here Guru Nanak spent his third and fourth night, after his visit to Gurudongmar. There is a boulder stone about 20 feet in diameter and 20 feet high commemorating Guru Nanak's visit. As Guru Nanak relaxed near this boulder, a devil, staying on nearby hill, threw a heavy stone on Guru Nanak. The boulder was brought to a halt by Guru Nanak with a stick. He then climbed on the stone to warn the demon. Having seen Guru Nanak unaffected the demon fell at his feet. Guru Nanak asked him not to disturb the local people, to leave the place and follow the True Name of Lord, which he finally did. Foot prints indicating Guru Nanak's climbing atop the stone are reminiscent of the event. The stick with which he diverted the stone was stuck into the earth in a straight posture. This stick has now taken the shape of a tree and is known as 'Babe di khoondi'. Any broken piece of wood may sprout in the productive hill areas, as seen so by me personally.

    Chungthang

    Sitting at the top of the stone, Guru Nanak opened his lunch pack consisting of rice packed in banana leaves. The local people had not seen such banana. They prayed to Guru Nanak, "There are no rice or bananas in our area. Please favour us with these". Guru Nanak threw some left-over rice around the boulder and burried the banana leaves. He then announced, "Henceforth paddy and bananas shall always be grown in this valley". Chungthang has been the only place around in the area for long where paddy and bananas grew since Guru Nanak's visit.

    A woman living in a nearby hut requested. "I have to bring water from a distance. I am old. Moving down and climbing up is very difficult for me. Pray, do something about it". Guru Nanak scratched one side of the boulder with his hands and there appeared a spring. This spring (Chasma) on the side of the boulder has been flowing ever since. The blessings bestowed upon these people by Guru Nanak are the reason for the prosperity of Chungthang valley. The local people always remember him and worship him with great devotion.

    They also say that Guru Nanak's sacred scripture and one tourlice were left under the boulder stone, which will be taken out by Guru Nanak's successor at an appropriate occasion.

    The local lamas worship Guru Nanak as Nanak Lama. They built a Gompha (Lama temple) commemorating his visit. In the Gompha, a lamp of pure ghee burns day and night to vitalize the memory of the visit.

    An Assam Rifles Battalion stationed at Chungthang constructed an impressive building of Gurdwara under guidance of Subedar Major Bhullar. The Gurdwara is now called Gurdwara Nanak Lama. The Local M.L.A. takes keen interest in the protection, maintenance and upliftment of the place 'Babe di khoondi" is now a shapely tree which attracts the visitors and the worshippers alike. The foot prints are well preserved. The water from the spring is considered as a source of strength and sign of purity and is being taken as charanamrit. The rice field is bound by a wall and well secure. The kesari flag can be seen from miles and one has not to do any effort to find the place as it is now in the centre of the valley as well as the town.

    From Chungthang, Guru Nanak is also said to have proceeded to Phodong. A grand monastery is the reminiscent of Guru Nanak's visit. The head of the monastery is considered as the reincarnation of Guru Nanak and an organized succession system exists. The present successor of Nanak Lama was installed in 1989. The installation ceremony appeared in the columns of local papers with photographs. It is also told to this writer that Guru Nanak visited Gangtok’s Rumtek Monastery from Phodong but no concrete proof could be found.

    From Phodong Guru Nanak returned to Chungthang and went to Lachung (height 9500 ft.) In Lachung monastery at the top of nearby hill there were excellent wall-paintings depicting Guru Nanak's visit to the area which now stand obliterated. After Lachung the Guru is stated to have stayed at Yumthnag enroute to Tibet and Bhutan. At Yumthang, Guru Nanak found these people quite unclean. They never took bath for months as the water of the area was cold. Guru Nanak removed a stone and a hot spring appeared. The gushing water formed a rivulet. Guru Nanak asked the local people to have regular bath and worship God early in the morning. The people follow Guru's teachings till now. From Yumthang, Guru Nanak went to Pharidzong through Pyakochin and Ghorala. At Pyakochin writing in Gurumukhi on a stone pillar commemorates Guru's visit.

    Yumthang was developed into a place of tourist attraction and the Sikkim National Transport organizers visits to Chungthang, Lachung and Yumthang. Buses ply regularly from Gangtok to Chungthang. Gangtok is approachable from Siliguri - New Jalpaiguri- Bagdogra complex. Distance and time wise Siliguri to Gangtok is about 95 Kms (4 hours by bus), Gangtok to Chungthong 8 hours by bus), Chungthang to Lachung 40 kms (1 hour by bus). Chungthang to Yamthang 60 kms (2 hours by bus). For going to Lachen from Changthang by road, Lachen is about 1 hour from Chungthang and another hour up to Thanggu. From Thanggu it takes about 2 hours up to Gurudongmar, the road however has been built up to Giagong recently and a track leads thereafter. For going beyond Chungthang, a security clearance is required to be obtained from Sikkim Government and Army authorities. This clearance can be obtained or pre-arranged at Gangtok, the state capital of Sikkim.

    To reach Gangtok, the rail head and air port are New Jalpaiguri/Siliguri/Bagdogra (all within 20 kms from each other). From Siliguri, Sikkim National Transport runs half an hour service to Gangtok. New Jalpariguri/Siliguri are connected by rail direct to Delhi/Calcutta/Patna and Banglore connected to Delhi/Calcutta/Guwahati by air. There are numerous hotels as well as Government rest houses at Siliguri and Gangtok and a few at Chungthang.

    References

    [1] (a) ‘His journey to North was through the mountainous region of Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Nepal, Tibet, Sikkim, Bhutan and thence to China’, Introduction,(p. xiii), Travels of Guru Nanak, 1978, by Dr Surinder Singh Kohli, Punjab University, Chandigarh. (b) Amazing Travels of Guru Nanak, May 2002, Amazing travels of Guru Nanak, Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee, Sri Amritsar

    [2] ‘fir(i) jai chadia sumer par siddh mandli dristi aaee,’ Var 1, Paudi 28, (p.14) Varan Bhai Gurdas Ji (Bhai Gurdas, 1551-1636 A. D.), Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee, Sri Amritsar, Feb 1952, 2nd edition June 1964

    [3] (a) Des Nepal, Sikkim Bhutan, Punha Himala pikhyo mahan, p.60, Sri Gur Panth Parkash, Bhai Gyan Singh Gyani (1824-1884), 1970, Bhasha Vibagh Punjab, Patiala, (b) Guru Nanak entered the territory of Nepal in 1514-15 from the border area of Utter Pradesh,(p.113) Nepal, pp.113-116, Travels of Guru Nanak, 1978, by Dr Surinder Singh Kohli, Punjab University, Chandigarh. (c) Col Dr Dr Dalvinder Singh Grewal, May 2002, Amazing Travels of Guru Nanak, Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee, Sri Amritsar, pp.178-182

    [4] (a) ‘It was in 1514 that during his third journey in the Himalayas Guru Nanak made an incursion into Tibet’, (p.122), Tibet and China (pp.122-127) Travels of Guru Nanak, 1978, by Dr Surinder Singh Kohli, Punjab University, Chandigarh, (b) Col Dr Dr Dalvinder Singh Grewal, May 2002, Amazing Travels of Guru Nanak, Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee, Sri Amritsar, pp.155-177

    [5] (a) uthon age (from Nepal) Sikkim des Tamlang Shehar jo uthon di rajdhani si usde uttar vani ik pahadi par ja baithe…ethon Darjeeling, changathan nun dekh kanchan (kanchanjunga) parbat nun langh anek bastian pahadan da jhaka lai Bhutan des vich parves kita.’ (p. 215) Twareekh Guru Khalsa, 1892, by Giani Gian Singh, later published by Bhasha Vibhag Punjab, Patiala (b) ‘From Nepal Guru Nanak entered the territory of Sikkim in A.D. 1514-1515’, (p.117), Sikkim (pp. 117-119) Travels of Guru Nanak, 1978, by Dr Surinder Singh Kohli, Punjab University Chandigarh. (c) Col Dr Dr Dalvinder Singh Grewal, May 2002, Amazing Travels of Guru Nanak, Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee, Sri Amritsar, pp. 183-189

    [6] (a) Baba Nanak bhutant de des aya ‘, Sakhi Bhutant des ki’ Janamsakhi Guru Nanak Dev ji, B-40, 1733, edited by Piar Singh, 1974. Published by Guru Nanak Dev University, 2nd edition 1989, p. 124 (b) ‘The Guru entered the territory of Bhutan from Sikkim’,(p.120) Bhutan (pp.120-121), Travels of Guru Nanak, 1978, (c) Col Dr Dr Dalvinder Singh Grewal, May 2002, Amazing Travels of Guru Nanak, Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee, Sri Amritsar, pp.190-195

    [7] ‘Guru Nanak crossed into and out of Arunachal Pradesh thrice and visited most of the part.’ (p.196) Arunachal Pradesh, (pp. 196-205), Col Dr Dr Dalvinder Singh Grewal, May 2002, Amazing Travels of Guru Nanak, Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee, Sri Amritsar, pp. 196-205

    [8] After visiting the major portion of China, the Guru returned to India via Sinkiang state.’ (p.127), , Travels of Guru Nanak, 1978, by Dr Surinder Singh Kohli, Punjab University, Chandigarh.

    [9] (a) ‘Al Lachen parbat te jai khade hoi’, Janamsakhi Bhai Bala, 1658, edited by Surinder Singh Kohli, Punjab University Publication Bureau, Chandigarh, p.236, note 3.(b) Van Suwane,1990, by Lt Col Dalvinder Singh Grewal published by National Book Shop,pp.95-101, (c) Amazing Travels of Guru Nanak,by Col Dr Dr Dalvinder Singh Grewal, May 2002, Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee, Sri Amritsar,p.186

    [10] (a) During his apostolic sermons the guide uttered ‘Nanak’ ….He told us that a great personality called ‘Rimpoche Nanak Guru’ while on his way to Tibet had rested on this mound (in Chungthang)……sprinkled the rice all over the meadow and buried the banana packing in a corner. …We saw …sprouting golden yellow paddy…..clusters of banana trees.’ (p.231) Lt Colonel N.S. Issar, Sikh Review, Calcutta, Jan 1965. (b) ‘There are only a few houses in Chungthang. The major features are the shrine of Guru Nanak and the Sikkim police post.’ S. Surinder Singh of Indian Defence Accounts Service, (pp. 234-235) Sikh Review, Feb-Mar 1970. (c) Guru Rimpoche in Chungthang Math. Dr Trilochan Singh, Jan 1972, Jeevan Charitar Guru Nanak dev, Dilli Sikh Gurdwara Board, Dilli, p.289. (d) Col Dr Dr Dalvinder Singh Grewal, May 2002, Amazing Travels of Guru Nanak, Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee, Sri Amritsar, pp.196-197. Je swarg dekhna hai tan Sikkim dekho, p.122, by Col Dalvinder Singh Grewal, 1995, Sarvotam Punjabi Nibandh 1987-88, Bhasha Vibhag, Punjab.

    [11] Muguthang ton Guruji Lungnakla darra langh ke thanggu pahunche, jithe guru ji do din rahe. Guru ji di yad vich ethe pathar ute Guru ji da pairan da nishan si jis nun sadak banaon valian barud nal uda dita. (p. 100), Sikkim-jithe than than Guru Nanak ji di charan chhoh lagi’, (p .95-101) in Van Suwane,1990, by Lt Col Dalvinder Singh Grewal published by National Book Shop, Amazing Travels of Guru Nanak, May 2002, 197

    [12] Ethon (Thanggu) Yongdi, Gaggong, Lukrep, Giagong hunde hoe Sora pahunche te ik vaddi jheel ‘ (Gurudongmaar) de kinare ruke Amazing travels of Guru Nanak, Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee, Sri Amritsar. Pp. 186-187, Note: The footprints were later found in the bed of Teesta River and preserved in Lachen Gompha.,’ (p. 100) Sikkim- jithe than than Guru Nanak ji di charan chhoh lagi’, (p . 95-101) in Van Suwane,1990, by Lt col Dalvinder Singh Grewal, pub by National Book Shop Amazing Travels of Guru Nanak, May 2002, Amazing travels of Guru Nanak, Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee, Sri Amritsar

    [13] ‘(In Nepal) there are now two dharmsals in the memory of the visit of the Guru, one managed by Nirmalas and the other by udasis. The gurdwara is situated on the western bank of river Bishnumati’, (p.115 ) Travels of Guru Nanak, 1978, by Dr Surinder Singh Kohli, Punjab University, Chandigarh.

    [14] Chungthang Gurdwara, (p.186-187), Sikkim, Amazing Travels of Guru Nanak, May 2002, Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee, Sri Amritsar,

    [15] Guru Dongmar Gurdwara, (p.185-186), Sikkim, Amazing Travels of Guru Nanak, May 2002, Amazing travels of Guru Nanak, Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee, Sri Amritsar

    [16] Menchukha (PP.201-204), Gurdwara Arunachal Pradesh, Amazing Travels of Guru Nanak, May 2002, Amazing travels of Guru Nanak, Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee, Sri Amritsar

    [17] Guru Dongmar Gurdwara, (p.185-186), Sikkim, Amazing Travels of Guru Nanak, May 2002, Amazing travels of Guru Nanak, Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee, Sri Amritsar

    [18] ‘Asa hath kitab kachh’, Bhai Gurdas (1551-1636 AD), Varan Bhai Gurdas, var 1, paudi 32, Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee, Feb 1952, p. 16

    [19] Col. Dr Dalvinder Singh Grewal May 2001, Sikh Review: Sikkim’s Gurdwara "Guru Dongmar" Desecrated!
     
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