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A ViewPoint on Effectiveness of COVID-19 Vaccines

Dalvinder Singh Grewal

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Jan 3, 2010
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A ViewPoint on Effectiveness of COVID-19 Vaccines

Prof Dalvinder Singh Grewal
Desh Bhagagat University
Dalvinder45@rediffmail.com, 919815366726
There are two lobbies among the vaccines about the treatment of COVID-19. One set of scientist recommend these vaccines to be very useful and another have doubts about their effectiveness. Some say that these vaccines are not a sure treatment and ultimately affect the genetic structure.
Those in favour of vaccines have varying claims about the effectiveness of these vaccines. The claims of effectiveness of various vaccines range from 100% (EpiVacCorona) of Russia Origin (Reuters and TASS), Pfizer (99.4%) Oxford-AstraZeneca of England, Covishield and Covaxin of India to Sputnik V of 92% to protect from COVID-19. These vaccines require two doses with a gap of 28 days to develop antibodies against the COVID-19 virus. The results of first vaccines of Covishield and Covaxin administered in India show a few of causalities while the second doze is yet to be administered. However, the first doze confirms that they are not a hundred per cent effective. In a study in England, almost 100% of study participants aged 18–55 years had developed potent antibodies against the virus 57 days after receiving a single low dose of the vaccine. (1) The team tested the antibodies’ response to samples of the virus’s spike protein.
Receptor binding domain (RBD) is the different versions of a region carried by each sample protein. These recognize host cells. These are also a major target for antibodies. Proteins infection or coronavirus RNA stay in the digestive-tract lining for months causing rapid declining of the superimposed immunity to the virus. (2)
A research team of Rockefeller University NY found that the levels of antibodies against the coronavirus’s spike protein declined over six months. (3)
A study on a vaccine by the USA revealed the vaccine to be 94% effective at preventing symptomatic COVID-19, and preliminary analysis, the author hint that only 1 dose of the vaccine may also provide some defence against asymptomatic disease. All 30 trial participants who developed severe COVID-19 were within the placebo arm. About 1/2 volunteers who received the vaccine experienced side effects like headaches after their second dose. But serious side effects were rare and occurred as frequently within the placebo group as within the vaccinated group.
A Study by Alexander Misharin at North-western University in Evanston, Illinois which examined fluid from the lungs of 88 people with severe pneumonia caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection (4) with most of these individuals having high numbers of a certain type of T cell, a class of immune cells, in their lungs. The researchers found that nearly 70% of alveolar macrophages, a type of immune cell that is located in the tiny air sacs of the lungs, contained SARS-CoV-2.
The cells containing the virus showed relatively high imprints of genes that are involved in inflammation. As the virus reaches the lungs, it may infect macrophages, responding by producing inflammatory molecules that attract T cells. T cells, in turn, produce a protein that stimulates macrophages to create more inflammatory molecules. This persistent lung inflammation could lead to a number of the life-threatening consequences of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Jesse Bloom at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Centre in Seattle, Washington, and his colleagues studied antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 isolated from the blood serum of individuals who had recovered from COVID-19. (5)
In another study, the scientists found that the level of anti-annexin A2 antibodies was, on average, higher in the individuals who eventually died of COVID-19 than in those who survived — a difference that was statistically significant (6).
Pathogens normally attack antibodies. Occasionally, rogue antibodies capture bodily components like immune cells. Tying of autoantibodies is the new analysis on the growing body against the poor outcomes in folks with COVID-19.
There has been some hesitancy for vaccine even among doctors and nurses as seen in India. Only 28% of the designated persons appeared to get the vaccine in Punjab (7). Social media has been floating anti-vaccine stories but without any scientific studies. These include serious after-effects of these vaccines. Most of the serious objections are (a) they change the genetic code which may cause mall effects at later stages. (b) Allergic persons are directly affected seriously by these vaccines. (c) These vaccines have side effects including death to some vaccinated persons etc. These are analysed from the available evidence.
To confirm the effectiveness of a vaccine it has to be seen whether the proper process has been adopted till its final approval. This process involves (a) pre-trials on birds and trials, (b) Phase 1 trial on a few, (c) Phase II trials on hundreds (d) Phase III trial involving thousands tested, (e ) Regulatory review, (f) final approval (g) manufacturing process (h) preservation (j) transportation and delivery at the place of administration (k) training of those who to administer (l) administering first dose (m) Observe the effect of first dose (n) administer the second dose after 28 days (n) observe the effect of the second dose.
The Oxford-AstraZeneca Covid vaccine trial was voluntarily put on hold at one stage to research why one participant - out of many thousands - had died. It restarted once it absolutely was clear it absolutely was not associated with the vaccine. (8)
Pfizer-BioNTech's vaccine (and Moderna's) used bits of genetic code to cause an immune reaction and is termed an mRNA vaccine. They claim that it doesn't alter human cells, but merely presents the body with instructions to make immunity to Covid. The Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine uses a harmless virus altered to seem lots more just like the pandemic virus. Other vaccines sometimes contain other ingredients, like aluminium, that make the vaccine stable or more effective. (8)
These experts also claim that these vaccines teach your body's system to recognise and fight the infection they need been designed to safeguard against. Some people do suffer mild symptoms after being vaccinated, like muscle aches or a raised temperature. this is often not the disease itself, but the body's response to the vaccine. (8)
Allergic reactions to vaccines do occur in rare cases. in keeping with MHRA the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine didn't cause any serious adverse reactions" during the trials though it alerted the people with a history of serious hypersensitive reactions to not have the Pfizer vaccine. India has vaccinated 6.31 lakhs on 19 January 2021 out of which only 9 had side effects. The Govt. of India stated that among the vaccinated adverse effects were seen on just 0.18 per cent as against the 0.6 per cent reported for the Pfizer vaccine abroad. The proportion of hospitalisation in India is simply 0.002 per cent. (7)
In view of the existing research which is yet raw and with no other alternative to vaccines, resorting to vaccines is the only answer at this stage. However, there is a strong need for continuous assessment of these vaccines and their effects and only after 100%, effective vaccine should be allowed for mass production. There is also a need to conduct studies regarding the treatment of the affected individuals. This research has also to be continued to find an alternative to vaccines and the effects on genes.
Reference
1. J. Sadoff et al. N. Engl. J. Med. https://doi.org/fqnt; 2021.
2. C. Gaebler et al. Nature https://doi.org/fq6k; 2021.
3. L. R. Baden et al. N. Engl. J. Med. https://doi.org/ghrg8m; 2020.
4. R. A. Grant et al. Nature https://doi.org/fqds; 2021.
5. A. J. Greaney et al. Preprint at bioRxiv https://doi.org/ghr85d; 2021.
6. M. Zuniga et al. Preprint at medRxiv https://doi.org/fqdd; 2021.
7. The Tribune, 20 January 2021, Jalandhar, India
8. Is the Covid vaccine safe?.
 

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