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Gurdwaras Related to Guru Nanak in Kapurthala District

dalvinder45

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Jul 22, 2023
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Gurdwaras Related to Guru Nanak in Kapurthala District

Dr Dalvinder Singh Grewal

Kapurthala is a district of Punjab state in northern India with Kapurthala as the district headquarters. Its population is 815,168 people by the 2011 census. The district is divided into two noncontiguous parts, the main Kapurthala-Sultanpur Lodhi portion and the Phagwara tehsil or block. Sultanpur Lodhi part lies between north latitude 31° 07' and 31° 22' and east longitude 75° 36'. Phagwara tehsil lies between north latitude 31° 22' and east longitude 75° 40' and 75° 55'. The total area of the district is 1,633 km (1,015 mi) of which 909.09 km2 (351.00 sq mi) is in Kapurthala tehsil, 304.05 km2 (117.39 sq mi) is in Phagwara tehsil and 451.0 km2 (174.1 sq mi) is in Sultanpur Lodhi tehsil. The economy of the district is still predominantly agricultural. According to the 2011 census Kapurthala district has a population of 815,168,[1] Religion in Kapurthala district (2011)[2] Sikhs (55.66% ) are the majority in Kapurthala district, and dominate rural areas.

Guru Nanak Dev Ji’s sister Bebe Nanaki was married in Sutanpur Lodhi. His brother-in-law Jai Ram got him appointed as the store keeper of Nawab dault Khan, the Nawab of Sultanpur Lodhi. His attachment to his elder sister and his job got him bound to Sultanpur Lodhi for nearly half of his life. Even after marriage he stayed at Sultanpur Lodhi and his local itineraries and his first two long journeys also started from Sultanpur Lodhi. Sultanpur Lodhi thus remained the hub Centre of his activities before the itineraries.

Sultanpur Lodhi
The town is situated on the banks of the River Bein, around 28 kms from Kapurthala. This town is known for its historical Gurudwaras, related to the life & times of Guru Nanak Dev Ji, the first Sikh Guru. Guru Nanak Dev Ji spent nearly 14 years of his life here before setting out on his famous travels (Udasis) to

deliver his message around the world. His sister, Bebe Nanaki, lived in this town with her husband, Jai Ram, an official in the service of Nawab Daulat Khan Lodhi, a feudatory Chief, who became the Governor of the Province of Lahore during the first quarter of the 16th Century. The town assumes importance as Guru Nanak Dev Ji attained enlightenment here. Sultanpur Lodhi is held in great sanctity by the Sikhs. Important places related to Guru nanak dev ji in Sultanpur lodhi are as under

  • Gurudwara Bebe Nanaki Ji
  • Gurudwara Sri Hatt Sahib
  • Kali Bein
  • Gurudwara Sri Guru Ka Bagh
  • Gurudwara Sri Ber Sahib
  • Gurudwara Sri Sant Ghat
  • Gurudwara Sri Antaryamta
  • Gurudwara Sri Kothri Sahib
After reaching Sultanpur Lodhi, he stayed at his sister’s house. When he got appointed to Daulat Khan’s stores as store keeper, he initially stayed at her house.
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Gurdwara Bebe Nanaki: Guru Nanak came here from Talwandi Rai and stayed with his sister Nanaki.
He worked in Daulat Khan’s stores from Bebe Nanaki’s house initially.

Gurdwara Hutt Sahib
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Gurdwara Hutt Sahib

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Weight measurers (Vatte) used by Guru Nanak preserved at Gurdwara Hutt Sahib

Guru Nanak joined the service of Nawab Daulat Khan Lodhi and took over the charge of his storehouse. The 16 white stones (photo attached) with which Guru Nanak measured the grain for distribution are preserved at this place. While measuring, Guru Nanak got connected with the Lord. When he reached the count 13, he continued saying ‘teran, teran; meaning ‘I am yours O Lord’ and went on filling the bag of a poor lady. A butt tree of Guru Nanak’s time is preserved here. It has 18 acres of land attached to it.

Guru Nanak Sahib Ji was knotted in marriage at the time he had been doing Storekeeping in Sultanpur. He had been living with his sister Bebe Nanki and his brother-in-law Jai Ram Ji. Nawab Daulat Khan Lodhi was very happy that Nanak had been performing his work very competently. But sister Nanaki and brother-in-law Jai Ram were thinking otherwise. Though Nanak was doing his duty satisfactorily he was not saving money. He used to distribute his own earnings to the poor and the needy. He was serving the saints and the holy men without any discrimination of caste or creed. Bebe Nanaki was of the view that if Nanak married then his habits would also get changed. She thought that Nanak would save for his household and his attraction for the saints and holy persons would also diminish

One day she asked Nanak about his marriage. Nanak replied, “Do you consider me an ascetic or a recluse? I love God and I try my best to contemplate the Name of God. Married people can also do this without any hindrance. It would be my first duty to take care of my wife, all other engagements come next.” Bebe Nanaki felt very happy that Nanak had agreed to get married. She told Jai Ram that Nanak was not against marriage. Jai Ram had already been in touch with his friend Mool Chand. He had seen his daughter who was of marriageable age. Mool Chand was a resident of Batala, who had been working as a record keeper of the lands of Randhawa Jats of the village. Pakhoke. Jai Ram at once sent a messenger to Batala. He told the messenger to bring Mool Chand with him. Mool Chand reached Sultanpur Lodhi and saw Nanak. He at once gave his consent and told Jai Ram that his family would feel very happy by this alliance. Then Jai Ram obtained the approval of Mehta Kaalu Mata Tripta and felt very happy to hear the news.

Guru Nanak was eighteen when the marriage took place. His marriage was fixed on 24, Jeth 1544 Bikrami Mehta Kaalu, Mata Tripta, and their all relatives, and friends reached Sultanpur Lodhi. Thus the wedding party was formed in Sultanpur Lodhi. Many Sadhus also joined the marriage party. Nanak took leave of sister Nanaki and Mata Tripta after performing current rituals. The marriage party started on horses, camels, and carts for Batala. At the spot where the marriage party stayed, there was a mud wall nearby. An old woman came and warned the party to shift away from the wall as that was imminent to fall. But Guru Nanak said, “Mother! Don’t worry. This wall will stay forever.” This wall still stands at Batala and a beautiful shrine is constructed over it.
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Gurdwara Kandh Sahib Batala
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Place of Marriage of Guru Nanak Devji and Sulakhni ji at Batala
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Painting of marriage scene of Guru Nanak Dev Ji and Sulakhni Ji
After marriage he got a separate house (now known as Guru ka baag) where he stayed with his family and two sons Sri Chand and Lakshmi Das were born.
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Gurdwara Guru Ka Baag: It is close to Bebe Nanaki’s Gurdwara where Guru Nanak took up his residence. His family (Mata Sulakhnai) stayed with him at this place. His sons, Sri Chand and Lakhmi Das were born at this place. Baba Sri Chand was born on Sunday, 5 Sawan. Samwat 1551(1494 AD) and Lakhmi Chand was born on Monaday, 19 Fagan 1553 (1496 AD). The Gurdwara had 7 acres land attached to it.
As per daily practice Guru Nanak went for a bath in Vein River along with a helper.

Kali Vein in Sultanpur Lodhi in which Guru Nanak used to have bath daily
Gurdwara Ber Sahib
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Gurdwara Ber Sahib Sutanpur Lodhi
This Gurdwara is close to the bank of Vein River. After brushing his teeth with a twig of mulberery (Ber) he planted the twig on ground. This twig grew up to a very large tree. Its fruit is sweet.
Close to it, Guru Nanak had a bath in Vein River and came out quite late keeping every one worried. Gurdwara Sahib is constructed adjoining the tree and it had 50 Acres of land attached to it which is in the neighbouring villages. Village Saddal was the jagir on this Gurdwara once.

Gurdwara Sant Ghat:
This is the place where Guru Nanak came out of Vein after having been in communication with God for a considerable time. Guru Nanak sang ‘So dar(u) tera keha so ghar (u) keha jit(u) bah(i) sarb smaale.” (Japuji, p. 6:4)
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Gurdwara Sant Ghat Sutanpur Lodhi where Guru Nanak Dev ji emerged from Vein after 72 hours to pronounce, “There is no Hindu; there is no Musalman.”

This shrine is on the western outskirts of Sultanpur Lodhi away from the main cluster of shrines. It is in close proximity of the cremation ground. It is also the place where Guru Nanak composed Mool Mantra, the opening stanza of Japuji Sahib and also of Sri Guru Granth Sahib. Mool mantra is considered as the essence of Sri Guru Granth sSahib and tpart of daily prayer of Sikhs. (1) (Guru Nanak’s B;essed Trail, p. 29)

During bath Guru Nanak got orders from the True Lord to appear before Him. Nanak presented himself before God Who offered him a cup of nectar and ordered: “Nanak! This nectar is the cup of my Name. Drink it.” Guru Nanak obeyed and had the nectar. God was kind: “Nanak! I am with you. My pleasure is on you. Whosoever takes your name will have my pleasure. You go and recite My Name and get the people to recite. Keep unattached from the world. Remain reciting My Name, distributing alms, maintain cleanliness and serve mankind and meditate on Me. I have given you My Name. You do this service only.” …. “Nanak! Whomsoever you bless; they are blessed by Me. On whosoever you are pleased I am pleased too. My Name is Parbrahm Parmesar your name will be Guru Parmeshwar.”.‘Agia Parmesar ki hoi, jo Nanak Bhagat Hoa tan amrit da katora bhar(i) kar(i) agia naal mili’[1]….. “Nanak Nirankari, You have been sent to redeem the humanity in this darkage (Kalyug). You must get them remember and meditate on Me so that who unite with Me, can be delivered from all the sins and are relievedfrom the circle of life and death.”…“Deliver the message of Truth, Unity of God, equality and brotherhood of humanity to one and all. [2] He had orders to deliver the message of truth to the entire universe. He thus had received instructions of ‘seva, simaran and human redemption’, during his enlightenment where now stands Gurudwara Antaryamta Sahib, Sultanpur in Kapurthala Distt.

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Gurudwara Shri Antaryamta Sahib, Sultanpur Lodhi
Guru Nanak did not come out from Bein for quite some time causing the rumours that Guru Nanak has drowned. Guru Nanak’s return surprised all. On his emergence from the river, Guru Nanak called out: “There is no Hindu; no Muslim” People complained to Nawab Daulat Khan, who called Guru Nanak to his office. Guru Nanak declined this by saying that he is not now required to bother for anyone else other than God. At his audacity, people started calling him insane. The Guru asked Mardana to play rebec and sang:

Some call me a ghost; some say that I am a demon. Some call me a mere mortal; O poor Nanak! ||1 || Crazy Nanak has gone insane, after my Lord, the King. I know of none other than the Lord. || 1 || Pause || I alone am known to be insane, when I go insane with the Fear of God. I recognize none other than the One Lord and Master. || 2 || I alone am known to be insane, if I work for the One Lord. Recognizing the Hukam, the Command of his Lord and Master, what other cleverness do I have? || 3 || I alone am known to be insane, when I fall in love with my Lord and Master. I see myself as bad and all the rest of the world as good. || 4 || 7 ||[3]

On Nawab’s humble request Guru Nanak met him. Qazi sitting close the Nawab asked: “Nanak you say that there is neither any Hindu nor any Muslim; why do you say so? It may be right for Hindus but you cannot say this for Muslims.” Guru Nanak sang:

“It is difficult to be called a Muslim; if one is truly a Muslim, then he may be called the one. First, let him savor the religion of the Prophet as sweet; then, let his pride of his possessions be scraped away. Becoming a true Muslim, a disciple of the faith of Mohammed, let him put aside the delusion of death and life. As he submits to God’s Will, and surrenders to the Creator, he is rid of selfishness and conceit. O Nanak, when he is merciful to all beings, only then shall he be called a Muslim.”[4])

Qazi questioned: “What qualities a Muslim should have?” Guru Nanak replied:

“Let mercy be your mosque, faith your prayer-mat, and honest living your Quran. Make modesty your circumcision, and good conduct your fast. In this way, you shall be a true Muslim. Let good conduct be your Kaba, Truth your spiritual guide, and good deeds your prayer and chant. Let your rosary be the one is pleasing to His Will. O Nanak, God shall preserve your honor. || 1 || To take what rightfully belongs to another is like aMuslim eating pork, or a Hindu eating beef. Our Guru, our Spiritual Guide, stands by us, if we do not eat those carcasses. By mere talk, people do not earn passage to Heaven. Salvation comes only from the practice of Truth. By adding spices to forbidden foods, they are not made acceptable. O Nanak, from false talk, only falsehood is obtained. || 2 || First Mehl: There are five prayers and five times of day for the prayer; the five have five names. Let the first be truthfulness, the second honest living, and the third charity in the Name of God. Let the fourth be good will for all, and the fifth be the praise of the Lord. Repeat the prayer of good deeds, and then, you may call yourself a true Muslim. O Nanak, the false obtain falsehood, and only falsehood alone || 3 ||”[5]

The Qazi asked Guru Nanak Dev whether he was a Hindus or a Muslims. Guru Nanak Dev replied: “I am common to both.” “In case you are common to both them then come with us to offer Namaaz”. Qazi said. The Guru went along. Everyone stood in the Mosque in order to offer Namaaz & started offering prayers Guru Nanak Devkept standing straight. After offering Namaaz, Qazi asked angrily,“Why didn’t you offer prayers?” Guru Ji said, “Did you?”Qazi said, “Yes. Every one has seen me offering Namaz.” “But I found your attention at yoouur house worrying for the new born to your mare. You were worriedto keep her off the well,” Guru nanak said. Surprised he bowed to the Guru. Nawabasked, “You sould have joined me then.” But you were not here. You were busy haggling for horses in Qandhar.” Nawab was flabbergasted at Guru Nanak’s reply. Everybody bowed to Guru Ji’s feet in adoration & said: “Nanak is a saint with divine powers. He knows every one’s mind.”Nawab declared: “After seeing this nothing more is needed to be enquired.” Everyone bowed towards Guru Nanak. Guru Nanak recited:

‘Make good deeds the soil, and let the Word be the seed;
Irrigate it continually with the water of Truth.
Become such a farmer, and faith will sprout.
This brings knowledge of heaven and hell, you fool! || 1 ||
Do not think that your Husband Lord can be obtained by mere words.
You are wasting this life in the pride of wealth and the splendor of beauty. || 1 || Pause ||
The defect of the body which leads to sin is the mud puddle,
and this mind is the frog, which does not appreciate the lotus flower at all.
The bumble bee is the teacher who continually teaches the lesson.
But how can one understand, unless one is made to understand? || 2 ||
This speaking and listening is like the song of the wind,
for those whose minds are colored by the love of worldly attachments (Maya).
The Grace of the Master is bestowed upon those who meditate on Him alone.
They are pleasing to His Heart. || 3 ||
You may observe the thirty fasts, and say the five prayers each day,
but ‘Satan’ can undo them. Says Nanak, you will have to walk on the Path of Death,
so why do you bother to collect wealth and property? || 4 || 27||[6]

Hearing the hymn, Nawab again fell at Guru Nanak’s feet. The people around said,”God speaks in Guru Nanak.” Khan said, “My kingdom, wealth and property is all yours.” Guru Nanak said, “It is all yours. I do noit need anything material. I hand over what was with me and I shall be leaving now.” He asked Mardana to play rebec and sang a hymn testifying this:

This body fabric is conditioned by Maya, O beloved; this cloth is dyed in greed.My Husband Lord is not pleased by these clothes, O Beloved; how can the soul-bride go to His bed? || 1 || I am a sacrifice, O Dear Merciful Lord; I am a sacrifice to You. I am a sacrifice to those who take to Your Name. Unto those who take to Your Name, I am forever a sacrifice. || 1 || Pause ||
If the body becomes the dyer’s vat, O Beloved, and the Name is placed within it as the dye, and if the Dyer who dyes this cloth is the Lord Master — O, such a color has never been seen before! || 2 |
Those, whose shawls are so dyed, O Beloved, their Husband Lord are always with them. Bless me with the dust of those humble beings, O Dear Lord. Says Nanak, this is my prayer. || 3 ||
He Himself creates, and He Himself imbues us. He Himself bestows His Glance of Grace. O Nanak, if the soul-bride becomes pleasing to her Husband Lord, He Himself enjoys her. ||4 || 1 || [7]

All the present touched Guru Nanak’s feet including all the mendicants. Guru Nanak was very much pleased on them.

Guru did not return to the store. Some persons complained that, “Nanak has distributed the goods from stores to the public causing a great loss.” The Nawab did not believe them but got his stores checked to clear general conscience. There was a gain rather than the loss which the nawab offered him to take. Guru Nanak asked these to be distributed among the needy. As the Guru prepared to leave, all Hindus and Muslims bowed to him to see him off. The Nawab and Qazi were also among them. Guru Nanak moved out on his journey along with Mardana.[8]

There are nine historical Gurdwaras connected with the Gurus. Out of these, eight belong to Guru Nanak and one to Guru Arjan Dev Ji. These are (a) Guru ka Baag (b) Gurdwara Hutt Sahib (c) Gurdwara Ber Sahib (d) Gurdwara Antarymta Sahib (c) Gurdwara Bebe Nanki Sahib (f) Gurdwara Sant Ghat Sahib (g) Gurdwara Namazgah Sahib (h) Gurdwara Kothri Sahib.

Gurdwara Namazgah
:
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Namazgah




This is in the mosque to which Guru Nanak was taken by the Nawab and Qazi to offer Namaz. Finding the Guru not offering Namaz the Qazi questioned as to why Nanak did not offer namaz. Guru Nanak explained them what they were doing at that time of Namaz instead of linking themselves to God. Guru Nanak said, “Since both of you were busy in your worldy affairs and were not connected to God how I could join you. I was already tuned to the Lord.” They both felt ashamed and fell at Guru Nanak’s feet.

Gurdwarwa Kothri Sahib:
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Gurdwara Kothri Sahib Sultanpur Lodhi

Some officials of Nawab complained that Guru Nanak has not maintained the balance rightly since he was freely distributing the grains to the poor, causing a great loss to the Nawab. Proper stock taking of the store must be taken to ensure the loss. Believing those officials, Nawab put Guru Nanak in a small room (Kothri) for a day to account for the stores. After accounting, Rs 760/- were found extra to be given to Guru Nanak. Guru Nanak left Modi Khana at the time and asked the money to be distributed to the poor. Gurdwara has 3 acres land attached to it. Fifth Guru, Guru Arjan along with Guru Hargobind also visited Sultanpur from Amritsar while taking Hargobind to Dalla and returned by the same route. Five acres land is attached to the Gurdwara of 5th and 6th Guru

As per Gyani Gian Singh Guru Nanak started for global journey on 22 Katak Samwat 1558 Bikrami at the age of 32.[9] According toSukhdial Singh he started his first itinerary in March 1499 A.D (Falgun 1562 Bikrami) from Sultanpur Lodhi.[10] Piara Singh Padam, 1979, gives the dates of first itinerary as 1497/1501-1509. Khazan Singh, 1914, gives the start of first itinerary as 1556 Bikrami (1500A.D.). Thus period of start of first itinerary varies from 1495 AD to 1507 A.D. Evidence about these however is not confirmed by other sources. In general the dates are between1499 AD to 1502 A.D. It is most likely that the researchers who count his visit within Punjab generally consider 1499 or 1500 AD and those who do not count Punjab consider 1501 or 1502 AD. Dates given by Giani Gyan Singh, Dr Kohliand Dr Sukhdial Singh of 1stitinerary are; 1498-99 AD within Punjab and 1500 AD beyond Punjab will be considered here after. Guru Nanak left the job of Modi in 1499 AD after having been enlightened. Gurdwara Modi Khana commemorates his last job. Gurdwara Antaryatma Sahib Sultanpur Lodhi commemorates his enlightenment.

References
1. District Census Hand Book – Kapurthala" (PDF). Census of India. Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India.
2. "Table C-01 Population by Religious Community: Punjab". Census india.gov.in. Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India.
3. Punitinder Kaur Sidhu, Guru Nanak’s Blessed Trail (Punjab), Lonely Planet Global Limited, Punjab October 2019,
(a) Gurdwara Ber Sahib Sultanpur Lodhi, Kapurthala p. 19
(b) Gurdwara Hutt Sahib, Sultanpur Lodhi pp.20-21
(c)Gurdwara Bebe Nanki Sahib Sultanpur Lodhi, Kapurthala pp. 22-23
(d) Gurdwara Kothari Sahib Sultanpur Lodhi, Kapurthaa p 24-25
(e)Gurdwara Guru Ka Bagh, Sultanpur Lodhi, Kapurthala pp.26-27
(f) Gurdwara Sant Ghat Sultanpur Lodhi, Kapurthala pp.28-29
(g) Gurdwara Antaryamta Sahib, Sultanpur Lodhi, Kapurthala pp 30-31
 

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