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Gurus Guru Nanak In Arunachal Pradesh

dalvindersingh grewal

Writer
Historian
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Jan 3, 2010
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Arunachal Pradesh
Dr Dalvinder Singh Grewal


Arunachal Pradesh the 'land bathing in the rising rays of the sun' earlier known as NEFA is the 26th state of the Indian union. It is situated in the north-east Himalayas and is bounded by Tibet (north). China and Burma (east), Bhutan (west) and Assam (south). The land is mountainous, with heights ranging from 1500 meters in the lower regions to 7000 meters in the upper regions in the north-east where the entire area is covered by thick snowfall in the winter. The area is generally unapproachable due to its rugged terrain and non-development of the communication system. At places the

Five tributaries of Brahmaputra, Kameng, Subansiri, Siang, Lohit, and Tirap, flowing north to south divide the state into 5 valleys and districts known by the same name. Movement from one valley to another is extremely difficult. People are Indo-Mongoloid, tracing their origin to Tibet-Burmese tribes and speak as many dialects are the tribes.(Tribes number 105 as per the 1981 census). My stay in Arunachal Pradesh in 1986 & early 1987 was most fruitful my detailed research for 4 years on Arunachal Pradesh leading to a Ph.D. degree. It provided me a deep insight into Arunachal Pradesh & its people and I was also able to research legends & visited places connected with Guru Nanak.

Guru Nanak crossed into and out of Arunachal Pradesh thrice and visited most of the part. First, While going to Lhasa (Tibet) he passed through Tawang after crossing from Bhutan and entered Tibet from Samdurang Chu. He returned from Lhasa and went to the famous monastery Samye and entered Pemoshuba Menchukha in Arunachal Pradesh. He meditated for some time at this location. From Menchukha he went back to Tibet, brought the residents of Southern Tibet and got them settled in Menchukha. Thereafter, through Gelling and Tuting he proceeded to Saidya and Braham-kund, before entering the state of Assam again.

The history of Guru's Travels to Arunachal Pradesh had remained undiscovered so far. However, the chance visit of this author to the places has brought out very revealing details.

In 1986-87, I was stationed as a Major, at an army outpost in the village of Segang-Menchukha in Arunachal Pradesh in the northwestern corner of West Siang District. One night I was woken up in the middle of the night by loud and persistent knocking at my door. "Who could it be at this time?'' I wondered.

The story of this Gurdwara is strange as I recollect now. In 1986-87, I was posted here as Major, at an army unit and near the village of Segang-Menchukha. I was told of Guru Nanak’s visit to Menchukha valley by head Lama of Segang. He made an idol of Guru Nanak in butter to offer medicine and later told me that Guru Nanak’s idols are venerated in all the Gompha (Boddh temples). He also told that his tribe Memba was brought by Guru Nanak from Dakbo Kongbo in Tibet. He meditated in Pemushubu and a cave near Menchukha for over two months. he said, “We worship Nanak Lama and consider him as one of our Guru Rimpoches. We call him Nanak Lama of Amritsar also. His idol is worshipped in our gompa on Dorgilling Hill. During his meditation at Pemoshubu,” continued the Lama, “the Guru was attacked by a bear but the huge boulder, under which the Guru was meditating, lifted him up and took him in its lap. According to this legend, the bear could do nothing and therefore soon after made his retreat. The marks of the Guru’s body are still etched on this boulder and we often go there to worship every year in the last week of the month of March, because that is the month when the Guru is said to have come here. A fair is held to commemorate Guru Nanak’s visit. Quite close to the boulder, there is a cave, through which the Guru used to pass to have his bath in the rivulet called Bamchu. Again it is commonly believed by us all that it is only the people with a clean heart who can pass through the cave. Others, no matter how lean and thin they are, cannot pass through the entrance of the cave.

The Lama continued with his story, “The place where the Guru used to have his bath in the rivulet is now a natural shallow pool which is full of small black as well as white pebbles, and the water is always still. Whenever we want to know whether or not any particular wish of ours is going to be fulfilled, we close our eyes, repeat the wish, pray to Guru Nanak, and pick out a pebble from the pool. If the pebble is white, we believe, this wish is bound to come true. If the pebble is black, it will not be. If it has both black and white spots on it, the wish will be only partially fulfilled. You can try any number of times; the color of the pebble you pick out is always the same thereafter.’

I must say I was quite intrigued by the Lama’s story and persuaded him to take me there for confirmation. He agreed. Next morning we set out. In order to get to Pemoshubu, we had to pass through a thick forest which was known to be infested with bears, tigers and wild boars. Leaches stuck over every now and then and we had difficulty removing them. The track at times had vanished under the undergrowth and we had to cut the waggling branches to clear our way to the place in the dense jungle. In the midst of the thick undergrowth, we found a small clearing where an old traditional white Boddh flag, printed with ‘Om Mani Padam Hum’ was aflutter. The Lama told me that every time the flag flutters, God’s name goes into the air 1001 times.

Next day he took us to Pemoshubu, the place of Guru Nanak’s meditation. Reaching in front of the boulder the Lama bowed in deep reverence and started to ring his bell and chant hymns. He also laid on the platform a new white cloth flag as his offering. He then showed the marks of the bodies etched on the boulder. These were about ten feet above the ground. There appeared the impressions of bodies etched on the boulder one of a bigger man and the others of small ones. The Lama told me that the bigger one was that of Guru Nanak’s and the smaller ones were of his companions. The impression of the head, the shoulders, the arms and the upper part of the bodies were very clear. It did not look as if they had been chiseled but naturally hewn. Since I had no means of verifying the veracity of these marks, I did not question the authenticity of what the Lama said and bowed my head in reverence.
Lama then took me further down through a cave and from its farther end we could see the beautiful rivulet, Bamchu flowing by down below at one corner clearly see the white and black pebbles lying at the bottom. The Lama bent over the small pool. Changing Guru Nanak’s name, he took out a stone from the pool, he got a white one. He was too happy. When I enquired as to what he had wished, he told that he had wished for another son. I was astonished at his material attachment despite being a lama. A junior commissioned officer Subedar Surat Singh Yadav of 542 Field Battery an Ahir from Haryana, who had accompanied us too did the same and prayed for becoming a Subedar Major. He got the black one. I knew it was not possible for him to become one. They both insisted that I too try for one. I had nothing on mind as God has always been kind to me. However, a momentous thought came to me, “Why not wish to make a Guru’s place of worship at the place if the Guru had come here?” Having wished this, I took out a pebble and found it to be white. Hence I pondered over the complete question; I considered it impossible to construct a place of worship at such a remote place, where leave alone, bringing up the material from the low lands in Assam: reaching and cleaning the forests were the major problems. I thought it better to consider it as a bad joke. Moreover this was the aftermath period of 1984 riots, when we could not think of doing such things.

However my Subedar was quick to respond. “There will have to be a place of the Guru’s here.” He assumingly said. “But how I alone can make a place in such a difficult area?” I raised my doubt. “Why do you feel alienated Sahib? We all will make it,” added the burly Subedar. “We will make Guru Nanak’s place here. It is His wish,” said the Lama authoritatively. I was in a divided state of mind, but the other two had already started playing this idea in their minds seriously.

We should not alter the originality and serenity of this place and keep it as it is”, said Subedar Surat Singh. “The better place for the Gurudwara will be the triangular area between the two rivulets; that is within the limits as prescribed by the religious edicts”. Subedar Surat Singh further said, “It should be within 500 yards of the place of the event,” he explained. I was unaware of all this. As we walked across to the place and examined the area, I found the Lama to be in meditation sitting on a stone. I found the area to be flat but full of big trees and with thick undergrowth. However, it was not slushy because of the close flowing stream and the slope of the land into the streams.

It required enormous effort to clear the area. For bringing stores to this place was another very difficult proposition as even nails would have to be got from Tinsukhia, which for an ordinary person would have taken 10-15 days journey one way. The other alternative was through air i.e. helicopters, but the priority of helicopters was the ration for soldiers and ammunition for guns than anything else. In addition, the carriage of these items for 16 kilometers from the helipad was another difficulty. The first requirement, however, was to clear the thick undergrowth up to the selected place which itself was a major task. I did not think it feasible to prepare a worthwhile place of worship under these conditions.

“This is an auspicious place, 15 days hence is the auspicious day to carry out stone laying for the worship place”, the Lama announced keeping his eyes closed”. It is perfectly alright. We will clear the place within that time”, Subedar Surat Singh took upon himself voluntarily, the preliminary task of clearing the area and also the track to the place. The area was studied minutely and the place was selected where the Lama finally put a small stick and a small piece of cloth bearing ”Om Mani Padme Hum” hanging over it as a flag. As we returned, Subedar Surat Singh studied the route seriously. The Lama told us whom all to contact locally for construction of the place of worship. I thought of it as to how I could get the building material. It was better to make a wooden structure which should consist of at least three rooms, one for main worship, one for the helper and the religious teacher and one for a store and other accessories. This could also be used for any person from outside who wished to stay at the place for a night or so. It would require about 800 wooden planks and about 100 CGI sheets in addition to other building material. “How can we manage this all”? I passed on the question to Subedar Surat Singh. Nothing seemed to unruffle the Subedar as he seemed to be quite determined. “We will prepare the planks ourselves by sawing wood. CGI sheets can be arranged by air from Dinjan (Assam),” he said as if it was not difficult at all. On return, Subedar Surat Singh was heard stating the whole incident to the men of my unit with a lot of enthusiasm. These deeply religious Ahirs from Harayana took every word stated by Subedar Surat Singh seriously and gave a word to him that they will do every bit to carry out the “Will of God”.

The work started without delay and the men, who were eager to do something, swung into action. Meanwhile, the Lama had told Segang people about the event. The Gaon Burha came with his men to help us in whatever way we wanted to utilize him. Subedar Surat Singh asked for the help of a carpenter and a saw man which the Gaon Burha deputed without hitch. I requested him to get the land transferred to the institution which he agreed heartily. He along with the Lama planned to meet the Extra Assistant Commissioner, Manchuka for permission and transfer of the land on the name of Gurdwara as a religious institution.

Work started the very next day by clearing a part of the route by the soldiers and a group of villagers. I wrote a letter to my wife then located in Dinjan Assam giving all the details and requested her to buy the required number of CGI sheets and other material and to arrange the money for the same. Bringing the material to Menchukha from Dinjan-Tinsukhia was certainly a problem. I thought of it for 2-3 days when I met the pilot of the helicopter providing us with supplies. He too was eager to visit the place. I took him through the difficult route. After paying his obeisance he saw the area around closely and mentioned that about 500 yards away, there was a good ground, which could be developed into a dropping zone and if some effort was put in, it could also be converted into a helipad. For this, permission and clearance had to come from higher headquarters.

The work progressed faster than expected. Soon the Assam Rifles soldiers also joined. The senior most officer of the area was the Battalion Commander of Mahar Regiment and at that time Major Yadav, again an Ahir, was officiating. As I told him about the place, he too went there out of curiosity. Visiting the area, he recommended deploying a company on the nearby hill as he found it to be yet an unknown route from the enemy side and needed an immediate coverage. The development of the area turned out to be much faster than I would have expected. Later on the higher commanders of Army, Air Force and Assam Rifles, who visited Manchuka, made it a point to visit the place. With the help of the local carpenters and soldiers, three rooms were constructed. As the development on the other side caused a great threat to the valley, a brigade was later planned to move to the place and a key location point was planned. Accordingly, an artillery field firing range was also proposed. A company of Bengal Engineers comprising of Sikhs landed which not only improved the local constructions but was also given the task of preparing an advance landing ground for the airplanes as well as helipads and tracks/roads to various locations. The place was given the name “Guru Nanak Taposthan” and had become a great place of worship not only for the local people but for all the outsiders as well, who longed to carry some worthwhile memories back home.
When I opened the door, I found it to be the village headman, locally known as the Gaon Burha. He was in an obvious state of distress and told me that his son was dying of a very severe pain in his stomach and if I would send for a doctor. I considered it fit to check the patient myself before I telephoned the doctor, who was some distance away and the track was quite hazardous. I decided to accompany the Gaon Burha. He led me to his wooden hut, which was divided into two, the portion in front was for cooking and at the rear was the living room where I found a young boy writhing in pain and crying. As a precautionary measure, I had taken some pain-killing tablets with me, which I offered to the sick boy. A Lama who was standing nearby told the boy not to take the medicine. It puzzled me but there was little I could do because the Lamas are held in great esteem for all matters by the very superstitious people of the area.

However, immediately after, the Lama started saying a prayer obviously in order to a appease the evil spirits. He first fashioned an idol with rice and butter, lit some incense and to the accompaniment of the ringing of a bell, started murmuring his prayers calling 'Nanak' 'Nanak'. After he had finished doing so, he took the incense to the bedside of the sick boy, read out "Om Mani Padme Hum' to him and then asked him to take the medicine I had given.

The idol that the Lama had made aroused my curiosity. I asked him as to whose idol was it that he worshipped. 'Nanak Lama', he said. I must say I was quite perplexed by his answer because I never expected anyone in this area, nearly 2,000 kilometers away from Punjab, would know anything about Guru Nanak much less worship his idol. I probed him for further details. He told me: "We worship Nanak Lama and consider him as one of our Guru Rimpoches. We call him Nanak Lama of Amritsar also. His idol is worshipped in our Gompha on Dorgilling Hill. It is said that the Guru visited this area and meditated at Pemoshubu. Pemoshubu lies about 5 kilometers away from where we were.

"During his meditation", continued the Lama, "the Guru was attacked by a bear but the huge boulder, under which the Guru was meditating, lifted him up and took him in its lap. According to this legend. The bear could do nothing and therefore soon after made his retreat. The marks of the Guru's body are still etched on this boulder and we often go there to worship, every year in the last week of the month of March, because that is the month when the Guru is said to have come here. A fair is held to commemorate Guru Nanak's visit. Quite close to the boulder, there is a cave, through which the Guru used to pass to have his bath in the rivulet called Bamchu. Again, it is commonly believed by us all that it is only the people with a clean heart who can pass through the cave. Others, no matter how lean they are, cannot pass through the entrance of the cave.

The Lama continued with his story, "The place where the Guru used to have his bath in the rivulet is now a natural shallow pool which is full of small black as well as white pebbles, and the water is always still. Whenever we want to know whether or not any particular wish of ours is going to be fulfilled, we close our eyes, repeat the wish, pray to Guru Nanak, and pick out a pebble from the pool. If the pebble is white, we believe, this wish is bound to come true. If the pebble is black, it will not be. If it has both black and white spots on it, the wish will be only partially fulfilled. You can try any number of times, the color of the pebble you pick out is always the same thereafter'.

I must say I was quite intrigued by the Lama's story and persuaded him to take me there for confirmation. He agreed. Next morning we set out. In order to get to Pemoshubu, we had to pass through a thick forest which was known to be infested with bears, tigers and wild boars. Leaches stuck over every now and then and we had difficulty removing them. The track at times had vanished under the undergrowth and we had to cut the waggling branches to clear our way to the place in the dense jungle. In the midst of the thick undergrowth, we found a small clearing where an old traditional white Boddhi flag, printed with 'Om Mani Padam Hum' was aflutter. The Lama told me that every time the flag flutters, God's name goes into the air 1001 times.

From the clearing, we started our descent towards the Bumchu river. After walking down for about five minutes, we came across a huge boulder which appeared to be about 30 feet high and with a length and breadth each of about 20 feet. It was leaning towards the east. Below it there was a sort of rough platform on which were lying a number of white cloth flags with inscriptions on them in the Tibetan language.

The Lama bowed in deep reverence and then started to ring his bell and chant hymns. He also laid on the platform a new white cloth flag as his offering. He then showed the marks of the bodies etched on the boulder: they were about ten feet above the ground. There appeared the impressions of two bodies etched on the boulder-one of a bigger man and the others of a smaller one. The Lama told me that the bigger one was that of Guru Nanak's and the smaller ones were of his companions. The impression of the head, the shoulders, the arms and the upper part of the bodies were very clear. It did not look as if they had been chiseled but naturally hewn. Since I had no means of verifying the veracity of these marks, I did not question the authenticity of what the Lama said and bowed my head in reverence.

After that, the Lama took me further down through a cave and from its farther end we could see the beautiful rivulet, Bamchu flowing by down below. At one corner lay the pool. Its water was quite transparent, I could clearly see the white and black pebbles lying at the bottom.

The Lama bent over the small pool. Chanting Guru Nanak's name, he took out a stone from the pool, he got a white one. He was too happy. When I enquired as to what he had wished, he told that he had wished for another son. I was astonished at his material attachment despite being a Lama. A Junior Commissioned Officer Subedar Surat Singh Yadav who had accompanied us too dipped his arm into the pool but got a black stone. He was sad. He had prayed for becoming a Subedar Major, and I knew it was not possible for him to become one. They both insisted that I too try for one. I had nothing on the mind as God has always been kind to me. However, a momentous thought came to me, "why not wish to make a Guru's place of worship at the place if the Guru had come here? "Having wished, I took out a pebble and found it to be white. when I pondered over the complete question, I considered it impossible to construct a place of worship at such a remote place, where leave alone, bringing up the material from the low lands in Assam, reaching and cleaning the forests were the major problems. I thought it better to consider it as a bad joke. Moreover, this was the aftermath period of 1984 riots, when we could not think of doing such things.

However, my Subedar was quick to respond. "There will have to be a place of the Guru's here", he said assuring. "But how I alone can make a place in such a difficult area ?" I raised my doubt. "Why you alone Sahib? We all will make it", added the burly Subedar. "We will make Guru Nanak's place here. It is His wish", said the Lama authoritatively. I was in a divided state of mind, but the other two had already started playing this idea in their minds seriously.

"We should not alter the originality and serenity of this place and keep it as it is", said Subedar Surat Singh. "Better place will be the triangular area between the two rivulets. That is within the limits as prescribed by the religious edicts". Subedar Surat Singh further said, "It should be within 500 yards of the place of event", he explained. I was unaware of all this. As we walked across to the place and examined the area, I found the Lama to be in meditation sitting on a stone. I found the area to be flat but full of big trees and with thick undergrowth. However, it was not slushy because of the close flowing stream and the slope of the land into the streams.

It required enormous effort to clear the area. For bringing stones to this place was another very difficult proposition as even nails would have to be got from Tinsukhia, which for an ordinary person would have taken 10-15 days journey one way. The other alternative was through the air, i.e., helicopters, but their priority was the ration for jawans and ammunition for guns than anything else. In addition, the carriage of these items for 16 kilometers from the helipad was another difficulty. The first requirement, however, was to clear the thick undergrowth up to the selected place which itself was a major task. I did not think it feasible to prepare a worthwhile place of worship, under these conditions.

"This is an auspicious place, 15 days hence is the auspicious day to carry out stone laying for the worship place", the Lama announced keeping his eyes closed. "Perfectly alright. We will clear the place within that time", Subedar Surat Singh took upon himself voluntarily, the preliminary task of clearing the area and also the track to the place. The area was studied minutely and the place was selected where the Lama finally put a small stick and a small piece of cloth bearing "Om Mani Padme Hum" hanging over it as a flag. As we returned, Subedar Surat Singh studied the route seriously. The Lama told us whom all to contact locally for construction of the place of worship. I thought of it as to how I could get the building material. It was better to make a wooden structure which should consist of at least three rooms, one for the main worship, one for the sevadar/religious man and one for the store and other accessories. This could also be used for any person from outside who wished to stay. It would require about 800 wooden planks and about 100 C.G.I. sheets in addition to other building material. "How can we manage this all"? I passed on the question to Subedar Surat Singh. Nothing seemed to unruffle the Subedar as he seemed to be quite determined. "We will prepare the planks ourselves by sawing wood. C.G.I. sheets can be arranged by air from Dinjan (Assam)", he said as if it was not difficult at all. On return, Subedar Surat Singh was heard stating the whole incident to the men of my unit with a lot of enthusiasm. These deeply religious Ahirs of Haryana took every word stated by Subedar Surat Singh seriously and gave a word to him that they will do every bit to carry out the "Will of God".

The work started without delay and the men, who were eager to do something, swung into action. Meanwhile, the Lama had told Segang people about the event. The Gaon Burha came with his men to help us in whatever way we wanted to utilize him. Subedar Surat Singh asked for the help of a carpenter and a woodcutter which the Gaon Burha deputed without hitch. I requested him to get the land transferred to the institution which he agreed heartily. He along with the Lama planned to meet the Extra Assistant Commissioner, Manchuka for permission and transfer of the land on the name of Gurdwara as an institution.

Work started the very next day by clearing a part of the route by the Jawans and a group of villagers. I wrote a letter to my wife in Dinjan Assam giving all the details and requested her to buy the required number of C.G.I. sheets and other material and to arrange the money for the same. Bringing the material to Manchukha from Dinjan-Tinsukhia was certainly a problem. I thought of it for 2-3 days when I met the pilot of the helicopter providing us supplies. He too was eager to visit the place. I took him through the difficult route. After paying his obeisance he saw the area around closely and mentioned that about 500 yards away, there was a good ground, which could be developed into a dropping zone and if some effort was put in, it could also be converted into a helipad. For this, permission and clearance had to come from headquarters.

The work progressed faster than expected. Soon the Assam Rifles jawans also joined. The track and the place were cleared within a week. The senior most officer of the area was the Battalion Commander of Mahar Regiment and at that time Major Yadav, again an Ahir, was officiating. As I told him about the place, he too went there out of curiosity. Visiting the area, he recommended deploying a company on the nearby hill as he found it to be yet an unknown route from the enemy side and needed an immediate coverage. The development of the area turned out to be much faster than I would have ever expected. Later on the higher commanders of Army, Air Force and Assam Rifles, who visited Manchuka, made it a point to visit the place. With the help of the local carpenters and jawans, three rooms were constructed. As the development on the other side caused a great threat to the valley, a brigade was later planned to move to the place and a key location point was planned. Accordingly, an artillery field firing range was also proposed. A company of Bengal Engineers comprising of Sikhs landed which not only improved the local constructions but was also given the task of preparing an Advance Landing Ground for the airplanes as well as helipad and tracks/roads to various locations. The place was given the name 'Guru Nanak Taposthan' and had become a great place of worship not only for the local people but for all the outsiders as well, who longed to carry some worthwhile memories back home.

There was a big fair of the local people at the place on 24 March (1987), as this was the occasion mentioned by Lama on which Guru Nanak had come to the place. We arranged to give free lunch to all the people visiting the place and had hymn singing at the new place. Sri Guru Granth Sahib too had been placed by then which I got on one of my visits to Tinsukhia. Initially, I carried out the daily routine prayers and rituals at the place in which the Lama helped me. Later a jawan from the Engineer Company took over the task on himself.

We celebrated Baisakhi with all rituals as the jawans of the Engineers Company comprised of Sikhs who took a keen interest in performing the rituals. We were able to have an Akhand Path' i.e., non-stop recitation of the entire "Sri Guru Granth Sahib' within 48 hours.

This information collected created a number of questions for me but as I had got my posting orders, I handed over the funds to Major Jasbir Singh Gill of Assam Rifles and moved to Siliguri, where I was required to operate in Sikkim and Bhutan.

In Siliguri, I collected all available books on Guru Nanak's travels to this region. My further research corroborated the view that Guru Nanak had travelled to this region extensively. Dr. Surinder Singh Kohli's 'Travels of Guru Nanak', Gyani Gyan Singh's 'Panth Parkash' and Dr. Trilochan Singh's 'Guru Nanak' gave very valuable clues.

Meanwhile, my visits to Sikkim and Bhutan revealed much new information which has been covered in the chapters on Sikkim and Bhutan respectively. It provided a connection to Guru Nanak's visit to Arunachal Pradesh.

On further inquiries during my visits to the hills and from the study of the books I could link up Guru Nanak's visit to that of Sikkim and Bhutan. On the basis of information collected, I visited Bhutan and Eastern Arunachal in 1987 to 1990 and collected more information from Sela, Tawang, Lumla, Zimithang, Lumpung and other parts of the country.

According to this information, Guru Nanak went to Bhutan and visited Tashigong-Dzong and Dukti after visiting Hajo in Assam.1 Therefrom he entered Arunachal Pradesh. 'He visited Sela and Sabrela and crossed a hill now known as Govindgarh. From there, he visited a place now known as Nanak Dzong. He stayed at the place for some days and held discourses. There the people worship him till today as Nanak Lama.
Thereafter, he proceeded further north and visited the famous monastery at Tawang. His painting is still preserved at the monastery. The Lamas worship Guru Nanak as their Guru Rimpoche2.' As he went further on the route adopted by Dalai Lama while escaping from Lhasa, he relaxed on a boulder and enjoyed the beauty of nature. This boulder is marked by its specialty that even during heavy snowfall, it remains uncovered while the sow engulfs every inch of the area to six feet in winter'. 'Guru Nanak then went to Nagula, where he meditated for some time. Now, a meditation center has been established for all religions in memory of Guru Nanak's visit to the place. When I visited Lumpung monastery and met the head Lama, he told me that Guru Nanak reached Lumpung en route to Lhasa from Twang and stayed at the place for some time. He showed me a large-sized statue of about 20 feet stating it to be of Guru Nanak which I photographed. He also told me that the route adopted by Guru Nanak to the place and to Lhasa was more or less the same as adopted by the Dalai Lama during his departure from Lhasa.
My second visit to the place was from 09 Nov 2014 to 15 Nov 2014 when I started for revisiting Menchukha after a wait of 25 years. Tejwant Singh of Aaj Tak, Harbhajan Singh Setia of owner Setia Mills and Balwant Singh an Ex-serviceman jointly hired an SUV @ of Rs 2500 per day from Dibrugarh for Menchukha and return journey along with petrol bill payments and food arrangements for the driver. We had to board the boat for crossing the Brahmaputra at 0630 from Bogey Wheel Ghat, hence we started at 0530 AM. Though we had planned for six members yet two local members dropped out at the last minute. This was due to nonadjustment of luggage at the top of SUV. Driver objected to its citing Arunachal Government rules that luggage could not be taken at the top. This turned out to be a false later. However now we four were to pay for the expenses of SUV. We reached the Ghat before time but the Government boat was already full; it could take only two SUVs or cars. We hired a private one paying him Rs 1500/-.
The vast spread of Brahmaputra had a special magnanimity, though not the grandeur it had during monsoons where it looked like a sea. We could see vast stretches of land and sand in between. Water was said to be at its lowest level from October to February generally. As we moved along the long bridge on the Brahmaputra under construction we could see the construction workers and JCBs in action. Even 8 years after its construction started, well and pillars could be seen under erection. It did not appear to be getting completed within next 2 years as per the extended date of completion. The problem told was the political allotment of contract where a right contractor was not chosen; some even said the contractor was chosen at ULFA dictate. How far it was correct, I had no means to clarify.
Ours was the first boat. We could some more boats following and coming from another end as well. Water being a shallow lot of tree trunks could be seen protruding from the channel which had to be carefully watched. We were at the other Sonari Ghat by 0730 AM. It took us another one hour to reach Sela pathar and Army Transit Camp at Leeka Bali where we wanted to confirm our staying arrangements at Along or Tato. Our arrangement had been rightly done at Leeka bali but not at Along or Tato. OC Transit Camp, however, promised that he will do some tie-up with Tato and we must stay there for the night.
Soon after, we reached the entry point to Arunachal Pradesh. The police post was very cooperative and did not take more than ten minutes checking us all and our identities and the permission obtained from Arunachal Bhavan. Hereafter the entire journey was on a hilly terrain and we had to continuously climb up to Along with a few ups and downs. A road to Along appeared good initially but it turned out to be too rough thereafter as it was not properly tarred. Nature’s bounty around however kept us cheerful. We had one stop in between for a cup of tea and refreshing ourselves with fresh water flowing leisurely in a passing rivulet.
We reached Along at about three. We did not have lunch and the driver pass pressing for it. So we went in search of some hotel. The hotels were there but no food ready as is the case in Dhabas on Punjab Delhi route. Since it was getting late, we decided to go ahead up to Tato. We could see welcome sign all along the road for a Minister in the Central Government who hailed from this area and had come to visit his constituency. He was also to visit Menchukha fair which happened to be ending on 9th itself but we had a miss.
We were in fact given instructions not to go till 9 November as all the hotels at Menchukha would be booked for visitors from all over India and we would not get any accommodation. This was a surprising development since my earlier stay no visitor ever came from any other part of the world except a few Army and Assam Rifle Officers to check their posts. We found a good road now available up to Menchukha. Earlier we had no other way than to go by helicopter or AN32 of Air Force which flew only planned flights and were not the regular ones. We got diesel filled in SUV since no other petrol pump was expected thereafter. I found one of the local SUV drivers who plied between Menchukha and Along about the time and charges. He said it would take 5 hours and Rs 400/- per individual. This appeared to be quite suitable. We, however, had already hired an SUV. We also found that all the SUV’s plying on the roads had kept their luggage at the top saving space in the rear for two other occupants. The lie of the driver was detected.
As we crossed Keyang, it started getting dark. We had two hours journey to Menchukha still. The driver refused to ply in dark. He insisted that before hiring he had specifically told that he would not drive at night. We were not aware of it. We showed him that vehicles were plying on road even in the dark but he won’t agree to move. We stayed for some minutes, had a cup of tea and some snacks. Meanwhile, Tejwant and Setia ji had managed to get him to agree to move up to Tato. It was getting pitch dark. Road condition too was not good. It was newly hewn road and narrow too for such hill journey at night. I took over the co-driver’s seat and started directing him in these difficult hours. On two occasions in between this journey, he insisted on not going further, but there are no staying arrangements anywhere else other than Tato, he was made to reconcile and move up to Tato. We came across the vehicles of the Minister from the center going back from Menchukha en route. He might have returned after the valedictory function. We regretted having missed it, but we had planned otherwise.
We were able to reach Tato at about 7.30 PM. I went and met the OC transit Camp and told him what was informed to us by the Transit Camp at Leekabali. He was ignorant. “No one has ever informed me about it. We have an exercise going on and our transit camp is already full. Where do we make an arrangement for you?” His reply shocked me. “Where do we go now? Our driver will not move ahead. it is too risky to move on these roads at night. We have no other way to go. We comprise an 86 years old and two 70 years; 2 are ex-servicemen. We could not have lunch even” He started pondering over our plight. He said, “Let us see what we can do. Meanwhile, you all must have food.” His step was welcome . I conveyed the situation to my colleagues. We came to the officer’s mess and had our food. A driver was sent to a soldier’s kitchen.
With great difficulty and by shifting some of the officers, they made arrangements for four of us in one room and along with soldiers for the driver. It was too cold since we were at ……feet MSL and it was all open. Cold winds blew from all around. I was afraid of the two old men, but somehow they slept well in the night. In the morning, we prepared to move. No bill was charged. As we looked around it was such a sizzling scene, that we all were open-eyed. The hills around; the rivulets flowing down; singing in tune to the swaying tall trees and the birds chirping sweetly; all appeared to be a God’s abode. I saw the nameplate of Brig Goraya on a room nearby and wanted to meet him. I was told he was the commander of the entire brigade including Menchukha but is out and will not be available. OC Transit camp told that we could meet him while returning from Menchukha. Menchukha was just two hours away. It was expected to be still better. We had our early breakfast and started for Menchukha at about 7.30 AM. The road here was not as good as it was from Keying onwards. The military convoy coming from other side caused jam and delay twice increasing our travel time. It was better if we would have started at 5 or 6 AM the latest. This would have saved us one hour which we wasted in jams. We reached Menchukha at about 10 AM found the sleeping Menchukha town after three day long celebrations. We had another 16 KMs to Pemushubu, where we had to finally reach and stay. Moving along Yargapchu River we were at Pemoshubu around 1030 AM.
As we alighted from the vehicle in front of a large board giving out the story of Guru Nanak Taposthan, it was a ‘dream come true’ for me. The gate to the Gurdwara was inviting us I moved towards the stone where Guru Nanak meditated. I had to climb steps to reach it. I did not find the marks on the huge boulder; instead, a small Gurdwara was built covering the part of the boulder. An Army unit had done this probably in good faith without realizing that the actual evidence got affected very badly in turn and did not give the same impression as we had got during my stay here in 1985-1987 here. I thought of discussing the matter with the present management.
Meanwhile, Setia Ji and Balwant Singh entered the Gurdwara and pathi Singh Jagtar Singh and Chanchal Singh of 15 Sikh LI and cfn Sukhjinder Singh 16 Bihar EME came to receive us. They took us to the other part of the Gurdwara.
The road which had come up between the Gurdwara and the monument had divided these into two portions As we went another side of the road, we found steel plates laid on the ground for walking towards the Gurdwara as the ground below was muddy. The first place in the second part was the three wooden and stone structures which we originally created to be as Gurdwara. These were now converted into a kitchen, office and living rooms. Gurdwara has been shifted further towards the Yargapchu River. We were first asked to have a hot cup of tea before going to the main Gurdwara. Tea was really refreshing and very tasty. Washing our hands and feet we straddled down towards the Gurdwara. To my amazement, the place for storing shoes was made of white marble. Gurdwara flag flew in the center of three buildings’ complex. The main Gurdwara building was 75x20 feet marvelously placed on the snaking edge of Yargapchu River. I was overwhelmed at the overall developed and thanked God and Guru Nanak who had developed their own place to such an extent, beyond my imagination. We were told that the Guru Nanak’s birthday was celebrated with great pomp and show. A sangat of over 5-00 people were present. Brig Goraya and the GOC of the area were present in the function.
I visited the Sikh Museum being developed next to the Gurdwara. It required photographs which I promised to get as desired. I found Yargapchu River eating into to the base of the Gurdwara complex and needed a check with the help of some concrete and steel structure linked to boulders which the Army Engineers could surely do. The caretaker of the Gurdwara suggested turning the water flow away with the help of bulldozers.
Thanking God and the Guru and having the Order from Shri Guru Granth Sahib, we were back to our place of settlement for the day. Arrangements were made for our stay in one single room which was quite cozy. Tejwant was quick to start making Video as it was his primary requirement. I had taken him around and explained every part of it to him.
I recounted my previous experience with all the present. Tejwant wanted to record this too with an interview with Lama and Segang villager to confirm the story. In this area, it gets dark after 4.30 PM normally. We had a quick wash and went to Gurdwara for Rehras. We all went to Gurdwara together. There were five soldiers permanently detailed by the Army to look after the Gurdwara complex one each for the two Gurdwaras; one helping and two for the kitchen. 15 days rations were continuously kept at the location and the instructions were that whosoever comes must be given food or tea whatever is the time. Staying arrangement for 10 people existed: 5 of the workers and 5 from outside at any one time.
After the evening prayer and Order (Hukum) from Sri Guru Granth Sahib, the meanings of the hymn were explained. After having parsad, we proceeded to our residential complex had our food and went to bed. A generator had to be kept on as the batteries of camera and mobiles were to be charged for the next day. It was a pleasant night and a pleasant sleep as well.
Next day we all had the early bath and were ready by 4 AM. All went to Gurdwara and recited path of 5 Banis. After Ardas and Hukum we returned to have breakfast. I promised to speak to the Commanding Officer of the Battalion looking after the Gurdwara and Brig Goraya. For making the video Tejwant asked to visit Segang, get Lama and other people who had been witnessed to the development of the Gurdwara to know the facts from horse’s mouth and record them. As I went to Segang, I found the village totally changed. The previous Gaon Buddha had died and other elders had either died or left for cutting wood. Only a few ladies were at home. Even Lama had gone to Menchukha to perform Puja. I took Lama Senge’s son and located the Lama and brought him to Pemoshubu. Tejwant recorded the interview with the Lama. Some villagers were cutting wood nearby; they too turned up. Their interviews were also recorded. There were some frequent visitors as well. Discussions with them too were recorded. Lama produced the painting of Nanak lama as they presumed. Lama did not appear to be affected by age.
The sky was getting covered with dark clouds gradually. We were afraid of the impending rain which would have made our return very difficult due to the bad condition of the road. Since the sky was overcast, Tejwant was also not getting the required light. I, however, requested him to cover all aspects of the story, which he sincerely did. By about noon, he said he had completed his videography satisfactorily. We planned to move back by afternoon as we could stay at Tato at night and meet Brig Goraya over there. We had planned to meet ADC at Menchukha and DC at Along. We had to drop Lama at Menchukha too. We quickly packed up and moved to Menchukha. At Menchukha, I found ADC in office. ADC was a very young person. Along with him, Additional Commissioner happened to be there. I presented my case of including Guru Nanak Taposthan in tourist list and should be propagated as such as it would help more tourists from Punjab, India and abroad. ADC was from Ferozepur and realized all this. He readily agreed to put Guru Nanak Taposthan on state tourist map. Since large-scale effort was being put up to advertise Menchukha as a future tourist spot to attract tourist from all over the world, this fitted well with their scheme of things. Moreover, we saw Menchukha Advance Landing Ground being developed into a full-fledged aircraft for bringing and other aircraft to land, we saw the large-scale construction work going on, on the airport. ADC promised that national flights through Dibrugarh and Jorhat will start plying from March 2015 onwards. The three day national fair was held to propagate the capabilities of Menchukha as a tourist spot. Encouraged about the future of the place, I thanked God and Baba Nanak for developing this unapproachable landlocked small village into a national tourist spot with the road being developed to two-lane and the airport being developed for national flights. I remember we had strict instructions to fly by air only and not to go on tracks back to our unit headquarters as the tracks were so risky that 10% casualties were accepted officially. Soldiers had to wade through the deep jungle full of leeches and wild animals along the banks of rivulets, moving as if hanging from 1000 to even 2000 feet. A minor slip would land one not down but up in the lap of God and this happened occasionally. While driving back the driver who was from the plains, saw the hanging roads and was quite frightened. Hw however was told to keep his attention on the road in front only and not to look sideways. Time and again he had to be reminded of this. He often said: “If I knew that I had to move on such dangerous roads I would have never come.” We consoled him every time showing him the large of vehicles plying most of them of the larger size that his SUV.
By 3 PM we were at Tato. To our astonishment, neither the OC Transit camp nor Brig Goraya were present, hence we decided to carry on. To our bad luck, the driver was again without food and it started getting dark. Tackling the driver became the most tedious job. We met the OC transit camp en route. We told him about our plight. He said do not worry your arrangements for the stay will be done at Keying officers’ mess. In between we came across a nice fountain; we photographed. We met a team of Border Road engineers and it was nice exchanging notes with them. Setia Ji gave the driver extra money as an allurement. This made him his mouth shut for the time being. As we reached at Keying Army Officers Mess the Drivers asked us to make alternative arrangements. We too have decided by then that it was not right to carry on such a dirty baggage along. We told him that we would have alternative arrangements hence he was free to leave.
The Subedar Major of the battalion made good arrangements for us. Mean while my mobile had gone. I knew that it had not fallen anywhere hence carried out the search. It could not be found. The detailed search too brought no results. Its loss cut me off from my home and all acquaintances as all numbers had gone along with. Excellent arrangements at Keying for our stay kind courtesy Brig Goraya made us forget all the worries. I spoke to Brig Goraya on phone; who regretted having missed the meeting. I told him about the problem of Yargapchu cutting into the base of Gurdwara and the development of the museum. I also objected to the construction of the second Gurdwara around the stone which has actually taken off the real picture of the event. He was very helpful and promised to do all and wanted to be in contact. I thanked him for looking after the Gurdwara so well and making arrangements for our stay. I also spoke to my younger son Colonel Gurtej who had been making all tie up with the Army during my move. Communication is far effective in Army these days I could find. I remember walking for two hours on Sundays from Segang to Menchukha to speak my wife and sons during my stay in Segang for over two years. You could now speak anywhere in India on Army net. The road development up to Menchukha too is a miracle like. The Engineers of Border Roads are doing the magnificent job in connecting the remotest areas of Northern India.
Our next days’ plan was to reach Dibrugarh for which we were required to reach Brahmaputra before 3 PM as the last boat leaves before 4 PM. For this, we were required to leave latest by 6 AM. The Army Unit was very kind to prepare early breakfast and pack lunch without charging anything for their services. The driver’s anger had melted by now and he was present at 5.30 AM. We had a plan to meet DC at Along, but came to know from local sources that he was not available in Along that day hence had to go without meeting. Going down was better though the broken road gave quite jumps which were not good for our health. After brief stays for filling up diesel in SUV and a cup of tea en route, we bashed on regardless.
We reached Sela by 2.30 PM where we met a Sikh gentleman who told us about the Gurdwara at Sela and also the development of meter gauge railways up to the place which will help direct connection with Rangia. It would be better to travel by train from Delhi to this place by train and stay at Sela Gurdwara to go to Menchukha. SUV could be hired from Sela itself who would take six people charge Rs 2200/- per day and are more experienced and knowledgeable about the area.
As we reached Sonari Ghat, the last Government boat trip was already booked. There was another private boat available which we immediately hired at the same rate which we gave at our journey from Bogey Wheel Ghat. Sun was in the process of setting and the scene of sun set on the Brahmaputra was bewitching. We reached other edge within an hour and reached home by 6.30PM. It took 14-16 hours on road and 1-1/2 days each for going and coming. This could be reduced to 1 day with proper planning or on the completion of Bridge over Brahmputra. The air travel could reduce the timings further. We thanked God for the safe journey. I however had lost my costly mobile which had created a lot of communication problem for my later journeys
Our experience showed that it is better to travel by train to Sela Pathar or Pasighat by train. Alternatively, one could cross the river a night before and stay at Sela Pathar Gurdwara. From Sela Pathar starting at 4 AM on SUV will get you the same day to Menchukha. In turn, starting back at 4 AM you can be back at Sela Pathar by 7 PM. It is better to hire SUV belonging to Arunachal Pradesh as they are better acquainted and will provide you 6 safe seats up to Menchukha.3days are sufficient for the journey from Sela Pathar i.e., one day each for going and coming and one days’ stay. SUV hired for 6 persons @ Rs 2500 will hardly cost 1250 each person which is tolerable. One can visit Brahmkund, Nazira and Golaghat all connected with Guru Nanak’s visit.
After our visit to Menchukha, we came back and stayed at Dibrugarh at night. We had planned to visit Nagaland on 14 November and pay our obeisance at Golaghat and Dimapur in Dhanasari valley partly in Nagaland and partly in Assam and see for our self the area where Guru Nanak redeemed the Cannibal Kauda. However, due to a sudden sickness of Sardar Setia Ji's wife, we had to cancel the plan and wait for the next day to go Brahm Kund in Arunachal Pradesh.
Guru Nanak's visit to Brahmkund has been found mentioned in various sources. Dr.Arjan Singh Mann mentions: 'He (Guru Nanak) practically visited all the towns of lower and upper Assam and reached Sadiya from where Sri Krishanji married Rukmani. Then he went to Brahmkund, where saint Parasram after taking bath regained his sainthood after fulfilling the vow to kill all Kshatriyas of the land with his axe". [3] Dr. Surinder Singh Kohli also agrees that Guru Nanak visited Brahma Kund in the area. [4] During an interview with the Chief Pujari of Brahmkund temple, the entire team was astonished to know from him: "We all know that Guru Nanak visited Braham Kund along with Srimanta Sankar Dev on the fair of Makar Sankranti."
We started on the 15th of November 2014, at 9 AM from Dibrugarh. Moving on the national highway along railway line Dibrugarh-Tinsukhia we reached Tinsukhia at around 10 AM. The road was very smooth. I had lost my mobile during my visit to Menchuka for which I contacted Tinsukhia Airtel for starting my new connection but it did not materialize. Our hour's time was wasted for getting the new connection. From Tinsukhia we started moving to Dumduma along another railway line. The green tea gardens full of beauty spread all along. Women in coloured dresses were busy plucking trees. We could not restrain ourselves from stopping and taking photographs and making the video.
After crossing Dumduma we entered Arunachal Pradesh. Here we were required to show our passes for entry to Arunachal Pradesh. We had forgotten to bring the same since we earlier did not realize that Brahm Kund is in Arunachal Pradesh. However, I gave my identity of retired Army Officer and they agreed to permit us the entry. By lunch time we reached Namsai, the headquarters of the district in which Brahmkund is situated. Our aim was to have arrangements for our night stay since we could not do this before. We found an Army Camp and moved to find out some way out. We met the Major commanding the Army Company who was very decent. He first offered us meals which could not resist; thereafter he gave us the number of Col Brar, a retired Army Officer who was looking after the administration at a hydel project in the area. After Namsai the road became single passing though small hill tracts.
We reached at about 4.30 PM and it was getting dark. We could not go to Brahm kund hence decided to visit it the next day. Now, priority was to make arrangements for nights stay. As we visited the office of the hydel project we found Col Brar to be very kind to make arrangement for our stay. Place was quite cold but the guest houses were quite cozy and we had a nice stay. We got up early, had a bath and early breakfast thanked the administration and moved to the temple on 16 Nov 2014. First of all, we met the head priest of Brahm Kund Pandit Hari Saran Das ji who spoke to us taking time out of his morning prayers from 6 AM to 7.30 AM
DSG: Ram Ram Pandit Ji. You appear to be getting up very early in the morning.
PHSD: God and nature is there to wake me up. I generally do not need sleep.
DSG: How old are you?
PHSD: I am now 86 years old.
DSG: You look very active and healthy for your age?
PHSD: I came here in 1961; 53 years ago when I was young. I have never fallen sick ever since. The climate here is so clean and pure that it keeps one away from all diseases. You get pure air, pure water, pure milk from the cows of the Gau Shala and pure food from local fields. There is no pollution. Our thoughts are also pure here and we are always tuned to God and are in His service. What better do you want to live?
DSG: Where did you come from?
PHSD: Benaras Chaubepur, Basti Draim
DSG: What brought you here?
PHSD: I came here to have Darsan of Parsu Ram Kund. Seeing the natural beauty here I could not go back thereafter and has been in service of the temple ever since now performing the duties of the head priest and the organizer of the temple complex and the Gau Shala. I have never missed any Puja ever since I came here.
DSG: Why is this place so important?
PHSD: This place is God's place. Brahm Kund also known as Parsu Ram Kund is the originator of Lohit River which is the key tributary of Brahmputra in India. You can feel God in every matter and in the air where ever you go here. A fair is held every Makr Sankranti (13 January) to celebrate Parsu Ram's redemption from his curse. Many great saints have been coming here ever since. Even Guru Nanak and Srimant Sankar Dev came here.
DSG. Did Guru Nanak Dev Ji and Srimant Sankar Dev Ji come here?
PHSD: They came here together on the fair of Makar Sankranti came here together from Saidya side and went towards Tinsukhia.
DSG: Do you have the record of his visit?
PHSD: No! We do not keep the record like Benaras and Kamkhya but this is very well known here and the story of their visit is passed from generations to generations. I was also told of the same by my senior Pandits. We have a Pandit even elder to me here who can vouch for the same.
DSG: What is the legend behind Parsu Ram Kund?
PHSD: Legend has it that when Parashuram killed his mother Renuka with an axe at the behest of his father Saint Jamadagni, the axe got stuck to his hands. Parashurama roamed all over India visiting holy places to atone for his sins but the axe remained stuck to his hands. Ultimately Parashuram came here to Brahma Kund on the advice of some sages. Parashurama took a dip in the holy water of the Kund and the axe immediately became unstuck and fell from Parashurama hands. With a big sigh of relief and venting anger on the axe, Parashurama picked it up and threw it as far as he could into the mountains.
The axe split the mountains, and the spot where it fell became the source of Lohit River. It was thus that this Kund came to be known as Prashuram Kund and now it is one of the many revered holy spots in the country. This place (Parashurama Kund) holds a fair popularly known as Parashuram Mela which draws about 1 lakh devotees from different corners of India during Makar Sankranti in January every year to celebrate the event. This holy place of Parashuram Kund leaves an everlasting impression in the mind of the devotees as well as other visitors.
DSG: What was the impact of Guru Nanak and Srimant Sankar Dev to this place?
PHSD: They both gave sermons to the people gathered in the fair and were well accepted. This is why the teachings of both are now being followed in this entire region.
Brahm Kund also known as Parshuram Kund is a Hindu pilgrimage centre situated on the Brahmputra plateau in the lower reaches of the Lohit River and 21 km north of Tezu in Lohit District of Arunachal Pradesh. The kund is 165 kilometres form Tinsukia, the nearest railway station and 97 kms via Tezu. Dedicated to sage Parshuram, the popular site attracts pilgrims from Nepal, from across India, and from nearby states of Manipur and Assam. Over 70,000 devotees and sadhus take holy dip its water each year on the occasion of maker Sankranti, in the month of January. [5][6] According to the Arunachal Pradesh government, the Hindu texts Kalika Puran and Mahabharta 3mention the region as the Prabhu Mountains of the Puranas, and where sage Parshuram washed away sins, the sage Vyasa meditated, King Bhishmak founded his kingdom, and Lord Krishana married his consort Rukmani.
The site of the Parashuram Kund as established by the sadhus was in existence till 1950 when the old site was completely changed by the earthquake that shook the whole of the North-East and the kund was completely covered. A very strong current is now flowing over the original site of the kund but massive boulders have in a mysterious way embedded themselves in a circular formation in the river bed thus forming another kund in place of the old. [7]
Annual fair is held during Makar Sankranti, to which wild cows, rare fur-rugs and other curios are brought down by the mountain tribes. There are also facilities for trekking from Tezu to glow lake which takes one day, hiking and river rafting and angling on the river Lohit. The nearest railway station is Tinsukia (120 km) from where buses are available via Namsai. There are also buses available from Sadia. The nearest airports are Tezu and Dibrugarh (Assam). A fleet of the State Transport Department of Assam and Arunachal Pradesh make elaborate arrangements for plying buses from Tinsukia to Namsai, Wakro and Tezu. There is no railway available to Parshuram Kund as of now. A survey of 122 km Rupai-Parshuram Kund broad gauge railway line was complete at the initiative of Arunachal Chamber of Commerce and Industries, while the preliminary engineering-traffic survey for the Passighat-Tezu-Parsuram Kund was conducted by northeast frontier railways at the request of the state government.
While visiting the temples, the kund and Lohit River we had photographs and video as the record. A strong wind was blowing and trees on the hills were enjoying the breeze. it appeared to be a miracle of God; a land appearing like heaven.
With the development of the number of sites of Sikh Gurdwaras in Assam and Arunachal, Brahm Kund may be developed into a Sikh pilgrimage centre and a Gurdwara commemorating Guru Nanak's visit to the place may come up sooner or later.
References
[1]. Dr. Surinder Singh Kohli, Traders of Guru Nanak, p. 128
[2] Ibid
[3] Arjan Singh Mann Dr., 1959, Guru Tegh Bahadur and Assam Pradesh, Sikh Publishing House, New Delhi, 1st Edition, p.170.
[4] Surinder Singh Kohli, 1997, Travels of Guru Nanak, Punjab University, Chandigarh, 3rd Edition, p. 51
[5]. Indian Express. Jan 18, 2013. "70,000 devotees took the holy dip in Parsuram Kund", Retrieved 2014-06-29.
[6] Daily News & Analysis, "Arunachal Pradesh planning to promote tourism at Parsuram Kund." Retrieved 2014-06-29.
[7] Parsuram Kund. Indiaprofile.com. ANI." Solace to suffering humanity would surface from Arunachal, believes Shankarcharya." Retrieved 16 Jan 2014.
 

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