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Gurus Guru Granth Sahib

Discussion in 'Sikh History' started by Neutral Singh, Jun 26, 2005.

  1. Neutral Singh

    Neutral Singh
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    ( 1708 - For Ever )

    The Guru Granth Sahib (Punjabi: ਗੁਰੂ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ਸਾਹਿਬ, gurū granth sāhib) is a holy book revered as the 11th Guru of Sikhism, the physical form of the living Guru of the Sikhs.

    The Guru Granth Sahib is given the honorific prefix "Sri" which denotes its holiness for Sikhs.

    The Guru Granth Sahib became the Guru of the Sikhs and successor to Guru Gobind Singh on October 1708, when the 10th Guru made Sri Guru Granth Sahib the 11th and final eternal Guru.

    The Adi Granth is the composition compiled by Guru Arjan (also known as Guru Arjun), however it does not contain the hymns of the 9th Guru, Guru Tegh Bahadur. The Adi Granth was compiled by Guru Arjan in the year 1604. The Granth was made a living guru by the last of the living Gurus, Guru Gobind Singh in 1708. Guru Gobind Singh said before his demise that the Sikhs were to treat the Granth as their next Guru.


    In Sikh religion the word 'Guru' is not denoted to its usual meaning such as a teacher or an expert or a guide or a human body, but this is composed of two words- GU and RU.
    • GU means darkness and RU means Light i.e.
      Light that dispels all darkness is called

    When Impersonal God manifested His attributes in person, that person was called Guru Nanak:
    • 'Jot rup har aap gur nanak kahayo.'
      (Swayas Bhattan- p.1408)
    Guru Nanak was thus the embodiment of Divine Light.
    • 'In the true Guru (Nanak), He installed His Own Spirit,
      Through him, God revealed Himself.'
      (Asa di Var, pauri 6, page 466)
    Guru Nanak seated Bhai Lehna (later called Guru Angad) on his throne, placed five paise and a coco-nut before him, and then bowed to him declaring him as GURU ANGAD. When Guruship was conferred on Guru Angad, he too became the embodiment of Divine Light.
    • 'Jot uha jugat sai, seh kaya pher paltiae.'
      (Sata Balwand, p-966)
      'The Divine Light was the same,
      The Way and Mode were the same,
      The Master had merely changed the body.'
      (Translation of the above)
    The most important point to remember here is that the people bowed to Guru Angad ONLY when JOT was installed in him. No body bowed to him before the Guruship, which means the Sikhs did not bow to the human body (of Guru Angad) because human body was not Guru, but to the Divine Light which was passed on to that body by Guru Nanak.

    The same process of conferring the Guruship continued till the tenth Guru. Then the tenth Master, Guru Gobind Singh seated the Adi Granth (the Holy Scripture- the Divine Word) on the throne of Guru Nanak, placed five paise and a coco- nut before it and then bowed declaring it as the Last Guru for ever. When the Guruship was passed on, Guru Granth Sahib too became the embodiment of Divine Light. It should, therefore, be remembered very clearly that bowing before Guru Granth Sahib as Sikhs do, is not a bowing before a book, but it is a bowing before the Divine Light or JOT (Guru) which was passed on when the Guruship was conferred upon it.

    In Sikh religion the word 'Guru' has been used in three inter-related aspects:
    • Firstly it is used for God, the All-Pervading Divine Spirit, the Divine Light:

      'The Guru is Beneficent, the Sanctuary of peace,
      The Guru is the Light of three worlds,
      He is the Eternal Being,
      O Nanak, he who believeth in Him, attaineth peace.'
      (Slok Mohalla 1, p-137)
      'The Guru is All-Powerful,
      The Guru is the Formless Lord,
      The Guru is the Highest, Fathomless and Limitless,
      Ineffable is His praise; what can a sayer say?'
      (Sri Rag Mohalla 5, p-52)

      'The Guru is Infinite God Himself
      Nanak, meditate upon such a Guru day and night.'
      (Asa Mohalla 5, p-387)
    Secondly the word 'Guru' is also used for Guru Nanak as he was the Embodiment of God's Light:
    • 'Guru Nanak is the perfect Guru,
      With the true Guru I meditateth upon God.'
      (Ramkali Mohalla 4, p-882)

      'Guru Nanak is the true Guru,
      The true Guru taketh me to God.'
      (Kanra Mohalla 4, p-1310)

      'The Guru and God are one
      , Divine Master pervadeth everywhere.'
      (Sri Rag Mohalla 5, p-53)
    Thirdly the word 'Guru' is used for Gurbani, the Divine Word. Since Gurbani came direct from God, and as there is no difference between God and His order (Divine Word), Gurbani is Guru too:
    • 'The Word is the Guru,
      And the Guru is the Word,
      The Guru's Word is full of life-giving Elixir,
      Whosoever shall obey, what the Word commandeth,
      Verily he shall get salvation.'
      (Nat Mohalla 4, p-982)

      'The Word is the True Guru and True Guru is the Word,
      And the Word revealeth the path of salvation.'
      (Kanra Mohalla 4, p-1310)

    Guru Granth Sahib does not narrate the life story of Guru Nanak, but each and every word is dedicated to the Glory of the Almighty God only. It is not a reproduction of earlier religions, but the Divine Word (Gurbani) came to the Gurus direct from God. Guru Nanak stated that it was not his philosophy, it was not his understanding and it was not his thinking, but the Word was coming to him direct from God and he was simply delivering His message to the world. As he confirms:
    • 'O Lalo, as comes the Divine Word from Lord to me,
      So do I narrate it.'
      (Tilang Mohalla 1, p-722)

      'I have said what Thou commandeth me to say.'
      (Wadhans Mohalla 1,p-566)
    This was repeatedly confirmed and emphasized by all the Gurus in their Bani such as:
    • 'From God springs ambrosial Gurbani
      The exalted Guru narrates and preaches the same to world.'
      (Majh Mohalla 3, p-125)

      'This Word comes from Him, Who hath created the World.'
      (Mohalla 4, p-306)

      'This Word that hath come from God, It dispelleth all woes and worries.'
      (Sorath Mohalla 5, p-628)

      'I speak but the Will of the Lord,
      For, the Lord's devotee narrateth the Word of the Lord.'
      (Sorath Mohalla 5, p-629)

      'Whatever the Lord hath instructed me,
      Hear, O my brother.'
      (Tilang Mohalla 9, p-727)
    The tenth Master, Guru Gobind Singh established the same truth that it was God's Word that was being revealed through the Gurus:
    • 'Whatever the Lord sayeth to me
      I say the same to the world.
      ' (Guru Gobind Singh)
    The Janamsakhi (biography) reveals that Guru Nanak many times said to his minstrel Mardana, "Mardana, start playing the rebec, Gurbani (Divine Word) is coming." And the Divine Word was then recorded. That Divine Word is GURBANI- Guru Granth Sahib.


    Guru Granth Sahib was not written by the devotees after the Gurus had gone, but it was dictated and compiled by the Gurus themselves. Thus it is the Authentic Divine Scripture. No body is allowed to change even a comma or a period out of 1430 pages. The seventh Guru's son, Ram Rai, changed the meaning of only one verse to please the Emperor, Aurangzeb, upon which he was excommunicated for ever by his father (the seventh Guru), thereby establishing the fact that no one could ever change the God's Word, the Gurbani.

    Max Arthur Macauliffe, an English writer, delivered a speech in Punjabi language at Akal Bunga, Amritsar in 1899, the translation of which is:
    • "There is another point to the merit of the Sikh religion that the founders of other religions in this world never wrote even one line with their own hands. You might have heard that there was a very famous Greek philosopher called Pythagoras who had many followers, but he never left behind anything written by him from which we could have known about the principles of his sect. After him came the second Greek philosopher named Socrates who was born in 500 B.C. He became a very famous religious leader who claimed that he was receiving Divine instructions from God within himself, which persuaded him to do good and prohibited from doing any evil deeds. But he too never left anything behind written by him which could have shed light on his philosophy and its principles. Whatever we know about him, has only come through the writings of his follower, Plato. Besides there came Mahatma Buddh in India and he never wrote anything with his hands. After that came Christ who did not write anything himself. His teachings are only known through Bible. However the Sikh Gurus acted quite opposite to all these religious leaders that they themselves dictated their message of Truth and compiled Guru Granth Sahib. In that respect the Sikh religion is far ahead than others."

      (Translation Sri Guru Granth Sahib- pothi 1,p-gaga, by Bhai Vir Singh)

    In Hindu mythology the word 'OM' always meant for God as monotheistic. Then they started interpreting it as more than one God. Guru Nanak put an integer '1' before it and a kar (a semi- circle) after it. Thus it becomes 'EK-OM-KAR' and by doing so, he sealed the position for ever meaning 'There is One and only One God'. Therefore Guru Granth Sahib uniquely begins with integer One ('1'). The One Absolute is the monotheistic conception of God and is represented by numerical symbol here. One God does not only mean numerically one but Unique without a second like Him.

    Guru Granth Sahib begins with Mool-Mantar or the Preamble of japji which is the Essence of the whole Guru Granth Sahib:


    Ajuni, Saibhang

    There is But One God
    He is the Eternal Truth
    The Creator, All-Pervading
    Divine Spirit Unfearful, Without hate and enmity
    Immortal Entity
    Unborn, Self-Existent
    Realized by His Own Grace
    (the Guru)

    The next verse is generally called Sach (True) Mantar:

    Aad Sach
    Jugad Sach Haibhi Sach
    Nanak Hosibhi Sach

    Meditate upon
    Who was True before the Creation
    Who was True in the beginning of
    Who is True now, and
    O Nanak, Who shall be True for ever.Guru Arjan Dev had accomplished a task by authenticating the diverse compositions and prepared the Adi Granth for the benefit of his followers. Since the work had remained where it was left, Guru Gobind Singh included in it the Bani of Guru Tegh Bahadur and put the seal of Finality on it. Subsequently this finalized version of the Adi Granth was invested with the Guruship by Guru Gobind Singh.

    Guru Granth Sahib is the only refuge for a man tossed about in the furious ocean of worldly existence. It helps a person to live by certain directives or moral codes which are necessary for the achievement of salvation.

    Man is the epitome of God's creation. This human body is attained after transmigrating through various lower species. Guru Granth Sahib advocates the excellence and utility of human life because it is through human form that a person can attain final emancipation. Man has great capacity for conscious awareness which helps him reach the desired spiritual goal. Therefore, all teachings and exhortations for spiritual enhancement are addressed to man in Guru Granth Sahib. Man's material values are listed as false, 'koor':
    • "False are kings, false their subjects, false the whole world;
      False are mansions, false palaces, false those who dwell therein;
      False is gold, false sliver, false he who weareth them;
      False husbands, false wives, they pine away and become dust.
      Man who is false, loveth what is false, and forgetteth the Creator.
      With whom contact friendship? The whole world passeth away.
      False is sweetness, false honey, in falsehood shiploads are drowned-
      Nanak humbly asserteth- Except Thee, O God, everything is thoroughly false."
      (Asa di Var- Slok Mohalla 1, p-468)
    Guru Granth Sahib signifies the importance of Nam by identifying it with the Guru. Nam releases man from all his previous sins, sorrows, sufferings and cycle of birth and death. No rituals, no alms, no sacrifices, no fasts and no penances equal Nam.

    Guru Granth Sahib initiates a disciple on the path of spiritual progress and guides him at the various stages of his journey to God. It is a ship that steers clear a devotee through the ocean of Maya (Materialism), thus, leading the human soul to its ultimate destination which is the Absolute Bliss.
    • "The fearful ocean of the world is dangerous and formidable; it hath no shore or limit,
      No boat, no raft, no pole, and no boatman;
      But the true Guru hath a vessel for the terrible ocean,
      and ferrieth over him on whom he looketh with favor."
      (Sri Rag Mohalla 1, p-59)
    Guru Granth Sahib is completely authentic and is preserved in its original form. It is a highly valuable possession which Sikhs have received from God through Guru Nanak and is held in supreme reverence by them.

    In 1708 AD at Sri Hazoor Sahib, Nanded with 5 Singhs in the Hazoori (Presence) of Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji, Sri Guru Gobind Singh Ji uttered the following in front of all those presence as a command:
    “With the blessing of God the Khalsa Panth was created, all Sikhs have a commandment to believe in Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji, which is the living embodiment of the 10 Guru’s. Whatever you desire can be obtained by meditating on the Shabad (Verses) of Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji.”​
    The names of the 5 Singh’s present were:

    1) Baba Gurbaksh Singh Ji, who was martyred fighting against Ahmed Shah Abdali’s forces, his place of martyrdom was behind Sri Akhal Takhat Sahib.
    2) Baba Deep Singh Ji Shaheed
    3) Pyare Bhai Dharam Singh Ji
    4) Bhai Santokh Singh Ji (Sevadar Sri Hazoor Sahib)
    5) Bhai Heer Singh Ji (author of Guru Ji’s daily diary)
    Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji was first compiled by Sri Guru Arjan Dev Sahib Ji at Amritsar between 1600-1604, Guru Ji narrated the Gurbani and Bhai Gurdas Sahib Ji was the scribe. Guru Sahib had collected the works of the previous Gurus and then added works from other saints and their own utterances of Gurbani. Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji was first installed at Harimandar Sahib (Golden Temple, Amritsar) on the 16th of August 1604 with Baba Buddha Sahib Ji being the first Granthi.
    Sri Guru Gobind Singh Sahib Ji gave the final form to Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji by including Sri Guru Teg Bahadar Sahib Ji’s Bani in the period 1705-1706. Bhai Mani Singh Ji was granted the seva of being the scribe. Just before His departure from the world on the 7th of October 1708, Guru Sahib installed Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji as the Sikhs final and everlasting Guru. Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji consists of 1430 Aangs (pages/limbs) and it contains the Banis (the sacred compositions) of the first five Gurus and the ninth Guru as well as a number of passages of verses written by several saints from Muslims, Hindus and even so called "untouchables". This was done to demonstrate the Sikh respect for other saints and tolerance for all faiths. Altogether, Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji includes 5894 Shabads (hymns or holy verses) which are arranged in 31 Ragas (musical measures). The first verse is Mool Mantar (or Mantra), the Root Verse, followed by daily prayer or Nitnem. The remaining verses have been arranged according to their individual musical patterns or Ragas which began with Siri Raga and end with Jai-jiwanti.
    Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji is an anthology of prayers and hymns. Most of the hymns are addressed to God and often describe the devotee's condition: his aspirations and yearning, his agony in separation and his longing to be with Lord. The subject of Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji is truth: how to live a truthful living, that is, an ultimate for an ideal person. As Sri Guru Nanak Dev Ji states in the Mool Mantar, God is the Ultimate Truth and one has to cultivate those qualities which are associated with him, in order to like Him. The basic concept behind the hymns is that sacred music, when sung or listened to with devotion and undivided attention, can link the individual's consciousness with God. A mind may become stable and enjoy the peace of His divine Presence, as listening to the hymns can exert a powerful influence on the mind and help to establish its communion with God.
    In Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji, revelation and Raga go hand in hand. The Gurus were emphatic about the religious value of sacred music or Kirtan and stressed its continuous use, as source of divine joy and bliss. Sacred music is fine art wedded closely to the spiritual theme. It is devotional music in praise of the Glory of God conveyed by melody and rhythm. The goal or objective of Kirtan is to put the individual soul in tune with God.

    Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji also conveys the Word of the Master through His messengers on earth. It is universal in its scope. The greatness of Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji lies not only in its being the holy scripture of the Sikhs but also in it being a general scripture available to mankind, intended for everybody, everywhere.
    Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji also explains what Sri Guru Nanak Dev Ji meant by a "perfect individual" or a Gurmukh. It is a remarkable storehouse of spiritual knowledge and teachings. It does not preach any rites or rituals but stresses meditation on the Name of God. Through its teachings, it can enable men and women to lead a purposeful and rewarding life while being productive members of a society. It seeks universal peace and the good of all mankind.
    Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji also stresses the democratic way of life and the equality of all people. It teaches that we are Karm Yogis, that is, we reap what we sow. The emphasis is on moral actions, noble living and working for the welfare of all people. Respect and veneration for Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji does not imply idol worship, but rather respect for a divine message, the ideas and ideals contained in the Sikh scripture. Meditation on the True Word, 'Satnam' or the Wonderful Enlightener, 'Waheguru', or on any line of a verse in Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji, may bring the true devotee or disciple to be in tune with God.


    Gurus: Sri Guru Nanak Dev Sahib Ji, 974 compositions in 19 different rags
    Sri Guru Angad Dev Sahib Ji, 62 Saloks within the Vars
    Sri Guru Amardas Sahib Ji, 907 compositions in 17 different rags
    Sri Guru Ramdas Sahib Ji 679 compositions in 29 different rags
    Sri Guru Arjan Dev Sahib Ji, 2218 compositions in 30 different rags
    Sri Guru Hargobind Sahib Ji, added the tunes to 9 out of the 22 Vars
    Sri Guru Teg Bahadar Sahib Ji, 115 compositons in 15 different rags
    Sri Guru Gobind Singh Sahib Ji, 1 dohra in Salok Mahala 9, Ang 1429


    Bhai Mardana Ji, 3 Saloks in 1 rag
    Baba Sundar Ji, 1 hymn in 1 rag
    Bhai Satta Ji & Bhai Balwand Ji, 1 Var in 1 rag


    Beni Ji, 3 compositions in 3 different rags
    Bhikhan Ji, 2 hymns in 1 rag
    Dhanna Ji, 4 compositions in 2 different rags
    Farid Ji, 134 compositions in 2 different rags
    Jai Dev Ji, 2 compositions in 2 different rags
    Kabir Ji, 541 compositions in 17 different rags
    Namdev Ji, 60 compositions in 18 different rags
    Parmanand Ji, 1 hymn in 1 rag
    Pipa Ji, 1 hymn in 1 rag
    Ramanand Ji, 1 hymn in 1 rag
    Ravidas Ji, 41 compositions in 16 different rags
    Sadhna Ji, 1 hymn in 1 rag
    Sain Ji, 1 hymn in 1 rag
    Surdas Ji, 1 verse in 1 rag
    Trilochan Ji, 4 compositions in 3 different rags


    Kal, Kalsahaar, Tal, Jaalap, Jal, Kirat, Sal, Bhalah, Nalah, Bhikkhaa, (Bhats) Jalan, Das, Gyand, Sewak, Mathura, Bal, and Haribans, 123 Swayas singing the praises of the first 5 Gurus


    Panjabi, Sanskrit, Sindhi, Western Panjabi/Lehndi, Arabic, Persian, Gujrati, Marathi, Eastern Hindi, Western Hindi, and Eastern Apabhramsa.
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  3. kaur-1

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    Jul 10, 2006
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    NANAKSHAHI Calendar.

    Gurgaddi Divas Guru Granth Sahib Ji:
    6 Katik (20 October) 1708
  4. kaur-1

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    Jul 10, 2006
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    See http://www.sikhphilosophy.net/46760-post16.html

    Its not 'EK-OM-KAR'. Its "EK Ong Kar" or "Ek On Kar" or "ik oankaar"

    See Mool Mantar

    The word 'O-ankaar' denotes that God manifests Himself ceaselessly throughout His Creation in diverse forms, features and colours, and in this way becomes knowable to man. But, in spite of manifesting Himself diversing, God remains One; He remains Immanent in His Creation, while at the same time remaining Transcendent. This God is at once One and Many implying Unity in Diversity. Kapur Singh suggests Oan = Transcedent, -kar = Immanent. The Mandukopanishad defines the word as: "That which was, is, will be, is all Onkar. And that which triple transcends is Onkar too.""

    See http://www.sikhphilosophy.net/japji-sahib/1612-mool-mantar.html
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