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Guru Nanak In Europe

Dalvinder Singh Grewal

Jan 3, 2010
Dr Dalvinder Singh Grewal

Eastern Europe in 1500 AD

Giani Lal Singh Sangrur gives details of Guru Nanak’s visit to Italy and Greece in Guru Khalsa Twareekh, 1940,[1] pp.127-128. Dr Surinder Singh Kohli, 1969, [2] has also mentioned of his likely visit to Italy and Rome. Dr Chahal [3] mentions of imprints of Guru Nanak’s visit in Istanbul which is part of Europe. Sohan Lal [4] also gives some details of the visit in his “sach Purnana hovai nahi’. Lot of research has been put in by Harpal Singh Kasoor [5] as well who visited various places to locate footprints of the Guru. Details given here are the result of the above evidence

The book, "Turkey and its Lost Provinces” (1911) mentions that during Selim I’s rule Greece, Macedonia, Yugoslavia, Hungry and Romania were the provinces of Turkey. Istanbul was the common capital of Ottoman Empire. Details given below are synthesized from Harpal Singh Kasoor’s articles (2008) which however need further research and analysis to confirm the factual position.

Famous personalities in Europe at Guru Nanak’s time were Martin Luther, Copernicus, Leo X, The Pope, and Charles V the Roman Emperor. They all are stated to have met Guru Nanak at one occasion or the other and held discussions with him. Persian was the lingua franca of Ottoman Empire which all of these people know. Even Guru Nanak was very well conversant with Persian.

1. Martin Luther 2. Copernicus 3. Leo-X, the Pope 4.Roman Emperor Charles-V

Martin Luther (1483-1546 AD) was born at Eisleben, Saxony in 1483. He issued his 95 Theses against Orthodox Christianity by 1517 AD and died at Eisleben in 1546. Martin Luther Came from Bulgaria and stayed at Ilahi Nur building where he met Guru Nanak. Guru Nanakaccompanied byMardanaand the Caliph and Sultan of Ottoman Empire came from Istanbul. Martin Luther and Guru Nanak held discussion in Persian. Later he accompanied the Guru up to Mount Olympus and then Martin Luther left for Albania and Yugoslavia via Kastoria, whereas, the other team left for Lamia.[2] He again met the Guru in Rome when Guru Nanak and Mardana visited Rome in March/April of 1520 AD. Till then martin Luther was an acknowledged authority of Christianity and had the support and security of the Roman Emperor Charles-V. His letter to the Roman Emperor dated Jan 15, 1520 AD confirms this [3]

Nicholas, Copernicus (1473-1543) was a passenger of the ship in the Velore sea port of Albania and held discussion with Guru Nanak Sahib about Sun, Moon and nature in 1520 on his way from Alexandria in Egypt and Athens to Rome in Italy. [4]

Leo-X (1475-1521) the Catholic Pope from 1513-1521), held a discussion with the Guru Nanakin St. Peters Square in Vatican Rome where the Roman Emperor Charles-V listened to Guru Nanak's views on this universe and the life hereafter (Pralok). Leo-X, Nicholas Copernicus and Martin Luther were his translators as Charles-V (1500-1558) did not understand Persian.

The Roman Emperor Charles-V (1500): The Roman Emperor, Charles-V listened to the views of Guru Nanak in St. Peters Square in Vatican Rome in the early spring of 1520.

Saint Ignatius Op Loyola was born in Guipuzcoa, Spain in 1419 and died in 1556 AD. and held discussions with Guru Nanak during his visit to the area.

G.G. Pontano (1426-1503) an Italian poet, worker and statesman, the Chancellor and Prime Minister of Naples in Italy visited India where he met Guru Nanak in Hardwar in 1501. On his return to Italy, he told Martin Luther and Leo-X that he (Pontano) had ‘seen a great religious manin India who thought differently from Hinduism, Islam, Christianity, Jainism and Buddhism’ and believed in One God. Guru Nanak’s name was thus familiar well before to all these personalities.

In the Renaissance period all the literatures and information reached Europe in four main Languages-Portuguese, Greek, Persian and Syria and the communication could be in any of these languages since most of the scholars were multilingual.


Greeceis located in southeastern Europe touching the boundary of Turkey at the crossroads of Europe, Asia and Africa on the southern tip of the Balkan Peninsula. It shares land borders with Albaniato the northwest, the Macedoniaand Bulgaria to the north and Turkey to the northeast. Eighty percent of Greece is mountainous, with Mount Olympusbeing the highest peak at 2,918 meters (9,573 ft). According to the 2015 census, Greece's population is approximately 10.9 million. Athens is the nation's capital and largest city. The country is considered the cradle of Western civilization and the birthplace of democracy, Western Philosophy the OlympicGames, Western Literature, [6] and the other important knowledge streams. It came under Ottoman dominionin the mid-15th century. While most of mainland Greece and the Aegean islands were under Ottoman control during Guru Nanak’s visit, Cyprusand Crete remained Venetian territory and did not fall under the Ottomans rule. Greeks in the Ionian Islands and Constantinoplelived in prosperity, and those living in Constantinople achieved positions of power within the Ottoman administration, [7]

Ypsario (Za-ree)

From Istanbul (Turkey) Guru Nanak along with Mardana went to Greece where on the mountain of Ypsari in Greece where the Guru held discussions with Martin Luther in 1520 inIlahi Noor building. [] Martin Luther came from Bulgaria. The AlmightyGuruand his companionMardana came from Istanbul, Turkey by boat via Xanthi (Greece). Salim 1 the Emperor of Ottoman Empire who earlier met the Guru in Istanbul accompanied him throughout within Greece since Greece was under the empire of Turkey. Caliph Salem I was stated to be present throughout the discussions. This mountain is located on Thasos Island which is about five hundred Kilometers from the city of Istanbul (Turkey). [1]

The discussion took place in Persian, as Martin Luther knew Persian. On this mountain, the Guru asked Mardana to play rebec and sang the hymn in Rag Assa. Ek Onkar Sat Gurparsad, Devtian darshan ke tain......SGGS, p.358.

The Gods, yearning for the Blessed Vision of the Lord’s Darshan, suffered through pain and hunger at the sacred shrines. The yogis and the celibates live their disciplined lifestyle, while others wear saffron robes and become hermits. For Your sake, O Lord Master, they are imbued with love. Your Names are so many, and Your Forms are endless. No one can tell how Glorious Virtues You have may. Leaving behind hearth and home, palaces, elephants, horses and native lands, mortals have journeyed to foreign lands. The spiritual leaders, prophets, seers and men of faith renounced the world, and became acceptable. Renouncing tasty delicacies, comfort, happiness and pleasures, some have abandoned their clothes and now wear skins. Those who suffer in pain, imbued with Your Name, have become beggars at Your Door. Some wear skins, and carry begging bowls, bearing wooden staffs, and sitting on deer skins. Others raise their hair in tufts and wear sacred threads and loin-cloths. You are the Lord Master, I am just Your puppet. Prays Nanak, what is my social status to be?

The place of Guruji’s stay is known as ‘Illahi Noor.’ A number of people in the area keep hair and beard as followers of Guru Nanak.’ (pp.127-128)

From the mountain Ypsario (zari), the whole team (the kafla) reached the mountain Olympus and went to Vales of Temps, Trikkala, Polio-Kastro, the city of Lamia, Athens, Messolinghi, Arta, Grevana and finally to the city of Kastoria and then left Greece for Albania. [8] They travelled by horse-cart.They took Velore seaport for their onward journey en route to Rome via Leece, Otranto, Naples etc. [8] MartinLuther went to Yugoslavia. Guru Nanak went to Albania. They travelled by horse-cart. The Caliph King Salim 1, returned from this city.About four months later, in the year 1520, Selim I died. His son took over the throne.


From Illahi Nur they reached Verola. They happened to come across another passenger named Nicholas Copernicus (1473-1543), who returned from Alexandria library in Egypt. He visited some libraries in Athens also and came to Velore. Copernicus had gone to Alexandria library to study Aristotle (astronomer) theory of heavenly bodies. Guru Nanak knew that these gentlemen also knew how to speak Persian. He asked Bhai Mardana to set the rebec and started reciting.

Hymn: Sri Raag ghar 2 M.1: Mukam Kar Ghar.... SGGS, p.64

They have made this their resting place and they sit at home, but the urge to depart is always there. This would be known as a lasting place of rest, only if they were to remain stable and unchanging. What sort of a resting place is this world? Doing deeds of faith, pack up the supplies for your journey, and remain committed to the Name. The Yogis sit in their Yogic postures, and the Mullahs sit at their resting stations. The Hindu Pandits recite from their books, and the Siddhas sit in the temples of their gods. The angels, Siddhas, worshippers of Shiva, heavenly musicians, silent sages, Saints, priests, preachers, spiritual teachers and commanders—each and every one has left, and all others shall depart as well. The sultans and kings, the rich and the mighty, have marched away in succession. In a moment or two, we shall also depart. O my heart, understand that you must go as well! This is described in the Shabads; only a few understand this! Nanak offers this prayer to the One who pervades the water, the land and the air. He is Allah, the Unknowable, the Inaccessible, All-powerful and Merciful Creator. All the world comes and goes—only the Merciful Lord is permanent. Call permanent only the One, who does not have destiny inscribed upon His Forehead. The sky and the earth shall pass away; He alone is permanent. The day and the sun shall pass away; the night and the moon shall pass away; the hundreds of thousands of stars shall disappear. He alone is permanent; Nanak speaks the Truth.

In this hymn, Guru Nanak has described the status of human being vis-a-vis God. He told the world that God is but one and his status is permanent and also that everything in this universe is of transitory nature. During the day, the sun revolves around its centre, and the moon is running around the earth.

Copernicus accepted Guru Nanak version to be absolutely correct and explained to the Christians about the theory, though nobody believed it then. Another astronomer, Galileo Galilee (1564-1642) also proved the same theory in Italy, but had to apologise before the Roman Empire because it was against the principles in Bible as the Christians believed that the Sun revolved around the earth. Later however, in1997, the Popeagreed that wrongwas done to Galileo, even though his theory was correct. [8][9][10][11][12][13][14]

Village Baba[15]

Guru Nanak’s next visit was the village Baba and other villages in the Vales of Temps midway from Larissa and Mt. Olympus. Guru Nanak held discourses in the valley. Selim-I and others attended the discourses. Soldiers brought some robbers who were to lay their arms as they were captured by the Turkish soldiers from the valley. Guru Nanak asked Mardana to play rebec and sang the hymn. ' Ranna hoia bodhia' P. 1242-43 of SGGS”.

Women have become advisors, and men have become hunters. Humility, self-control and purity have run away; people eat the uneatable, forbidden food. Modesty has left her home, and honor has gone away with her. O Nanak, there is only One True Lord; do not bother to search for any other as true.

Guru Nanak further explained, “The respect for human values has been lost. Everyone is not doing its job allotted by the Almighty. The duty of the King orSultan is to do the security of the public.

Guru Nanak addressed Selim-I the Turkish Sultan who was present in the congregation saying that his men failed to provide the required security to the entire villages of the valley rather they looted the respect of the villagers. They forced some villagers to take to arms against the so-called the security men.

The Guru told the Sultan further --'Kali hoi kute muhi khaj hoa murdar--' P. 1242 of SGGS. Guru Nanak confirmed that

In this Dark Age of Kali Yuga, people have faces like dogs; they eat rotting carcasses for food. They bark and speak, telling only lies; all thought of righteousness has left them. Those who have no honor while alive, will have an evil reputation after they die. Whatever is predestined, happens, O Nanak; whatever the Creator does, comes to pass.

He advised the Sultan further: 'Nanak chulian suchian je bhar jane koi; p. 1240 of SGGS.

O Nanak, the mouth is truly cleansed by ritual cleansing, if you really know how to do it. For the intuitively aware, cleansing is spiritual wisdom. For the Yogi, it is self-control. For the Brahmin, cleansing is contentment; for the householder, it is truth and charity. For the king, cleansing is justice; for the scholar, it is true meditation. The consciousness is not washed with water; you drink it to quench your thirst. Water is the father of the world; in the end, water destroys it all.

Earlier Guru Nanak and Mardana used to be called Pagan Priests by the local priests and people. But Guru’s hymns changed their mind and they started calling them Khuda Prasat. Selim-I made sure the security of the public and released those priests at Guru Nanak’s intervention. When these local people do simran now they say Agia Fouse (Illahi Noor orWaheguruin Greek Language). [16][17]


From the city of Athens the whole team went to the town of Missolonghi by ship. Missolonghiis a municipality of 34,416 people (according to the 2011 census) [18] in western Greece. The town is located between the Acheloosand the Evinos rivers and has a port on the Gulf of Patras. It trades in fish, wine, and tobacco. The Arkynthosmountains lie to the northeast. The town is almost canalized but houses are within the gulf and the swamplands. In the ancient times, the land was part of the gulf. According to predominant historical opinion, its name came from the combination of two Italian words,mezzoandlaghiwhich means "in the middle of lakes" ormessoandlaghi(Messolaghi) which means "a place surrounded by lakes". Until 1700, Missolonghi was under Venetian domination. Its inhabitants were mostly fishermen. They lived in cabins which were made of a kind of waterproof straw and reed and stood on stilts above sea water. These cabins or stilt-houses have always been called "pelades." Guru Nanak visited the place on the route to Albania.[15]

They reached Mesolonghi in the evening before Sodar. Guruji ordered Mardana to set the Rebec in Sri Raag so that they sing in the praise of the True Lord of this universe. Guruji uttered these lines of the hymn in Sri Raag p. 23 of SGGS.

He Himself is the fisherman and the fish; He Himself is the water and the net. He Himself is the sinker, and He Himself is the bait. (p.23)

There were all fishermen in this village. He advised them through their own profession. In these holy lines the Guru Nanak clarified that He (Almighty God is the consumer of Rasas (Rass) and He Himself is the taste). He Himself is the catcher of the fish whereas He Himself is the fish the same time (Prof. Sahib Singh And other Panthic dignitaries). My true Owner Is enjoying hither and thither and He is full to the brim. He is the fish whereas He is the catcher of fish (Jaal). In short, Nanak Request the Almighty God that He Himself is the ocean and the crane Himself. He is the Lotus flower and the Flies. Satguru advised the residents of Messologhi that it is not their food or their dress that counts but it is the Name of Almighty God which counts to cross over the difficult ocean of this universe.

Salok Mahalla-I on Holy Page No. 142 Of SGGS. In these Holy Lines Almighty Satguru clarifies to the whole universe that --"Kiya khadhe kiya paidhe hoi ja man nahin sacha soi"

What good is food, and what good are clothes, if the True Lord does not abide within the mind? What good are fruits, what good is ghee, what good is sweet molasses, and what good is flour? What good are clothes, and what good is a soft bed, to enjoy pleasures and sensual delights? What good is an army, and what good are soldiers, servants and mansions to live in? O Nanak, without the True Name, all this paraphernalia shall disappear.

The Emperor and the public was highly impressed by the meanings of the hymn explained to them. From Missolonghi the guru went to Grevana along with the entire entourage of the emperor.


From Grevana the whole team reached the town of Kastoria. The Ottoman Emperor, Selim I, attended the discourse in the afternoon and touched the feet of the Guru Nanak and sought his permission to go back to Istanbul (Turkey). Guru Nanak asked Mardana to play the Sarang Raag on the Rebec and uttered the hymn-at Page 1238 SGGS.

He Himself creates, O Nanak; He establishes the various creatures. How can anyone be called bad? We have only One Lord and Master. There is One Lord and Master of all; He watches over all, and assigns all to their tasks. Some have less, and some have more; no one is allowed to leave empty. Naked we come, and naked we go; in between, we put on a show. O Nanak, one who does not understand the Hukam of God’s Command — what will he have to do in the world hereafter? He sends out the various created beings, and he calls back the various created beings again. He himself establishes, and He Himself disestablishes. He fashions them in various forms. And all the human beings who wander around as beggars, He Himself gives in charity to them. As it is recorded, the mortals speak, and as it is recorded, they walk. So why put on all this show? This is the basis of intelligence; this is certified and approved. Nanak speaks and proclaims it. By past actions, each being is judged; what else can anyone say?

He further sang:

United, the united separate, and separated, they unite again. Living, the living die, and dying, they live again. They become the fathers of many, and the sons of many; they become the gurus of many, and the disciples. No account can be made of the future or the past; who knows what shall be, or what was? All the actions and events of the past are recorded; the Doer did, He does, and He will do. The self-willed manmukh dies, while the Gurmukh is saved; O Nanak, the Gracious Lord bestows His Glance of Grace

After the prayer was made and the discourses were over, Guru Nanak and Bhai Mardanaleft for Albania by horse cart provided by the king. The Turkish Sultan left Kastoria for Istanbul with a heavy heart. He died after about five and a half months in September 1520.[19]


From Greece they entered Albania. Albania, a republic on the Balkan Peninsulain southeastern Europe bordering the Adriatic Sea and the Ionian Sea in west, Montenegroin north, Serbia (Kosovo) in north east, the republic of Macedonia in east, and Greecein south east. Albania shares maritime borders with Croatiaand Italy. With an areaof 28,748 km², Albania is slightly smaller than Maryland, or only half the size of Croatia. The country has a populationof 2,890,000 people (2015), Capital and largest city is Tirana. Spoken language is Albanian. The principal port is located in Albania's second largest city of Durres.He held discourses with the public in general and guided them to accept that there is Only One God of the entire Universe and everyone does what He Willed. All are equal in His eyes. He loves those who love His creation. Hence everyone must love others without any difference of caste, creed, colur, religion etc.

Italy and Rome

Dr Surinder Singh Kohli mentions: ‘Various Sikh scholars have often expressed their opinion that the Guru had visited all the prominent religious places and he could not have ignored Vatican (Rome) in Italy (seat of the Pope or the Head of the Catholic Church) Therefore his visit to Rome in Italy cannot be ruled out.’ [16]

Giani Lal Singh Sangrur mentions in Guru Khalsa Twareekh (pp.127) [22] ‘Rome is a famous city of Italy a country in Europe. Here resides the head of Christians. The place is the centre of Christianity and is venerated like Mecca by the Muslims. It is the capital of Italy now. Guru Nanak gave a sermon to the Pope of Rome that it is a fraud on the public to take money for a prayer at the burial of the dead. He sang: Jo muhaka gharu(u) muh(i) (p.472)

The thief robs a house, and offers the stolen goods to his ancestors. In the world hereafter, this is recognized, and his ancestors are considered thieves as well. The hands of the go-between are cut off; this is the Lord’s justice. O Nanak, in the world hereafter, that alone is received, which one gives to the needy from his own earnings and labor. (p.472)

In Rome, Guru Nanak and his companions met Leo X (tenth), the catholic Pope of the time (1475-1521). Guru Nanak held discourses in St. Peters Square. Guru Nanak has pointed out --"Sach purana howaynaahin seeta kadey na patey" SGGS, p. 956

The Truth does not grow old; and when it is stitched, it is never torn again. O Nanak, the Lord
and Master is the Truest of the True. While we meditate on Him, we see Him.

He further sang: Sach(u) purana na theie nam(u) n maila hoi. (p. 1248)

The truth never gets old and whoever is attached to the truth he or she is never torn that is he or she remains intact.

The completion of St. Peters Square took place in April 1520 AD. The Roman Emperor, Charles-V sent the invitation to Martin Luther and others for inauguration. Martin Luther visited Rome in 1520 AD and attended the inaugural ceremony.

Guru Nanak explained to them that they are thinking wrong that Christ redeemed all his followers and will redeem all those and remove all sins that have faith in him. Guru Nanak sang:’ Sarb nirantr(i) aape aap(i) kise na poochai bakhshai aap(i). (p.412)

The One who created the earth and the Akaashic ethers of the sky, established all; He establishes and disestablishes. He Himself is permeating all. He does not consult anyone; He Himself forgives. (O God) You are the Ocean, over-flowing with jewels and rubies. You are immaculate and pure, the true treasure of virtue.

He also sang: Karmi aapo apni kai need kai door (i). (p.8)

The record of good deeds and bad deeds is read out in the presence of the Lord of Dharma. According to their own actions, some are drawn closer, and some are driven farther away. Those who have meditated on the Naam, the Name of the Lord, and departed after having worked by the sweat of their brows—O Nanak, their faces are radiant in the Court of the Lord, and many are saved along with them!

The people present around heard his songs and discourses and were convinced of what he said. The public knew that Pope or Christ should not be worshiped as a God; they being human beings only. All the Christian kings were then under the religious order of the pope. Pope used to write an order in his favour from whom he took money. Even a convict could save himself through this system of payments. People in general were very hurt.

Things changed after Guru Nanak’s discourses. Martin Luther King who was present then became against against such papacy system. Martin Luther saw the Truth as explained by Guru Nanak and the corrupt practices adopted by the Church. He started writing against the practice of corruption in Christianity thereafter and spoke in open. He said, “Popes are hypocrite; they are not the redeemers. They are not the sons of God either.’ Despite of lot of trouble created for him by the papacy, he continued his tirade fearlessly”.

As a result a new branch known as Protestants followed him in quite strength. His writings were declared against the Christianity in June 15, 1520 and he was exiled by the Pope Leo-X in 1521 AD after Luther's firm stand regarding the corruption in the Church at his trial at the Diet of Worms. The Pope had to lay his life for trying to suppress the voice of truth. Roscoe William in his Book on the Life and Pontificate of Leo-X printed in 1806 AD mentions that Leo-X was poisoned through his gown.

The Vatican has confirmed the visit of Guru Nanak to Rome and other towns of Italy. (Il Prima Guru Dei Sikhs, the first Guru of the Sikhs. Ufficio Papa (office of the Pope)) [23] [24]Pope Benedict-12 and his Arch-Bishop, Dom Jose Ronaldo Rebeiro dated Feb 27, 2013). Arch-Bishop Dom Jose Ronaldo of Pope Benedict-XII, speaks about Guru Nanak visit to Rome with a musician, in 1518 AD and Guru Nanak stayed in Mausoleum-F of Old St. Peter’s Basilica. Guru Nanak advocated to Leo-X, (the Pope) “Liberty of Slavery”. He told the Pope that nobody has the right to enslave others. Guruji told the worthy Pope that every human being has the same blood in his or her veins. Guru Nanak discussed in detail the “Missionario Humantario (Universal Human Mission). [25] He returned from Italy and proceeded to Eurasia.

He went through Albania and went through Serbia, Bulgaria and Georgia to Russia.From Rome Leo X accompanied Guru Nanak to Bari seaport and they left for Albania. They ended up their sea journey in the city of Durres and then reached Kukes of Albania by horse cart. They reached the town of Pristina and Nis in Serbia by horse cart. From there, they reached Bucharest via Craiova in Romania. After Bucharest, they reached Varna, then to Burgas in Bulgaria and then reached Samsung Sea-Port of Turkey. From there bothGuru Nanak and Mardanareached Batumi and Tbilisi, Georgia by boat on the Black Sea. From there they reached Armenia in Yerevan and reached Astarkhan and later in Baku in Azerbaijan.[14]


[1] Giani Gian Singh, Guru Khalsa Twareekh, 1940, 3rd edition, 1955, pp.127-128
[2] timothyministeries.org
[3] en.wikipedia.org
[5] http://en.wikipedia.orgn)
[6] Carol Strickland (2007).The Illustrated Timeline of Western Literature: A Crash Course in Words & Pictures. Sterling Publishing Company, Inc. p. 2.ISBN978-1-4027-4860-8.
[7] Clogg, Richard (1992),A Concise History of Greece(1st ed.), Cambridge University Press, pp. 10–37,ISBN0-521-37228-3, retrieved2016-03-23, 257 pp.
[8] Kenn Ward , 1946, The Evangicl Luthern Church of Ours,-ISBN No.929032-91-8
[9] Michael A.Mullett, Martin Luther, Routhledge,29-west 35th Street NewYork NY-10001
[10] Roscoe Williams, 1806, The Life and Pontificate of Leo-x, London
[11]. Richard Friednethel, Weidenfield and Nicholson, Luther translated from the German by John Nowell in 1970
[12] Lal Singh Sangrur, 1941Gurmat Martand Lahore Book Shop, Lahore.
[13] Karol Kidwell, Pontano-Poet & Prime Minister by published by Gerald Duckworth& Co
[14] Harpal Singh Kapoor, 2008
[15] Satguru Nanak Sahib in village Baba
[16] Manmohan Singh (Tr.) Sri Guru Granth Sahib, SGPC, Sri Amritsar.
[17] Prof. Sahib Singh, Darpan , M/S Raj Publishers, Jalandhar.
[18] Satguru Nanak Sahib at Messologhi(Greece)
[19] Satguru Nanak Sahib in Kastoria Harpal Singh Kasoor, 2008
[20] Dr Surinder Singh Kohli, Travels of Guru Nanak, Punjab university, Chandigarh, 1969, (p.153-154)
[21] Guru Nanak in Rome - SikhiWiki, free Sikh encyclopedia.
[22] Giani Lal Singh Sangrur, 1941, Guru Khalsa Twareekh, pp.127
[23] office of Scavi (Ufficio Scavi) Saturday (Sabato), dated March 2, 2013 Note:Ufficio Scavi, Vatican, Rome, dated March 2, 2013. “Sanctus Nanacus Di Indi, Prima Gorium Di Secta, Avec Musei”, meaning thereby, Saint Nanak of India, the First Guru of the Sikhs, with a musician, came to Rome and others towns of Italy in the last week of May, 1520. Thomas Nelson, US Ambassador to Italy, (1913-19), confirms from Vatican records that Guru Nanak visited Florence, Gobbio etc.
[24] “Nelson’s Encyclopaedia, 1913]
[25] Guru Nanak Dev Ji’s visit to Rome, Italy in the year 1520.;



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