GURU NANAK IN AFGHANISTAN Dr Dalvinder Singh Grewal Guru Nanak visited Afghanistan during his fourth Udasi (journey) twice; the first time during the return journey from the Middle East and the second time when he took Shahzda son of Bhai Mardana to Khorram Shahr (Iran). According to Giani Gian Singh, the Guru entered Afghanistan via Baghdad (Iraq), Tehran & Mashhad (Iran) to Ashgabat (Turkmenistan), Bukhara & Samarkand (Uzbekistan), Dushanbe (Tajikistan) to Kabul (Afghanistan). According to the Bhai Bala Janamsakhi, the Guru visited Baghdad, Karbala & Basrah (Iraq), Bushehar, Khorram Shahr (Iran) to Kandahar, Ghazni & Kabul (Afghanistan). From Kabul, the Guru proceeded to Jalalabad, Sultanpur and passed through Khyber Pass to reach Peshawar. On his way he passed through Mehds. Bhai Mani Singh's Janamsakhi makes a reference of his visit to this place. [ 2] In Afghanistan dharamsals existed to commemorate Guru Nanak’s visit at (a) Mazhar Sharif (b) Tashkurgan, (c) Haibak, (d) But Bamia, (e) Kabul, (f) Ghaduka, (g) Hazara Parbat and (h) Kaza. Gurdwaras still exist in Qabul, Ghaduka, Jalalabad and Sultanpur. Mardana’s mausoleum existed at Khurram Shahar in West Afghanistan. During Guru Nanak’s period of visit Afghanistan was known as Khorasan. Guru Nanak mentioned this in his hymn citing Bibles attack on India. ‘Khorasan khasmana kia, Hindustan draia’. Afghanistanofficially theIslamic Republic of Afghanistan, is alandlocked country It is bordered by pakistan in the south and east; Iran in the west; Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Tajikstan in the north; and Chinain the far northeast. It has a population of approximately 32 million. Its territory covers 652,000 km2(252,000 sq mi). The terrain of Afghanistan is dominated by rugged mountain ranges, which generally run from the northeast to the southwest. Mountains occupy all but the north-central and southwestern regions of the country, which are dominated by plains. Nearly half the country has an elevation of 2,000 meters or more, and the highest peaks in the northeastern Hindu Kush range exceed 7,000 meters. Historically, mountain passes along the northeastern border with present-day Pakistan have been of great strategic importance. Significant parts of the southwestern plains region are desert. Principal Rivers: The main rivers are the Amu Darya, 800 kilometers; the Harirud, 850 kilometers; the Helmand, 1,000 kilometers; and the Kabul, 460 kilometers. Afghanistan’s chief tributaries to the Amu Darya, which forms much of the country’s northern border, are the Koshk and the Qonduz. The land also served as the source from which the Kushans, Hephthaliotes, samanids, Saffarids, Gaznivids, Khiljis, Mughals, Hotaks, Durranis and others have risen to form major empires. Virtually the entire population is Muslim. Between 80 and 85 percent of Muslims are Sunni and 15 to 19 percent, Shia. . A series of civil wars devastated much of Afghanistan and these continue to this day. The main ethnic groups are Pashtun, 42 percent; Tajik, 27 percent; Hazara, 9 percent; Uzbek, 9 percent; The official languages are Dari (Afghan Persian) and Pashtu. Dari is spoken by 50 percent of the population, and Pashtu is spoken as a first language by 35 percent. In 1504 the region fell under a new empire, the Mughals of northern India, who for the next two centuries contested Afghan territory with the Iranian Safavi Dynasty. In the early 16th century, Babur arrived from Ferganaand captured Kabul from the Arghun Dynasty. In 1526, he invaded Delhi in India to replace the Lodhi dynastywith the Mughal Empire. Between the 16th and 18th century, the Khanate of Bukhara, Safvids, and Mughals ruled parts of the territory. Before the 19th century, the northwestern area of Afghanistan was referred to by the regional name Khorasan. Two of the four capitals of Khorasan (Herat and Bulkh) are now located in Afghanistan, while the regions of Kandahar Zabulistan, Ghazni, Kabulistan, and Afghanistan formed the frontier between Khorasan and Hindustan. Over 99% of the Afghan population is Muslim; up to 90% are from the Sunni branch, 7–19% are Shia.  Gurdwaras in Afghanistan are 6 in Kabul (a) Gurdwara Baba Nanak, Jade Mewan, (b) Gurdwara Baba Sri Chand, (c) Gurdwara Shor Bazar, (d) gurdwara Karte Parwan, (e) Gurdwara Khalsa Shor Bazar, and (f) Gurdwara Koth Sahib, Tashkent Road, Aksara, Kabul. Gurdwaras in Jalalabad and Sultanpur (Nangarhar Province) were (a) Gurdwara Khalsa Diwan, Chashma Sahib, Sultanpur (b) Gurdwara Guru Nanak Dev Ji, Jalalabad and (c) Gurdwara Shri Guru Tegh Bahadur, Jalalabad. Other Gurdwaras in Afghanistan included (a) Gurdwara Bhai Nand Lal Goya, Ghazni (b) Gurdwara Kotha Sahib, Ghazni (c) and (d) Gurdwara Guru Har Rai. Karki Bandar: (59): Guru Nanak entered Afghanistan at Karki Bandar. The kingdom of Bukhara is spread up till Karki Bandar. Area next is of Kabul. It is located on Uzbek-Afghan border on the bank of Amu Darya with latitude 34.7791600 and longitude 63.5243600. Amu River passes by. People here threw stones at the Guru. Guru Nanak directed the river to rise. The river got flooded and the houses around started drowning. People then came and requested the Guru to stop it. Guru ji said, “Do not trouble the saints. Make a dharamsal here.” A dharamsal commemorating Guru Nanak’s visit to the place was constructed but it was without a priest. It is six stages from Maimne.  Maimana Maymana,MeymanehorMaimanais the capitalof Faryab province, northernAfghanistan, near the Turkmenistanborder. It is approximately 400 km northwest of the Afghan capitalKabul. Coordinates are 350560’N 640450’E. The city of Maimana has a population of 149,040 (in 2015). it has 10 districts and a total land area of 3,461 Hectares.The total number of dwellings in this city are 16,560. Maymana is located at the northern foot of the Turkestan Range at an elevationof 877 m on the old terrace of the Qeysar or Maymana River. This river branches off of the Band-e Turkistan River 50 km south of the city. The highlands of the Maymana region generally possess a very rich topsoil which supports the seasonal agricultural activities. In the 16th century, Uzbekinfluence came to Maymana with the invasions of Turkistanand Heratby Muhammad Shibani  Maimna (58) is five stages from Bukhara. The priest (in Guru’s place) is Udasi. Aqcha AqchaorAkchais a town in northern Afghanistan. It is located approximately 50 kilometres (31 mi) east of Sheberghanand 100 kilometres (62 mi) west of Mazar-i-Sharif. It serves as the center of the Aqcha Districtof Afghanistan's Jowzjan Province. The population of the town is around 50,000 people.The majority of which consists mostly of ethnic Turkmensand Uzbeks. Aqcha is known for the traditional carpets and rugs that are made in the area. Akcha also used to be a Khanatewithin the province of Afghan Turkestan.  At the beginning of the 20th century, it was protected by a mud wall and a citadel, with an estimated population of 8000 people, chiefly Uzbeks. The Khanate was small, but well watered and populous. The rivers rising in the southern mountains, which no longer reach the Amu Darya, terminate in vast swamps near Akcha, and the debris of yearly vegetation that springs up on the slopes of the southern hills is washed down into the swamps during floods.[19 Aqcha (60) is a stage’s distance from Karki Bandar. It has a dharamsal. This dharamsal has an attached garden in 11 Bighas donated by Khan Sahib. Hindus have 11 shops. These Hindus pay of the journey of saints by collecting the same from among themselves.  Balkh Balkhwas an ancient city and centre of Buddhism, Islam, and Zoroastrianismin what is now northern Afghanistan. Today it is a small town in the province of Balkh, about 20 kilometers northwest of the provincial capital, Mazar-e Sharif, and some 74 km (46 mi) south of the Amu darya. It was one of the major cities of Khorasan, since the latter's earliest history. Marco Polo described Balkh as a "noble and great city".  The ancient city of Balkh was known to the Ancient Greeks asBactra, giving its name toBactria. It was mostly known as the centre and capital of Bactria or Tokharism. Balkh is now for the most part a mass of ruins, situated some 12 km from the right bank of the seasonally flowing Balkh River, at an elevation of about 365 m (1,200 ft). Outside the town was a large Buddhist monastery later known as Naubahar (or Nava Vihāra in Sanskrit).  French Buddhist Alexandra David Neel associated Shambhalawith Balkh, also offering the PersianSham-i-Bala, "elevated candle" as an etymology of its name. In 1506 Uzbeksentered Balkh under the command of Muhammad Shaybani. They were briefly expelled by the Safavids in 1510. Babur ruled Balkh between 1511 and 1512 as a vassal of the Safavids. But he was defeated twice by the Khanate of Bukhara and was forced to retire to Kabul. Balkh was ruled by Bukhara except for Safavid rule between 1598 and 1601. Guru Nanak and Mardana set out from Mashhad on the old route in North Iran and reached Balkh, a town in the northern part of Afghanistan. These days Balkh falls in the northern state of Mazar-i-Sharif in Afghanistan. It has since been named Wazirabad. It was situated on a bank of the Balkh river which flows down north and falls into the Amu River 50 miles (80 km.) downstream from this place. The town perished several time as a result of political ups and downs, but each time it was resurrected soon thereafter. It had got rehabilitated prior to the times of Guru Nanak, in the beginning of the 15th century. Mazhr Sharif Mazar-i-ShariforMazar-e-Sharif s the third largest city of Afghanistan, with a population of 693,000 (2015). It is the capital of Balkh provinceand is linked by highways with Kunduzin the east, Kabul in the southeast, Herat in the west and Uzbekistan in the north. Mazar-e Sharif, along with Herat, Jalalabad in the east and Kandaharin the south, makes Afghanistan an important strategic location in Asia. The city also serves as one of the many tourist attractions because of its famous shrines as well as the Muslimand Hellenisticarcheological sites. In 2006, the discovery of new Hellenistic remains was announced.  Mazar-i-Sharif is the Regional Hub located in the northern region in close proximity to Uzbekistan and Tajikistan. Mazar-i-Sharif has the highest percentage of built-up land (91%)  of all the provincial capitals, and it has additional built-up area extending beyond the municipal boundary but forming a part of the larger urban area. The region around Mazar-e-Sharif has been historically part of Greater Khorasan and was controlled by the Tahids followed by the Saffarids, Samanids, Ghazanvids, Gurids, Khannates, Timurids, and Khanate of Bukharauntil the mid-18th century when it became part of the Durrani Empire after a friendship treaty was signed between emirs Murad beghand Ahmaf shah Durrani. The Mazhar Sharif Airport in the city has been heavily used during the 1980s Soviet warand the latest 2001 present war. The name "Mazar-e Sharif" means "Noble Shrine", a reference to the large, blue-tiled sanctuary and mosque in the center of the city known as the Shrine of Hazrat Alior theBlue Mosque. Some Muslims believe that the tombof Ali ibn Abi Talib, the cousin and son-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, is at this mosque in Mazari Sharif, after Ali's remains were transferred to Mazar-i-Sharif as per request of Ja ‘far as-sadiq1However, most Muslims believe that the grave of Ali is at the Imam Ali Mosquein Najaf, Iraq.  The Mazar-i-Sharif means "the noble shrine". This name represents the Blue Mosque which is widely known to be the grave of Hazrat Ali (Muhammad's son-in-law).  The city along with the region south of the Amu Daryabecame part of the Durrani Empirein around 1750 after a treaty of friendship was reached between Mohammad Murad Begand Ahmad Shah Durrani, the founding father of Afghanistan. In the late 1870s, Emir Sher Ali Khanruled the area from his Tashkurgan Palace in Mazar-i Sharif. This northern part of Afghanistan was un-visited by the British led Indianforces during the Anglo Afghan warsof the 19th century. Mazhr Sharif (61) is two stages from Akacha. There is a spring connected with Guru Sahib. Hindus take bath in it. There is no priest. There is a cauldron of 10 maunds. Local here say that a rich man put load of 40 camels into it, even then it was not filled. A trader cut and put 40 goats into it but it still remained unfilled. When Guruji put five cups of rice and a karmandal of water and it got filled. Entire people gathered in the fair enjoyed the feast for three days. It got empty only when Guruji left the place. This is what the local people say. Hindus and Muslim worship the place and say that they have never seen a fakir like Guru Nanak.  Tashkurgan Kholm, Afghanistan, formerly called Tashkurgan is a town in northern Afghanistan. Tashkurgan (62)is 12 Kos from Mazhar Sharif. It has dharamsal. Priest is Arora Sikh.  Haibak Haibak or Aibakis a town of Afghanistanin the Samangan Province and is a former Khanateof Afghan Turkestan. The valley of Haibak, which is 3100 ft. above sea level, is fertile and richly cultivated. Due to its location, Haibak has been influenced by Buddhist, Islamic and Turkic and Persian peoples. On October 23, 2003, during the US invasion of Afghanistan, rebels fired rockets at a pickup truck ferrying passengers to Haibak, which killed ten people, including two children. The town, which is famed in Persian legend, is now very small and does not appear on most maps as it consists now of only a couple of streets, containing many Hindu shops and a small garrison. The inhabitants call themselves Jagatais, a Turki race, though now generally mixed with Tajiks and speaking Persian. In the neighbourhood of Haibak are some very typical Buddhist ruins. It derived its importance from its position on the main line of communication between Kabul and Afghan Turkestan. Haibak, (63): it is 12 kos from Tashkurgan. It too has a dharamsal.  Shiv Bhalang Shiv Bhalang (64) is nine kos from Haibak. Here Mohammed is said to have meditated. There is a cave. Whosoever goes to this cave, his white garments become blue. These become white when he comes out. Guru Nanak called, “O prophet! Is there water anywhere around?” reply came from inside, “There is no water around even up to 7 kos.” Guru Nanak hit the ground with a spear and the water came out. Now there is a spring. The miracle is that whatever amount eh water is taken out by the people, the water level does not reduce and remains the same. This spring is called the spring of Guru Nanak. These people consider Guru Nanak as Muslim. There are paintings of 360 deities. There is no priest.  But Bamyan Bamiyan lies on the Silk Road, which runs through the Hindu Kushmountain region, in the Bamiyan Valley. The Silk Road has been historically a caravan route linking the markets of China with those of the Western world. It was the site of several Buddhist monasteries, and a thriving center for religion, philosophy, and art. Monks at the monasteries lived as hermits in small caves carved into the side of the Bamiyan cliffs. Most of these monks embellished their caves with religious statuary and elaborate and brightly colored frescoes. It was a Buddhist religious site from the 2nd century up to the time of the Islamicinvasion in the latter half of the 7th century. Until it was completely conquered by the Muslim Saffaridsin the 9th century, Bamiyan shared the culture of Gandhara. TheBuddha’s of Bamiyanwere in 4th and 5th-centuries  monumental statues of standing Buddhacarved into the side of a cliff in the Bamyanvalley in the Hazarajat region of central Afghanistan, 230 km (140 mi) northwest of Kabulat an altitude of 2,500 meters (8,200 feet). Built in 507 AD (smaller) and 554 AD (larger), the statues represented the classic blended style of Gandhara art. The main bodies were hewn directly from the sandstonecliffs, but details were modeled in mud mixed with straw, coated with stucco. This coating, practically all of which wore away long ago, was painted to enhance the expressions of the faces, hands, and folds of the robes; the larger one was painted carminered and the smaller one was painted multiple colors. The lower parts of the statues' arms were constructed from the same mud-straw mix while supported on wooden armatures. It is believed that the upper parts of their faces were made from great wooden masks or casts. Rows of holes that can be seen in photographs were spaces that held wooden pegs that stabilized the outer stucco. They were dynamited and destroyed in March 2001 by the Taliban, on orders from leader Mullah Mohammed Omar,after the Taliban government declared that they were idols. An envoy visiting the United States in the following weeks explained that they were destroyed to protest international aid exclusively reserved for statue maintenance while Afghanistan was experiencing famine, while the Afghan Foreign Minister claimed that the destruction was merely about carrying out Islamic religious iconoclasm. International opinion strongly condemned the destruction of the Buddha’s, which in the following years was primarily viewed as an example of the extreme religious intolerance of the Taliban. Japan and Switzerland, among others, have pledged support for the rebuilding of the statues  Drawing of Buddha’s of Bamiyan by Alexander Bumes 1832, 2. Taller Buddha in 1963 and 2008 after destruction 3. Smaller Buddha The two most prominent statues were the giant standing Buddha’s Vairocanaand Sakymuni, identified by the different mudrasperformed. The Buddha popularly called "Solsol" measured 53 meters tall, and "Shahmama" 35 meters—the niches in which the figures stood are 58 and 38 meters respectively from bottom to top.  Before being blown up in 2001 they were the largest examples of standing Buddha carvings in the world (the 8th century Leshan Giant Buddha is taller,  but that statue is sitting). Since then the spring Temple Buddha has been built in China, and at 128 m (420 ft) it is the tallest statuein the world. Plans for the construction of the Spring Temple Buddha were announced soon after the blowing up of the Bamiyan Buddha’s and China condemned the systematic destruction of the Buddhist heritage of Afghanistan. The destruction of the Bamyan Buddha’s became a symbol of oppression and a rallying point for the freedom of religious expression. Despite the fact that most Afghans are now Muslim, they too had embraced their past and many were appalled by the destruction.  But Bamia (65) is 12 stages from Shiv Balang. There is a spring on a hill feature. River flows down below. Guruji was sitting above (on the hill feature). That is why it is called the spring of Guru Nanak. The priest is a Muslim. People here say that But Bamia was a demon. Bhim Sain fought with her and married her. There is a 36 yards high idol of Bhimsain.  Kabul Kabul s the capital of Afghanistan as well as its largest city, located in the eastern section of the country. According to a 2015 estimate, the population of the city was around 3,678,034 which includes all the major ethinic groups. Rapid urbanization had made Kabul the world's 64th largest city and the fifth fastest-growing city in the world.  Kabul is over 3,500 years old and many empires have controlled the city which is at a strategic location along the trade routes of South and Ceental Asia South and Central Asia. It has been ruled by the Achaemenids, Seleucids, Mauryans, Kushans, Kabulshahis, Saffarids, Ghaznavids and Ghurids. The region became part of the Afghan Ghaznvind Empire in the 10th century, during the Indian invasions by Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni. Later, it was controlled by the successor Ghuridsuntil the Mongols invaded the area. It then became part of the Timurids. Later it was controlled by the Mughal Empire until finally becoming part of the Durrani Empirre During theSoviet war in Afghanistanthe city continued to be an economic center and was relatively safe. Between 1992 and 1996, a civil warbetween militant groups devastated Kabul and caused the deaths of thousands of civilians, serious damage to infrastructure, and an exodus of refugees. Since the Taliban's fall from power in November 2001, the Talibans have slowed the re-construction efforts and staged major attacks against the government, foreign diplomats and Afghan civilians. The modern city gained prominence during the reign of Babur, founder of the Mughal Empire. Babur had chosen the site for this city which was built by his grandson Jalal-ud-Din Akbar in 1570. Kabul is today the capital of Afghanistan. It acquired the status of a capital town for the first time during the regime of Babur when he conquered it in A.D. 1504. At the time of Guru Nanak several routes led to Kabul. In the north, a route existed from Balkh, in the south from Kandahar and in the east from Bannu and Peshawar. During Guru Nanak’s travel Babur ruled from this city. In 1504, the city fell to Baburfrom the north and made into his headquarters, which became one of the principal cities of his later Mughal Empire. In 1525, Babur described Kablistanin his memoirsby writing that: "In the country of Kabul there are many and various tribes. Its valleys and plains are inhabited by Turks, Aimaks and Arabs. In the city and the greater part of the villages, the population consists of Tajiks(called "Sarts" by Babur). Many other of the villages and districts are occupied by Pashais, Parachis, Tājiks, Berekis, and Afghans In the hill-country to the west, reside the Hazaras and Nukderis. Among the Hazāra and Nukderi tribes, there are some who speak the Moghul language. In the hill-country to the north-east lies kaferistan, such as Kattor and Gebrek. To the south is Afghanistan... There are eleven or twelve different languages spoken in Kābul: Arabic, Persian, Turki, Modhuli, Hindi, Afghani, Pashai, Parāchi, Geberi, Bereki, and Lamghāni...”  — Baburnama, 1525 Mirza Muhammad Haidar Dughlat a poet from India who visited at the time wrote:"It is mountain, desert, city, river and all else."It was from here that Babur began his 1526 conquest of Hindustan, which was ruled by the Afghan Lodhi dynastyand began east of the Indus Riverin what is present-day Pakistan. Babur loved Kabul due to the fact that he lived in it for 20 years and the people were loyal to him, including its weather that he was used to. His wish to be buried in Kabul was finally granted. The inscription on his tomb contains the famous Persian couplet, which states: ‘If there is a paradise on earth, it is this, it is this, it is this!  Guru Nanak and Mardana passed through Balkh and reached Kabul. Guru Nanak stayed outside the city of Kabul towards Sultanpur side. At Kabul, the capital city, he held discourse with several Muslim holy men. They cautioned him to be careful because he was traveling in a predominantly Muslim land. The Guru told them that God's light shines alike in all; even their bodies He made alike. Some undergo circumcision and call themselves Muslims, others make a vermilion mark on their forehead and wear a sacred thread on their body and become Hindus. Those holy men were deeply impressed by the Guru’s words. There was an old gurdwara in memory of Guru Nanak’s visit to Kabul. However, when new construction started in Kabul, the gurdwara building happened to obstruct a road. The Afghan government demolished this shrine. This gurdwara was in the Pan Chowk Jubba (Jad-i-Mohammed) in Kabul. The place was purchased by Sahib Jan Khan Jahazi. Gurdwara Karte Parwan Kabul Dr Ganda Singh visited Afghanistan from 3 September to 2 October 1952, in order to locate the Old manuscripts of Sri Gur Granth Sahib and other documents on Sikh History from Afghan sources. He also visited Gurdwaras in Qandahar, Gazni, Qabul, Jalalabad and Sultanpur and recorded these accounts. The other Gurdwaras in Kabul are Dera Bhai Gurdas, Dera Ganj Baksh. Dera Baba Ganj Baksh has 3 handwritten manuscripts of Sri Guru Granth Sahib including one of Samwat 1806 (1749 AD) and another of Samwat 1904 (1847 AD). It has a photo of Guru Nanak, Bala and Mardana. Bhai Gurdas stayed here during Guru Hargobind’s time and preached Sikhism. This Dera has a Dasam Granth of Samwat 1769 (1712 AD). Dera Baba Sri Chand was established by Bhai Almast. There are two handwritten manuscripts of Sri Guru Granth Sahib one having a record of Samwat 1918 Jeth 25. Gurdwara Baba Gurbaksh Singh Bedi, Gurdwara Bhai Pirana Sarai Lahorian has a stone where Guru Nanak used to sit and hold discourses; Gurdwara Sri Har Rai Sahib Manji Asthan, which has handwritten MS of Samwat 1701 Chet Sudi 5, Samwat 1718, 1721, 1732 and 1765; Gurdwara Bhai Mansa Singh has a hand written MS of Samwat 1795 (1735 AD) which has a Nisan of patshahi 10 (Sri Guru Gobind Singh)  Since the visit of Guru Nanak to Kabul, the Sikh contacts had been carefully maintained. Sikh preachers were stationed there to disseminate the teachings of the Guru. At one time Bhai Gurdas also served as one of the Sikh missionaries at Kabul. Kabul (66) is 12 stages from But Bamia. He stayed in the stable of king of Kabul. King heard of him and came over. After discussions the king was pacified. There is a dharamsal known to be of Sri Chand Ji People throwing stones on Baba Sri Chan were blinded. Seeing this, the king donated a Jagir of Rs. 1 lakh. The priest was Udasi named Pritam Das. The palaces of Babar Shah located 2 miles to the South and are made of marble. In Samvat 1576 (1519 AD), Guru Nanak went and sat close to the palaces. There is a platform Babe ka Thada (67). When Mardana started playing rebec, Babar could not restrain him and reached immediately. He saw a saint with a shining face. He paid regards and offered costly jewels and dry fruits. Guruji said, “what use these stones are for me?’ Babar said, “I have been to India twice but have not succeeded. Please pray.” Guru ji said, “Go. God will do well.”  The Guru spent some time in Kabul and journeyed ahead. Ghaduka From Qabul Guru Nanak came to Ghaduka which has a place commemorating Guru Nanak’s visit. On the hill of Ghaduka ‘Amir-Faqir’ of Hassar Des was doing meditation. He did not speak and had taken an oath that ‘if someone calls me I wll become his follower (murshad)’. Many saints, pirs and faqirs came and tried to make him speak but he did not. Guru Nanak sang a melodious hymn which attracted him instantly and spoke out. He fell at Guruji’s feet and his followers played music to honour Guruji. When Guru Nanak was about to leave, the faqir requested for Guru’s next visit. Guru nanak said, “Whenever you remember I will be present again.” People sitting around questioned, “How will be come to know of it?” Guru Nanak said, “Natural music will play then.” Fair used to be held on each Poornima (full Moon night) and people used to come from far and near. There is a mile high sand dune looking like a huge wall. There is no sand elsewhere. The congregation crosses and gives a winning call and the natural music is heard from the sand dune. All the pilgrim bring sand down with their feet at night and lie down over it and at night. In the morning they find the sand again in the hill instead of the ground.  Ghaduka (69) Guru Nanak came here from Ghaduka. There is his place commemorating Guruji’s visit).  In Gharuka, 25 kms from Kabul, It is said that the sand gaiters in the form of a mount during the day and spreads out during the night. Early in the morning the noise of the horses' hoofs is heard. The music is also heard during the night. There is a Sikh temple at Gharuka in honour of the visit of the Guru.