- Jan 3, 2010
Documented Truth of Guru Nanak's Travels to Himalayan Region
Dr Dalvinder Singh Grewal
Ex Dean Research Desh Bhagat University
Dr Dalvinder Singh Grewal
Ex Dean Research Desh Bhagat University
Guru Nanak visited the globe to spread the message of God and Truth.1 He had four itineraries (commonly known as Udasis): 1. East 2. South 3. West 4. North. His third itinerary is towards North. This itinerary is also called ‘Sumer Udasi’ ‘Uttar Udasi’, ‘Himalaya Udasi’
Guru Nanak in Himalayas
Map showing Guru Nanak’s travels to Himalayan Region
Earliest accounts of this journey are found recorded in 'Varan-Bhai Gurdas' in brief. Bhai Gurdas (1551-1639)1 who writes:
"Baba (Nanak) viewed the extremities of the nine regions of the earth. He then ascended Mount Sumer where a company of Siddhas came into his contact".1 Sumer is the name of legendary mountain which has been identified as Mount Kailash.
All the Janamsakhis (hagiographies) have the records of Guru Nanak's visit to Mount Kailash/Sumer and to the adjoining areas. Janam Sakhi Bhai Bala has more details of this journey than other Janam Sakhis. Walait Wali Janam Sakhi records this journey under 'Uttar Khand Ki Udasi' or 'Third Udasi'. The description of dress worn by Guru Nanak in this journey is as follows, "Skin in feet (animal skin shoes) and on head (animal skin head cover), complete body covered and 'Tikka' (paste) of 'kesar' (vermillion) on forehead2. In this Journey his food was the flowers and fruits of a wild plant (akk).3 Accompanying him were Hassu Lohar (blacksmith) and Sihan Chhinba (tailor)4.
Janamsakhi Meharban written by Sodhi Meharban (1581-1640) gives the starting point of this Udasi as Sultanpur after Guru's discussions at Gorakh Hatri5. Janamsakhi Bhai Bala states Bala and Mardana as his companions. He gives the period of this Udasi to be after his visit to the West. All other Janam Sakhis describe this visit before his visit to the West. Start of this Udasi is given from Sultanpur. The places visited are given as Himachal, Sumer, Munafik Des and various mountains e.g., Hem, Sirdhar, Una, Koona, Meena, Seela, Eena, Ikhan, Girnar and Ulak. There are also records of his visits to Asrapan, Chittagong, Bisihar Island, Brahampur, Plaksha-dweep, Silmila Dweep, Suwaranpur, Deogandhar and Parsar Nama.
Janam Sakhi B-40 (Piar Singh) gives details of Guru's visit to Triya Das (Kamrup) (pp. 85-6), Sumer (pp. 86-91), Bhutan (pp. 124-5), Kashmir (pp. 125-6) and Himachal (pp. 139-40) in that order. Bala and Mardana are stated as his companions. This travel is shown after his visit to Mecca8.
Janam Sakhi, Bhai Mani Singh, a contemporary and devoted Sikh of Guru Gobind Singh, mentions that from Sri Lanka the Guru visited Kush Deep & Pushkar Dweep after leaving Jambu Dweep and visited Sumer thereafter. He also visited Meena Parabat. From Sumer, Guru Nanak went to Jammu. His visit to the North and East Asia is also covered under this Udasi9.
Though a bibliography has been given out at the end, important sources in addition to the Janamsakhis which give account to Guru Nanak's Sumer Udasi are as follows:-
(a) Bhai Behlo's Suchak Prasang, 'Bhai Behlo was a contemporary of Guru Arjan Dev. He died on 24 March 1706.'
(b) Baba Sarup Chand's Mahima Parkash' (Vartak), 1741.
(c) Parchian Sewa Das.
(d) Pracheen Panth Parkash by Rattan Singh Bhangu.
(e) Panth Parkash, Nanak Parkash, Twarikh Guru Khalsa and Gurdham Parkash by Gyani Gyan Singh pub between 1870 to 1892 AD.
(f) Nanak Parkash by Bhai Santokh Singh.
(g) History of the Sikh Religion by Khazan Singh, 1914 AD
(h) Guru Khalsa Twarikh by Gyani Lal Singh Sangrur, published by Lahore Book Shop, 1940 AD
(j) Life of Guru Nanak Dev ji by Late Dr. Trilochan Singh, pub by Delhi Sikh Gurdwara Board, 1969
(k) Guru Nanak and the Origin of Sikh faith by Dr. Harbans Singh, pub, 1969
(l) The Punjab Past and Present, Vol III, 1969, Part I & II: Guru Nanak’s Birth Quint-centenary Volume: Sources of the Life and Teachings of Guru Nanak, ed. Dr. Ganda Singh and pub by Punjabi University, Patiala,
(m) Sikh-Review, Guru Nanak Number, Vol XVIII No 197, Feb-March 1970,
(n) Travels of Guru Nanak by Dr. Surinder Singh Kohli, pub by Punjab Univ. Chandigarh, 1969
(o) Atlas Travels of Guru Nanak by Dr. Fauja Singh and Dr. Kirpal Singh pub by Punjabi University Patiala, 1976
(p) Sikh-Review, Guru Nanak Number Nov 1988, Vol XXXVI, No 419
(q) Guru Nanak’s Travels to Himalayan and East Asian Region: A new Light by Col DS Grewal, pub by National Book Shop, Delhi, 1995 AD
(r) Amazing Travels of Guru Nanak by Col Dr Dalvinder Singh Grewal, pub by SGPC, Sri Amritsar, 2002 AD.
(s) Enclopaedia Sikhim, Vol 1, Ed Dr harbans Singh, Punjabi University Patiala, 1992
(t) Gurdwara Kosh, ed Dr Jasbir Singh saran, Diljit Singh bedi, SGPC Sri Amritsar, 2013
Bhai Behlo Mentions Guru Nanak's visit to Siddh Matta, Nanak Matta, Kavroo Des (Kamrup) and Keet Raj ( Bhil Nath) and of the Guru meeting Madhur Bain, Develoot, Jhanda, Kamalnain etc, as well as Sidhas at Sumer. His material source appears to have been Janamsakhi Bhai Bala. Mahima Prakash (Vartak) of Baba Sarup Chand (1741) also mentions Sumer and Nanak Matta but no detailed accounts are given.
Parchian Sewa Dass record an account of Guru Nanak's visit to Sumer Parbat, meeting 84 Sidhas (including Gorakh Nath) and reciting Japji and Siddh Gosht at Sumer. This account too, appears to have been extracted from Janamsakhi Bhai Bala.
Rattan Singh Bhangu Shaheed (Pracheen Panth Prakash) also touches upon Guru Nanak's travels to Himalayan region in 'Pahile Mahalle Ki Sakhi' and mentions 'Rikhikesh, (Rishikesh), Gorakhmatta, Badri Nath and Kedar Nath as the places having been visited by Guru Nanak.
In Panth Prakash (1870 AD) (p 59-62) Giani Gian Singh gives the names of places visited in Sumer Udasi (Uttar Khand Udasi) by Guru Nanak as follows :-
Kangra, Jawalamukhi, Kehloor, Kiratpur, Gorakhpur, Nanak-Matta, Gorakh-Matta, Nepal, Sikkim, Bhutan, Himalaya Ranges, Man-Mahesh, Ahi-la-Chen, Al-la-Chen, Lhasa, China, Kashmir, Punger Des, Vaishno Devi, Kachhar (Kamroop), Assam (Kamroop), Manipur and Bangla-(Bangla Desh) during first Udasi. 11
In Twareekh Guru Khalsa, Guru 1, Part 1, (1892 AD) Giani Gian Singh 12 records the places of visit after Gorakhmata (Nanakmatta), Paudi, Kotduar, Gorakhpur, Sitamarhi, Raniganj, Dhomri, Shivpur, Brahmkund, Lakhimpur, Palti lake, Krishantal, Dhaulgarh, reaching Kathmandu in the month of Falgun Samwat 1572 (1516 AD) and sat near Pashupati Mahadev Mandir where the king came to Guru’s darshan. From there he proceeded through Lalita Patti to Sikkim and reached the then capital Tamlang.12 He sat on a hillock outside the city amd asked Mardana to play rebbec. He started singing a hymn which caused great attraction even among the birds and animals. People started gathering around and a large crowd gathered. Having listened to the hymn and the power of the words even the king became his follower and got the hymns of Baba (Guru Nanak) written in his own language. The local people read these remebering Guru Nanak. (pp. 129) 12
The traders from that country (Sikkim) came to Amritsar in Samwat 1943 (1886 AD). They gave these details. From here (Tamlang) he visited Darjiling, Changanam (Chungthang), passing by Kanchan Hills (Kanchanjunga) through many settlements and enjoying hills, he entered Bhutan and visited Amlang, Tashigaon, in Garukumbha and reached the capital near Tashisudan.. (p.130) 12
Khazan Singh in History of Sikhs (1914) generally follows the route given by Giani Gian Singh and states: “Thereafter the Guru started to Kot Duar, Gorakhpur, Sitamari, Raniganj, Dhomari, Shivpur, Brahmkund, Dhaulgarh, Kathmandu (visited in Phagan Samwat 1572 or 1516 AD) capital of Nepal, Lalitapatti, Tamlang in Sikkim, Bhotan, China, Tibbat, Askorda, Rawanrud and Mansarovar lakes, Tashkand, Yarkand, Ladakh, Gilgit, Askardu, Srinagar, Amarnath, Majal, Bhanal, Kishtwar, Bhadrwah, Lasach, Pangru, Manmahesh Hills, Dalhousi, Kullu, Mankot, Mansar, Baishnodevi, Riasi, Jammu, Bahu’s fort, the temple of Kali Goddess, Parmandal and then through the Kandi and Darp ilaqas reached Kartarpur in Maghar st. 1573 (1516 AD) and met his parents and other relations there. 13
The account of 'third itinerary' given by Giani Lal Singh Sangrur in 'Guru Khalsa Twarikh' (first pub. 1940) (p. 98-108) are more detailed and include new places visited during this journey. These include Sultanpur, Kalanaur, Gurdaspur, Dasuha, Kotla, Triloki Nath, Ghumeran, Kangra, Jwala Ji Mandir, Rawalsar, Chamba, Kulu, Bijlian-Mahadev, Braham Kotli, Manikaran, Doon Teerath, Kahloor, Kiratpur, Nalagrah, Handoor, Panjore, Dhara-Teerath, Mahisar, Bushehar, Dehradum, Masoori, Chakrata, Kashi, Gaumukhi-Ganga, Kahkadwal, Srinagar (Garhwal), Badri Narayan, Bhimkot Hills, Sumer Ranikhet, Garh Mukteshwar, Nainital, Gorakhmatta, Nanakmatta, Gorakhpur, Pauri, Kotdwar, Neemkhar, Ayudhya, Raniganj, Sitamarhi, Old Buxar, Kanchan-sanga, Janakpur, Chatar Nagar, Baghkshetar Teerath, Dhomri, Shivpur, Brahamkund, Lakhanpur, Laltaa-Patti, Tamlang, Chungthang, Kanchanjunga, Aamlang, Tashi, Garu Kunbha, Askrode, Chumbhail Mountain Range, Tibet, Lake Mansarovar, Kailash, Yarkand, Ladakh, Bhatlasa, Jhankar- River-banks, Shorkot, Lusak, Gilgit, Askardu, River Shesnang, Lake Wooler in Sri Nagar, Bhadarwah, Manmeh (Manmahesh), Kular, Dhaulidhar, Dalhousi, Mankot, Trikaata, Vaishno Devi, Jammu, Parmandli Teerath, Chalaini, Jasrota, Madhopur, Sujanpur, Pathankot, Gurdaspur, Sultanpur and Talwandi. The period given is from 15 Asu 1574, Bikrami to 17 Kartik Sambat 1575 (1517-1518 AD) and place of origin of Sumer Udasi is given as Kartarpur14.
Accounts by Bhai Santokh Singh (1883), Giani Gian Singh and Bhai Veer Singh generally follow Janamsakhi Bhai Bala. They however, try to eliminate myth which affected the authenticity of the account.
The researchers from universities and renowned research institutions include Punjab University 15, The Punjabi Univeristy 16,19, Dr. Trilochan Singh, Sikh-Review, Calcutta 17, 20, and Col Dr Dalvinder Singh Grewal 21,22. The route of Third itinerary of Guru Nanak which can be evolved from this available evidence is traced as per the map given below:
Guru Nanak’s Travel through Himalayas
After his first travel, on the request of Bhai Doda, Guru Nanak established Kartarpur and settled his family there. 'His later travels originated from Karatarpur itself. 23,24
Guru Nanak in Sikkim
Kingdom of Sikkim became the 22nd state of India on 26 April 1975. The Tibetan name for Sikkim is Drenjong (Wylie-transliteration: ´bras ljongs), which means "valley of rice" 96, while the Bhutias call it Beyul Demazong, which means '"the hidden valley of rice".97
‘This Himalayan state is situated between Tibet in North, Nepal in the West and Bhutan in the East. Guru Nanak came to Sikkim during his itinerary in 1516-1517 AD. In in Janmsakhis, there is a mention of Al Lachen and Bhutan.98 In this area there are many relics and two Historical Gurdwaras related to Guru Nanak; Guru Dongmar and Nanak Lama Chungthang under the aegis of Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee Sri Amritsar. Gurdwara Gurudongmar was originally constructed in 1970s and Sri Guru Granth Sahib was installed in 1978. It is however, kept open from April to Oct-Nov each year, temperature here being minus 350 Celsius and being glacier, it is covered with snow most of the year. On the request of the local Yak Graziers, Guru Sahib hit the snow with his stick and created a perpetual source of water. Ever since, the water at that point did not freeze thereafter. Next, the Guru went to Thanggu, Lachin, Chungthang, Lachung, Yumthang and Pyakochin. There is a Gurdwara in Chungthang as well. Guru Nanak’s foot prints on a stone are preserved there. A spring and a rice field also are relics of Guru’s gift to the people. In Pyakochin Guru’s footmarks and some words in Gurmukhi etched on a stone still exist.99
According to Giani Gian Singh (1892 AD) ‘from there (Nepal), having visited Darjeeling, he (Guru Nanak) went further to Sikkim country visiting the king at Tamlang, the then capital of Sikkim and sat on a hillock towards the north,. He visited Chungthang and Kanchan Parbat (Kanchanjunga) hill area. Enjoying the beauty of the hills, he entered Bhutan. 100
Tamlong District North Sikkim
Tumlong - Wikipedia
Khazan Singh (1914 AD) 101 and Giani Lal Singh (1940) 102 also mention of Guru Nanak’s visit to Tamlang and other areas in Sikkim. British author Edward Stanform (1892 AD) confirms that ‘Tamlang was the capital of Sikkim.103
Major N S Issar who visited Sikkim in 1965 AD 104 writes ‘We descended to the river bed and crossed Lachen Chu over a shaky cane bridge, swinging and bumping at each step. Village Chungthang had not seen any strangers in the recent past, hence the whole population welcomed us by beating of drums and chanting prayers…….Around a glittering Chorten, a red robed Lama came out briskly into the sun shine…….Behind the Chorten where Lama had appeared was a mound of solid black rock about 30 feet high and over 100 yards in diameter located in the centre of the meadow at the back of the village. Surprisingly it supported two huge trees at the top to give a deep cool shade and a trickling spring at its base was oozing cold refreshing drink…….During his apostolic sermons the guide uttered ‘Nanak’ which pricked our ears. We were now alert and all composed to decipher each word. He told us that a great personality called “Rimpoche Nanak Guru” while on his way to Tibet had rested on that mound. The Guru had brought his rice-meal packed in banana leaves, as is the custom even today in banana growing areas. The two commodities were unknown to hill folks. Guru having noticed their inquisitiveness bestowed them with a share of this strange cereal. They displayed forethought and instead of eating it away, sprinkled the rice all over the meadow and buried the banana packing in a corner. Today the village harvests a rich crop of rice and bunches of delicious banana. As it was crop season, we had the unique opportunity.104
….The moment the Head Lama Gelong Chang Chube at Lachung Gumpa finished with his introductory talk about the monastery, I dragged him on to the subject of ‘Mound in Chungthang village.’ He spoke fairly good Hindi hence there was no room for conjectures. He gave the name of the saint who visited that area (Chungthang) as “Rimpoche Nanak Guru of Punjab”. He also confirmed the legend of rice and banana plantation. He confirmed that he was unaware of any written records of Nanak’s visit but he confirmed that this myth was a firm belief among the locals. He gave further details of Guru’s journey. According to him Guru went to Tibet by that route. From there a track leads to Khora La which connects North Sikkim with Pahari or Chumbi Valley of Tibet. He also told us that on the outskirts of Pyakochen village, which is at the base of Khora La ridge, there is a stone with inscriptions in a non local language; probably in Hindi or Gurmukhi and it is common notion that it is a allegory giving details of Guru’s journey through that point…”104
Dr Trilochan Singh (1969 AD) quotes article of Surinder Singh of the Indian Defence Accounts Service: 105 Extract from his book 'Guru Nanak: Founder of Sikhism' published in December 1969 by Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee Delhi are reproduced below:
Quote: ‘During my two years' stay in North Bengal and Sikkim, I visited a large number of monasteries and on making enquiries; I found quite a few of the lamas mentioning Guru Nanak as a saint of theirs who had gone to Tibet from India. At a place called Ghoom a few miles from Darjeeling there is a Tibetan Monastery, where a large tankhah (a painting on cloth) is stated to be that of Guru Nanak…….It was at Gangtok that a civilian contractor told me of the existence of a Gurdwara in North Sikkim in memory of Guru Nanak…. It was in my third attempt during winter, that I reached Chungthang, the place where Guru Nanak stayed on his way to Tibet…. Unquote (pp. 234-235). 105
Shri JK Bhutia (interviewed in Nov-Dec 1987) (pp. 136-137) 106 and Head Lama of Lachen (interviewed in July 1988) (pp.138-140) 107also mention of Guru Nanak’s visit to Thanggu, Lachen, Gurudongmar and Chungthang mentioning generally the same route and stories connected with Guru Nanak’s visit to Sikkim. Head lama of Lachen also added, “The king (of Chaol) presented costly robes to the Guru. These clothes are preserved in this monastery and in the idols of this monastery you will find him wearing these. The blue gown shown in this idol is the one offered by the king. This we have preserved in lock and key. (Note: I saw this main idol which was about 15 feet high, of a saint in meditation. It was told to me to be belonging to Guru Nanak…. He also showed me Guru Nanak’s footprints on a stone.
On a question whether Guru Nanak visited Sikkim, the Head Lama of Lachen replied: “Yes, He visited numerous places in Sikkim and stayed there for about 85 days according to our records. The book is not at present here but is available at my home which I will bring and show it tomorrow. This book has complete records of Guru Nanak’s life and his visit to Sikkim specially. He also told of the places of Guru’s visit i.e., Thanggu, Chungthang, Gurudongmar, Sabula, Yumthang, Lachung etc". 107 The writer of this book went next day but the Lama was evacuated to Gangtok having fallen sick suddenly and I could not meet him . (p.140) 107 Sikkim was visited by Guru Nanak during his Sumer Parbat Udasi (third itinerary journey) around the year 1516 AD. 108
Guru Dongmar Lake:
Gurudongmar Lake the largest and one of the highest lake in Sikkim, resting in the lap of Kanchanjunga mountains, close to the Indo-China Border in the province of North Sikkim in a high plateau area next to the Tibetan Plateau. …The stream emerging northern side of lake joins the stream originating from the nearby lake Tso Lahmu, which later becomes River Teesta. The lake is flanked by two large lakes at its southern part. Its location is 280 02’ 07.88” N latitude and 880 Altitude: 5,148 m 42’ 44.36” E longitude Area:118 has Perimeter : 5.34 km The lake freezes completely during winter. Gurudongmar is the land of Yaks, blue ships and other high altitude animals. The road to Gurudongmar from Thanggu passes through the high alpine pastures carpeted with thick rhododendron bushes. The terrain leading to Gurudongmar is very hostile and yet very beautiful. The land resembles Tibetan plateau, vegetation is very limited and the road is through stony moraine like unpaved path. The lake shows the typical freezing cycle of very high altitude lakes. 109
Photos showing the frozen Gurudongmar Lake and the spot where water does not freeze
History of Gurudongmar Gurdwara:
Report about Guru Nanak’s visit to Kanchanjunga area was first reported by Giani Gian Singh in 1892 AD in Guru Khalsa Twareekh Guru 1, Part 1.110 Sub Major Bhullar located in 1970 AD (Gurdwara Board at Chungthang) and (Statement of Col Dr Dalvinder Singh Grewal at Annexure 1) According to Gurdwara Kosh Gurdwara Gurudongmar came into existence in 1970s. Major D S Grewal was involved in development and maintenance of the Gurdwara in 1987 to 1992 AD since this Gurdwara was in his area of responsibility. (Statement of Col Dr Dalvinder Singh Grewal at annexure 1) According to Gurdwara Kosh the Gurdwara Gurudongmar was initially a small one made of tin sheets 111 as seen in the photographs below
Various stages of Development of Gurdwara Gurdongmar: Gurdwara from 1987- 1993 113
Gurdwara was developed to a domed one in 1992 AD. 114
To develop it further a new Gurdwara buidling foundation stones was laid by Maj Gen PPS Bindra and Brig Charanjit Singh on 06 September 1997. These foundation stones has been existing at the site till 2017 AD. As the foundation stones are still existing on the walls of the Gurdwara show, the foundation of the Gurdwara was laid by Major Gen PPS Bindra AVSM and Brig Charanjit Singh on 6 September 1997 (Photos above). Previous to this only structure existed in which Sri Guru Granth Sahib was placed and regular functions were organized.
As told by eyewitnesses at Chungthang, Lachen, and Gurudongmar and later at Siliguri, desecration of Gurdwaras in Sikkim has been done sequentially in a planned manner, by Lachen Lama, under protection of SDM Chungthang and with the active connivance of the Government
Col Dr Dalvinder Singh Grewal was present in 1987 at Gurudongmar when a function was organized at the Gurdwara which showed that the Gurdwara existed even before that. He assisted in development and maintenance of the Gurdwara till 1992 AD. There was no other sign/board of interference of any other religion at that time. (Statement at Annexure 1) S Harbhajan Singh Setia visited the Gurdwara from 1992 AD onwards. In March 2000, Sardar Harbhajan Singh Setia who had been a regular visitor to the Gurdwara went to Gurudongmar along with 14 other Sikhs and reported that the religious sanctity of the historic Sikh Gurdwara constructed to commemorate Guru Nanak’s visit has been changed to a Sarva Dharma Mandir and idols wereplaced inside the sanctum sanctorum along with Guru Granth Sahib earlier installed. (Statement at Annexure 2) 115. President SGPC approached Defence Minister George Fernendez to get the desecration of historic Gurdwara stopped. Later in 2007 AD onwards Lamas from Lachen managed to get the control into their hands and changed it into a Boddhi complex by 2012 AD removing Khandas which existed till 2012. The earlier identity and sanctity of Gurdwara Gurudongmar Nanak Lama does not exist anymore as was found in 2015. Sri Guru Granth Sahib however, remained established in the Gurdwara till 2017.115.
There was no monument or flag of any religion except Sikh Nishan Sahib, in 1987 when Col Dr Dalvinder Singh Grewal (Statement at Annexure 1) visited the site. Larger Gurdwara and a board giving details of Guru Nanak’s visit to the place came up in nineteen eighties. However, Hindu and Boddh flags with a small Hindu temple started appearing nearby in 1999 AD as reported by S. Harbhajan Singh Setia during his visit. (Statement at Annexure 1 & 2) The matter was reported by Col Dr Dalvinder Singh Grewal to S. Gurcharan Singh Tohra president SGPC who sought personal intervention of Defence Minister, Mr George Fernedez.116 (National Herald 9 Jan 1999). The development was also reported in ‘The Sikh Review’ May 2001117issue. The Defence Minister asked the authorities not to interfere with the Gurdwara. The photos show the situation in 2002 as published in Col Dr Dalvinder Singh Grewal’s books, 'Amazing Travels of Guru Nanak, May 2002', and 'So Than Suhawa, 2002', published by Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee, Sri Amritsar. But again in 2005, a Sarav Dharma Mandir was created by Army. As per report from Siliguri Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee, Sikkim Govt started controlling the Gurdwara complex through Lachen Lama by 2010 in a clandestine manner. In connivance with some scrupulous elements in Army keeping the Sikhs completely in dark the Gurdwara was converted in to a Boddh type of structure as can be seen from the photographs and from the visit of SGPC team.
Attempts were made to convert Gurdwara into a Sarv Dharma Sthal after 2000 AD 2. Shape of gurdwara was gradually changed after 2010 AD. Nishan Sahib (Sikh Flag however flew) and Sri Guru Granth Sahib remained installed.
Sri Guru Granth Sahib in Palki at the Gurdwara as seen in 2015 AD. Photo Col Dr D S Grewal. Some idols and tankhahs were added which was objected to by President Shiromani gurdwara Parbandhak Committee through a letter. (copy attached an annexure 3).
A team of SGPC consisting of Sukhdev Singh Bhaur General Secretary SGPC, S Rajinder Singh Mehta, Executive Member SGPC, S Balwinder Singh Jaura Singha Additional Secretary Dharam Prachar SGPC, S. Satbir Singh Ex secretary SGPC and Col Dr Dalvinder Singh Grewal (this author) appointed by President SGPC to assess the situation of Gurdwaras in Sikkim visited all the places related to the visit of Guru Nanak. The team found Parkash or Sukhasan or prayers as per rehat maryada were disrupted. People entered even bare-headed. Smoking etc. was not banned. Gurdwara’s independent identity and sanctity did not exist anymore. The team approached for having a meeting with the Chief Minister Sikkim as per President SGPC’s letter. This was, however, not granted
During the visit to Gurdwara Gurudongmar the committee found the Gurdwara Nishan Sahib having been removed and a few idols and Tankhahs along side the Palki of Sri Guru Granth Sahib. This was a clear sacrilege of Sri Guru Granth Sahib since no idol is allowed to be placed near Sri Guru Granth Sahib as it against the tenants of Sikhism.
Gurdwara Sahib Nishan Sahib removed as can be seen from the pole and a Board of Guru Nanak’s visit to the lake was replaced by that of Boddh Guru as seen by the delegation in 2015 AD. Deliberate Sacrilege of the most sacred Sikh scripture venerated as living guru Sri Guru Granth Sahib on 16-08-2017 by Lamas of Lachen under the patronage of SDM Chungthang.
Despite of court insturctions for free passage to the Sikhs to go to Chungthang and Gurudongmar there is an undeclared ban on the Sikhs. This is done by threatening the drivers who convey Sikhs in their verhicles and causing puposeful delay in issuing of passes. Col D S Grewal could not visit Gurudongmar on 27 March 2015. On 24 April a group of 23 pilgrims from Chandigarh were not issued passes giving no rason. In the absence of any Sikhs to go and perform prayeers by the Sikhs, there has been continuous tempering of Gurdwara structure to make it look like a Bodhi complex. New flags have been installed and a shop has been opened in the Gurdwara periphery as can be seen from the photo produced in India Today.
Gurdwara Gurdongmar converted into a Budhist monastery foricbly and locked. A notice displayed outside for itsenovation as a Buddhist monastry as seen on 17/09/2017
New shop as shown in red linesconstructed in Gurdwara periphery at Gurudongmar
Guru Nanak’s travel to Chungthang was first referred in Giani Gian Singh’s book Twareekh guru Khalsa in 1892 AD.118. There after it was mentioned in Khazan Singh’s book in 1914 AD and Giani Lal Singh in his book in 1940 AD.119 Major NS Issar (1965 AD)120 gave the details of Guru Nanak’s visit to Chungthang as told to him by a Chungthang Lama and Lachung Lama. S. Surinder Singh IDSA (1968 AD)121 gave detailed account of the place as well as the existence of the Gurdwara at Chungthang. Dr Trilochan Singh (1969 AD)122, Dr Surinder Singh Kohli (1969 AD).123 Dr Harbans Singh (1969 AD) 124 and Major D S Grewal (1988 AD125, 1995 AD126) Col Dr Dalvinder Singh Grewal (2002),127 Encyclopedia of Sikhim Vol 1, 1992 p. 469, 128 and Gurdwara Kosh (2013)129 have the vivid account of Guru Nanak’s visit to Chungthang.
Encyclopedia Sikhism records: According to local tradition there (Chungthang) refers to the visit of Guru Nanak. (1469-1539)…..there was a severe famine in the area when the Great One arrived there. He sat on a stone mount near the teestra where upon the imprints of his feet are shown. The grateful villagers raised a Lha Khang (shrine) in memory of Guru Nanak who it is said had prayed for them and presented them with a ripe crop of grain ready to be harvested.128
Gurdwara at Chungthang existed before 1969 AD. Dr Tarlochan Singh quotes article of Surinder Singh of the Indian Defence Accounts Service121 : ‘Guru Nanak in Sikkim’ in his book Guru Nanak: Founder of Sikhism published in December 1969 by Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee Delhi. Abstracts of S Surinder Singh’s article from the book are reproduced below: Quote: …Certain maps published by Government of India show a shrine and police post in Chungthang. There are only a few houses in Chungthang. The major features are the shrine of Guru Nanak and the Sikkim police post. The local people also call the place ‘Nanak-Tang’. In the middle of the small valley there is a single hard stone looking like a stone 30 feet high and 200 feet in circumference. The village people have raised a feet high stone wall around it to maintain the sanctity of the place. The stone mound has a cave inside, whose mouth has been walled up with stones. On the top of mound; there are a few depressions. They are believed to be the footprints of Guru Nanak and the local people still pay their homage to these marks and the local people still pay their homage to these marks. I saw some small coins offered at a spot on the top marked by a stone, about 2 cubic feet, although there was no priest as such for the shrine. On the side of the mound there are crevices a few feet above the ground level through which water has been coming out of these for the past few centuries. The story that has come down from generation to generation as told by the local people is that, ‘Guru Nanak on his way to Tibet stayed here in the cave under the mound as the water in the river was very muddy due to the rains, he produced water from the side of the mound and since then the water keeps on coming out of the ribs of the mound. During the passage of the time the earth has come down from the hills due to rains and landslides and has covered up the sides of the mound to a sizeable extent and hence the cave which is otherwise quite large has been walled up.”………. I wanted to take away a few orchids with me as a symbol of Guru’s blessings and grace. They were not at first convinced by my argument but then an old man, pointing to my beard and turban, told them in their language that I was a follower of Guru Nanak and might be allowed to carry these orchids with me.’ unquote((pp. 234-235).121 The same article was later reproduced by The Sikh Review, Feb-March 1970
Photographs published in Dr Trilochan Singh Book Life History of Guru Nanak (1969 AD)
Major D S Grewal first visited the Gurdwara Chungthang in 1971 AD, (statement at annexure 1) when he was posted in Sikkim He was also told in 1971 about the existence of small Gurdwara at Gurdongmar then. He saw no signs of any other religion except Sikhism around teh Gurdwara.
Thanggu Lama told Major D S Grewal in June 1987125, 126: “While coming to this place you might have found a lovely valley: but it was a barren land when Guruji visited. Local people call Chungthang as Nanaktang. Guruji spent third and fourth night at Chungthang. (p.28)…. In the centre of the valley I could see Nishan Sahib by the side of the side of a huge boulder. I turned my jeep towards main gate of the Gurdwara and proceeded to the Gurdwara after parking my jeep at the gate. The fine decorated gate had recently been inaugurated by the local MLA.125
The Gate earlier inaugurated by the local MLA
Passing by the small paddy fields, the only ones in the entire valley……
Rice Field and the boulder as seen by Col Dr dalvinder Singh Grewal in 1992 AD
I was led to the boulder stone, where the two sets of footprints were clearly visible. Distance between each footprint was about 4 feet and these seemed to be marks of wooden sandals (khadawan). 125
Pathar Sahib and footmarks as seen in 1970
I saw the small spring by the side of the boulder also. It looked as if the portion of the boulder is scrapped by the fingers. The water emerged out of the holes made thereupon. The water was very clear and cool.125
Chasma as seen in 1992 AD by Col Dr Dalvinder Singh Grewal (Statement at Annexe 1)
Meanwhile the sewadar of the Gurdwara and Assam Rifles soldiers also joined and started giving out details. These details matched with the details given by Thanggu Lama.125
Gurdwara Sahib as seen in 1987 by Col Dr Dalvinder Singh Grewal
A nicely built Gurdwara, two living rooms, a storehouse and a showroom were constructed in the open area outside the wall around the stone. I was told that Sub Major Bhullar and the Assam Rifle soldiers had put tremendous effort for the construction of these buildings.125
The sewadar pointed towards a huge bent stick type tree and stated that it was the original stick (khundi) of Guru Nanak.125
The tree planted by Guru Nanak
The Gurdwara at Chungthang is now called Gurdwara Nanak Lama. The local M.L.A. takes keen interest in the protection, maintenance and upliftment of the place. ‘Babe di khoondi’ is now a shapely tree which attracts the visitors and worshippers alike. The footprints are well preserved. The water from the spring is considered as a source of strength and sign of purity and being taken as charanamrit. The rice field is bounded by a wall and well secured. The kesri (suffron0 flag) can be seen from miles and no effort is needed to find the place as it is now in the centre of the valley as well as the town.” (pp. 69-70) (Guru Nanak’s Travels to Himalayan and east Asian Region: A New Light by Col D S Grewal, National Book Shop Delhi, 1995)
SGPC delegation consisting of Sukhdev Singh Bhaur General Secretary SGPC, S Rajinder Singh Mehta Executive Member SGPC, S Balwinder Singh Jaura Singha Additional Secretary Dharam Prachar SGPC, S. Satbir Singh Ex secretary SGPC and Col Dr Dalvinder Singh Grewal visited Gurdwara Chungthang in 2015 AD reported [Annexure 5]:
A new Gurdwara built through Kar Sewa was to be inaugrated in September 2015 AD. The local Buddhist and Lepchas and Bhutias paid obeisance at Gurdwara as well as at the relics of Guru Nanak. However, it was found that the previous boards mentioning the relics relating to Guru nanak was removed. The name of Nanak Lama from the two gates was removed. A high wall of stones was erected around the relics of Guru Nanak and new stones appeared showing it to be of Baja Guru and the development done by Government department. (Annexure 5)
New Gurdwara built by Baba Surinder Singh through Kar sewa
New gate constructed and Board of Guru Nanak’s visit replaced by boards of Padmasambhava’s visit. In place of Nishan sahib a new board displayed at the top of the boulder.
Following additions were found on 29 March 2018 during the visit of the undersigned to Chungthang which did not exist during the visit of the SGPC team in 2015.
The writing Guru Nanak Lama is now replaced by Name padmasmbhava
- The entire route is now covered with Buddhist flags
- Two new boards are put displaying a concocted account of visit of Padmasambhava to Chungthang of which no evidence exists.
- A board has been displayed on Pathar Sahib where earlier Nishan sahib existed.
- To put the Gurdwara in shadow a huge monastery is being erected in front a high Tower has been erected in the rear.
- In idol of Mahatma Buddha has been placed on Chashma sahib
- The rice field has been made unapproachable by erecting a wall
- All the relics connected with Guru Nanak at Chungthang and Lachen have been taken over by these lamas through administration (SDM who has created all problems).
- Sikhs are not even being shown Guru Nanak’s relics at Lachen
In fact there is no evidence to Padmasmbhava’s visit to Chungthang. I had discussed this with Director Institute of Tibetology in July 1987 who accepted it before me that it was Guru Nanak visited these places. The Lamas of Lachen, Lachung and Thanggu had confirmed to me during interviews in Aug 1987 that it was Guru Nanak who visited Sikkim Chungthang, Gurdangmar and other areas in Sikkim. I specifically asked that ‘are you confusing Guru Nanak with Padmasambhava?" He specifically mentioned that he was sure that it was Guru Nanak of Amritsar and not Padmasmbhava. It has been recorded in my articles and books published since 1988 onwards.
The wall and board erected by the State Government on the name of Beja Guru after removing the boards of Guru Nanak
The report was given to the Shromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee Amritsar. President SGPC again wrote to the Chief Minister Sikkim, Governor of Sikkim and Home Minsiter of India about the desecration of the Gurdwaras.[Annexure 6] waiting reply another delegation consisting of Rajindr Singh Mehta (member SGPC), Balwinder Singh Jaura Singha (Additional Secretary SGPC) and Col Dr Dalvinder Singh was detailed [Annexure 7]
In August 2017 it was reported that a wall was being erected in front of the gurdwara at Chungthang.
The President Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee again wrote to the Governor and Chief minister, Sikkim and Home Minister of India (copy at annexure 8 & 9) and sent a delegation to have a meeting with Chief Minister of Sikkim. To the utter shock however, on 16 August 2017 sacrilage of Sri Guru Granth Sahib was done by the local Lama under the protection and direction of SDM Chungthang as Sri Guru Granth Sahib was bundled alongwith other sacreds items and placed it on road side at Chungthang as shown above.
The Sikhs all over the world have been too hurt and were infuriated at the desecration of Gurdwarasa, sacrilege of Sri Guru Granth Sahib, foricble control of Guru Nanak’s relics at Chungthang and Lachen and conversion of Gurdwaras to Bodh Gomphas. Under these circumstances there was no course left for the Sikhs to than to approach the honourable courts.
However as the stay was granted by the Hon’ble court, the administration still issued letters asking for demolition of parts of Chungthang Gurdwara as well (Annexure 8-11) and press notes were issued by the state Government. (12).
1. Varan Bhai Gurdas; Shromani Gurdwara Parbhandhak Committee, Amritsar, Var 1/11 & Dr. Ganda Singh (ed.), 'Sources on the life and teaching of Guru Nanak', Birth Quincentenary Volume, The Punjab Past and Present, Vol. 111, Patiala, Punjabi University, 1969.
2. Walait Wali Janamsakhi (ed.) Dr. Kirpal Singh, Patiala, Punjabi University, P. 49.
5. Meharban Wali Janamsakhi (ed.) Dr. Kirpal Singh, Patiala, Punjabi University, P. 140-1.
6. Janam Sakhi Bhai Bala, Dr. Kirpal Singh, Patiala, Punjabi University, P. 259.
7. Ibid. P. 264-300.
8. Janam Sakhi B-40 (ed.) Piar Singh, Amritsar, Guru Nanak Dev University.
9. Janam Sakhi Bhai Mani Singh (ed.) Dr. Kirpal singh, Patiala, Punjabi University: p. 235.
10. Lal Singh (Gyani), Guru Khalsa Twareekh, Lahore Book Shop, Ludhiana, 1940 (3rd edn. 1985), pp. 99-108.
11. Giani Gian Singh, Panth Parkash, 1870, published Language Department Punjab, 1970 AD, pp. 49-51).
12. Giani Gian Singh, Twareekh Guru Khalsa Guru 1, Part 1,, Guru Gobind Singh Press, Sialkot, 1892 AD.
13. Khazan Singh, History of the Sikh Religion, 1914
14. Giani Lal Singh Sangrur (Gyani), P.108.
15. Dr. Surinder Singh Kohli, Travels of Guru Nanak: Punjab University, 1969 AD.,
16. The Punjab Past and Present 17, Vol III, 1969, Part I & II: Guru Nanak’s Birth Quintcentenary Volume: Sopurces of the Life and Teachings of Guru Nanak, ed. Dr Ganda Singh and pub by Punjabi Univeristy Patiala,
17. Dr. Trilochan Singh (Life of Guru Nanak Dev Ji: 1969) 15,
18. Sikh-Review, Guru Nanak Number Feb-March 1970, Calcutta, pp.229-237 18
19. Dr. Fauja Singh and Dr. Kirpal Singh, Atlas of Guru Nanak Travelsunjabi University, Patiala, 1976 .
20. Sikh Review, Guru Nanak Number Nov 1988, pp. 25-3120,
21. Major D S Grewal Guru Nanak’s Travels to Himalayan and East Asian Region: A new Light, 1995 AD
22. Col Dr Dalvinder Singh Grewal, Amazing Travels of Guru Nanak, SGPC Sri Amritsar, 2002 AD.
23. Gian Singh Gyani - Panth Parkash,Language Department Punjab, Patiala, 1970, P. 9.
24. Lal Singh Gyani - 'Punjabi Dunia', Language Department Punjab, Patiala, P. 38.
25. Kirpal Singh (Dr) Janam Sakhi Pramapara : Janam Sakhi Bhai Bala, Punjabi University, Patiala 1969, P. 287.
26. Lal Singh Gyani, Guru Khalsa Twarikh, Lahore Book Shop, Ludhiana, P.99.
29. Kirpal Singh (Dr.): Janam Sakhi Prampara : (Janam Sakhi Bhai Mani Singh), Punjabi University, Patiala, 1968, P. 37.
30. Op Cit
31. Lal Singh Gyani, Guru Khalsa Twarikh, P.99.
32. Kohli Surinder Singh, Travels of Guru Nanak, Punjab University, Chandigarh P. 110.
33. Pundit Tara Hari Narotam, Sri Guru Teerath Sangreh Temple Press, Ambala (p.23)
34. Kohli Surinder Singh, Travels of Guru Nanak, P. 111
35. Kirpal Singh (Dr.) Janam Sakhi Prampara - Walait wali Janam Sakhi, P. 27
36. Surinder Singh Kohli Dr.: Travels of Guru Nanak, p. 31
37. Kirpal Singh Dr (Ed.): Janamsakhi Prampara, p. 37
38. Pundit Tara Singh Narotam: Shri Guru Tirath Sangreh, p. 12
39. Janamsakhi Bhai Bala Edited By Dr Surinder Singh Kohli, P.198
40. Janamsakhi Bhai Bala Edited By Dr Surinder Singh Kohli, P.204-205.
41. Kirpal Singh Dr (ed). Janam Sakhi Prampara, p. 37
42. Surinder Singh Kohli Dr.: Travels of Guru Nanak, p. 31
43. Ganda Singh Dr. (ed). Sources on the Life & Teaching of Guru Nanak, Punjabi University, Patiala, p. 197
47. Major Gurmukh Singh, Historical Sikh Gurdwaras, Singh Bros. Amritsar 1995, p. 325
48. Kirpal Singh Dr. (Ed): Janamsakhi Prampara p. 39.
49. Col D S Grewal, Guru Nanak’s Travels to Himalayan Region: A New Light, National Book Shop, Delhi , pp.136-137: Col Dr Dr Dalvinder Singh Grewal, May 2002, Amazing Travels of Guru Nanak, Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee, Sri Amritsar, pp.196-197. Surinder Singh Kohli (Dr): Travels of Guru Nanak, p. 34
53. Kirpal Singh Dr (ed.) Janamsakhi Prampara: p. 46
54. Sri Guru Granth Sahib: p. 1345
55. Col D S Grewal, Guru Nanak’s Travels to Himalayan Region: A New Light, National Book Shop, Delhi , pp.136-137: Col Dr Dr Dalvinder Singh Grewal, May 2002, Amazing Travels of Guru Nanak, Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee, Sri Amritsar, pp.196-197. Surinder Singh Kohli (Dr): Travels of Guru Nanak, p. 34
56. Surinder Singh Kohli (Dr): Travels of Guru Nanak,p. 34
57. Lal Singh Gyani: Guru Khalsa Twareekh: p. 103
58. Travels of Guru Nanak, 1978, Punjab University, Chandigarh, p.115
59. Surinder Singh Kohli (Dr.) Travels of Guru Nanak. p-116.
61 Akshay Sharma: The culture and traditions of the Sikh kingdom influenced Nepal court and squares. http://wwwSikh24.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/11/13134 _Gurdwara_nanak_math.jpg, Gurkha Sikh performs ardas during Gurpurb at Kathmandu | Chandigarh News - Times of India, SikhNet | Sharing the Sikh Experience, Keertan.org, Dalvinder Singh Grewal Feb 2006, Amazing Travels of Guru Nanak to North & North East, SGPC, Amritsar, Dalvinder Singh Grewal, 1995, Guru Nanak’s Travels to Himalaya & East Asia Region- A New Light: National Book Shop, New Delhi, 1995, p.150, Doig, Desmond & Bhagat, Dubey (2000), In the Kingdom of the Gods: An Artist’s Impression of the Emerald Valley, Harper Collins India. ISBN 817223371X, 13. allaboutsikhs.com, . Nepal News, htttp://www.sikhwiki.org/omdex.php/file.Nanak_Math_jpg
Sacred well in Kathmandu gurdwara cleaned | SikhNet, sikhnet.com. Retrieved 2014-09-14.
62. Surinder Singh Kohli (Dr): Travels of Guru Nanak, p. 34.
63. Binoy Roy Burman: Religion and Politics in Tibet, Vikas Publishing House New Delhi, P-344.
64. Col.Dr. D.S.Grewal: Tibet and India-Ancient Links, Sainik Samachar, July 1978.
65. S.C. Dass: Contribution on the Religion and History of Tibet, New Delhi, 1970, p-35.
66. Shakabpa W.B.: Tibet : A Political History, London, 1976, p.60.
67. Bell Charles: Tibet: Past and Present: Oxford, 1924, P.32.
70. Mac-Donald, David: The Land of the Lama, London, 1929.
71. Puratan Janam Sakhi (ed. Shamsher Singh Ashok), p-96.
72 Major D S Grewal: Guru Nanak's travels to Himalayan Region., Sikh Review, Calcutta,1988
74 Varan Bhai Gurdas: SPGC Amritsar, 1964, p.14.
75. Puratan Janamsakhi, p.97
78. Puratan Janamsakhi, p. 145
79. Op Cit
80 Major D S Grewal: Guru Nanak's travels to Tibet, Sikh Review, Calcutta,1988
81 Dalvinder Singh Grewal, 2002, Amazing Travels of Guru Nanak, Shiromani Gurdwara
Parbandhak Committee, Sri Amritsar, p.256.
82 Dr. Surinder Singh Kohli, Travels of Guru Nanak, p. 128
83 Major N S Issar, Sikh Review, 1965
84 Major D S Grewal, Guru Nanak’s Travels to Himalayan and East Asia Region: A New
Light, National Book Shop Delhi, 1995 AD, pp.41-59.
87. Janam Sakhi Prampra ed. Dr. Kirpal Singh
88. Dr. Surinder Singh Kohli, Travels of Guru Nanak, p. 128
89. Major D S Grewal, Guru Nanak’s Travels to Himalayan and East Asia Region: A New Light, National Book Shop Delhi, 1995 AD, pp.41-59.
90. Major D S Grewal: Guru Nanak's travels to Tibet, Sikh Review, Calcutta,1988
91. Dr. Surinder Singh Kohli, Travels of Guru Nanak, p. 128
92. Dalvinder Singh Grewal, 2002, Amazing Travels of Guru Nanak, Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee, Sri Amritsar, p.256.
93. Dr. Surinder Singh Kohli, Travels of Guru Nanak, p. 128
95. Dalvinder Singh Grewal, 2000, Amazing Travels of Guru Nanak, Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee, Sri Amritsar, p.256.
96. Bell, Charles Alfred (1987). Portrait of a Dalai Lama: the life and times of the great thirteenth. Wisdom Publications. p. 25.ISBN 0-86171-055-x
97. “Welcome to Sikkim-General Information”, Sikkim Tourism, Government of Sikkim. Retrieved 16 May 2008.
98. Janamsakhi Bhai Bala, published by Punjab University Chandigarh, ed. by Dr Surinder Singh, 1975, p.237‘Al Lachen parbat te jai khade hoi’, Janamsakhi Bhai Bala, 1658, note 3.(b)
99. Gurdwara Kosh, Shromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee, Sri Amritsar, ed. Dr Jasbir Singh Sarana, Diljit Singh Bedi, Jan 2013, entry Sikkim.
100. Twareekh Guru Khalsa, Guru 1, Part 1, by Giani Gian Singh, Published by Guru Gobind Singh Press, Sialkot, 1892 AD, p.215. It was later published by Bhasha Vibhag Punjab, Patiala) “uthon age (from Nepal) Sikkim des Tamlang Shehar jo uthon di rajdhani si usde uttar vani ik pahadi par ja baithe…ethon Darjeeling, changathan nun dekh kanchan (kanchanjunga) parbat nun langh anek bastian pahadan da jhaka lai Bhutan des vich parves kita.” (p. 215)
101. Khazan Singh, History of Sikh Religion, 1914.
102. Giani Lal Singh Sangrur, (1940), Guru Khalsa Twareekh, Lahore Book Shop Ludhiana, 3rd edition 1955, p. 103, Guru Ji Tamlang, Amlang, Tashi aad(i) shahiran vikhe parchar karde hoe ggaru Kumbhe ilake vich di Tashi Sudan (Harvarkh Khand) askroa to par ho ke Sapu Nadi langh ke Chumbhial ad(i) pahadan vich di Tibet vikhe puj gaye.
103. ‘Asia’ Stanford’s Compendium of Geography and Travel for general reading based on Hellward’s ‘Die Erde Und Ihre Volkere’, Translated by A.H. Kean, M.A.I, London, Edward Stanform, 55, Charing Press, SW 1882, pp. 254-255. C:\Users\Lenovo\Documents\Full text of _Asia_.html
104. Major n S Issar, The Sikh Review Calcutta, Feb Mar 1970, Vol XVIII, No 197, pp 229-233.
105. Dr Trilochan Singh (1969 AD) quotes article of Surinder Singh of the Indian Defence Accounts Service.
106. Col D S Grewal, Guru Nanak’s Travels to Himalayan Region: A New Light, National Book Shop, Delhi , pp.136-137
107. Guru Nanak’s Travels to Himalayan and East Asian Region: A New Light by Col D S Grewal, National Book Shop Delhi, 1995) pp. 138-140
108. Maj. D S Grewal, Guru’s Travels through Sikkim, Sikh Review, November 1988 Vol XXXVI No. 419, p.25
109. National Wetland Atlas : High Altitude Lakes Of India Sponsored by Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India, Space Applications Centre, ISRO, Government of India, Ahmedabad, September 2012, Pp.83-84)
110. Guani Gian Singh, Twareekh Guru Khalsa
112 Gurdwara Kosh, Shromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee Sri Amritsar, 2013 entry Sikkim
113 Col D S Grewal, Guru Nanak’s Travels to Himalayan Region: A New Light, National Book Shop, Delhi , pp.136-137: Col Dr Dr Dalvinder Singh Grewal, May 2002, Amazing Travels of Guru Nanak, Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee, Sri Amritsar, pp.196-197. Je warg dekhna hai tan Sikkim dekho, p.122, by Col Dalvinder Singh Grewal, 1995, Sarvotam Punjabi Nibandh 1987-88, Bhasha Vibhag, Punjab.
114 Major D S Grewal: Guru Nanak’s Travel to Himalayan and East Asian Region: A New Light, National Book Shop Delhi, 1995, photo 18
115 Report of the SGPC Committee in June 2015
116 National Herald 9 Jan 1999).
117. Col. Dr Dalvinder Singh Grewal May 2001, Sikh Review: Sikkim’s Gurdwara "Guru Dongmar" Desecrated!
118 Giani Gian Singh, Twareekh Guru Khalsa, 1892, later published by Bhasha Vibhag Punjab, Patiala
119. Giani Lal Singh GUuru Khalsa twareekh, Lahore Book Shop, Ludhiana, 1940 AD.
120. Major NS Issar (1965 AD): During his apostolic sermons the guide uttered ‘Nanak’ ….He told us that a great personality called ‘Rimpoche Nanak Guru’ while on his way to Tibet had rested on this mound (in Chungthang)……sprinkled the rice all over the meadow and buried the banana packing in a corner. …We saw …sprouting golden yellow paddy…..clusters of banana trees.’ (p.231) Lt Colonel N.S. Issar, Sikh Review, Calcutta, Jan 1965.
121. S. Surinder Singh IDSA (1968 AD) ‘There are only a few houses in Chungthang. The major features are the shrine of Guru Nanak and the Sikkim police post.’ S. Surinder Singh of Indian Defence Accounts Service, (pp. 234-235) Sikh Review, Feb-Mar 1970.
122 Dr Trilochan Singh (1969 AD), (c) Guru Rimpoche in Chungthang Math. Life Historyr Guru Nanak dev, Dilli Sikh Gurdwara Board, Delhi, p.289.
123. Dr Surinder Singh Kohli (1969 AD). Travels of Guru Nanak, 1978, Punjab University, Chandigarh.
124. Dr Harbans Singh (1969 AD)
125. Major D S Grewal, The Sikh Review, November 1988, Vol XXXVI no. 419, pp. 25-31
126. Col D S Grewal, Guru Nanak’s Travels to Himalayan Region: A New Light, National Book Shop, Delhi , pp.136-137: Col Dr Dr Dalvinder Singh Grewal, May 2002, Amazing Travels of Guru Nanak, Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee, Sri Amritsar, pp.196-197. Je warg dekhna hai tan Sikkim dekho, p.122, by Col Dalvinder Singh Grewal, 1995, Sarvotam Punjabi Nibandh 1987-88, Bhasha Vibhag, Punjab.
127. Chungthang Gurdwara, (p.186-187), Sikkim, Amazing Travels of Guru Nanak, May 2002, Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee, Sri Amritsar,
128. The Encyclopaedia of Sikhism Vol 1, edited by Harnbans Singh, Punjabi university Patiala, 1992, entry Chungtong by T S Raju, 1992 p. 469,
129. Gurdwara Kosh, Shromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee Sri Amritsar, 2013 entry, Sikkim
Was he Guru Nanak or Padmasambhava?
Certain elements have been confusing Guru Nanak with Padmasambhava. Some statements clarify this clearly stating that it was Guru Nanak and not Padmasambhava who visited Sikkim.
Bhai Vir Singh Padam Shri records this in asmn article published in in Khalsa Samachar in 1919 AD later published in Guru Nanak Chamtkar: “Tibet has two types of people (1) The followers of Mahatma Buddha. They recite: Om Mani Padme hum’…Their temples have idols of Buddha. They shave their heads. (2) The second type recite: “Om aham Bhadra Guru; Parma Sidhi hum.’ Bhadra Guru means the ‘Great Guru’. They keep hair on their head and wear a bangle of sip (kada) and also keep a small sword which they call karad. Guru nanak’s idol is kept in their temples. On the road towards Lipa, Kanam, Puha up to Gartok they have rooms with roofs on two pillars. The roofs have Guru Nanak’s picture on it. Like this, pictures exist on the road from Simla to Tibet starting from 160 miles away from Simla. Deva Ram Lama of Lipa city is very knowledgeable and charismatic. Once Dwarki Lama of Kanam came to him with other lamas and put a question to Devi Ram Lama: “Who is Bhadra Guru whom you worship?” They all looked towards Devi Ram Lama for a reply. Devi Ram replied,” Bhadra Guru is born in Punjab.’ “What is his name?”
Devi Ram Lama: “We are the followers of the Guru. A women does not take the name of her husband. How do I give out the name of the Guru?
“Please give some indication.”
Devi Ram Lama: “Our Bhadra Guru is the one who rotated Mecca: who sweetened the Reethas; who held dialogue with Siddhas and won them over; who had ten adorns; …..”
‘You must have read the details from Sikh History?”
Devi Ram Replied, “In Tibetan it is written on Bhojpatras. I got these records from a cave from my country. I read all these details from there.”
Thanggu Lama’s statement in 1987:
At Thanggu, in North Sikkim, I contacted the Thanggu Lama to know about Guruji’s visit. He gave me very interesting details. He said, :………The displaced Tibetan settled in Muguthang, Thangu, Sora, Lachen, Lachung and Chungthang areas and Guruji visited them all to give them solace.” (Maj. D S Grewal, Guru’s Travels through Sikkim, Sikh Review, November 88 Vol XXXVI No. 419, p. 25).