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Hinduism Similarities between Islam and Hinduism

Discussion in 'Interfaith Dialogues' started by Astroboy, Sep 20, 2007.

  1. Astroboy

    Astroboy Malaysia
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    ਨਾਮ ਤੇਰੇ ਕੀ ਜੋਤਿ ਲਗਾਈ (Previously namjap)
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  3. Astroboy

    Astroboy Malaysia
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    ਨਾਮ ਤੇਰੇ ਕੀ ਜੋਤਿ ਲਗਾਈ (Previously namjap)
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    Hinduism: According to the Hindu theological books, the whole creation was made through Nad. They also refer to It as Akash Bani (voice coming down from the Heavens). We have references to It even in the Vedas, the ancient scriptures of the world. We read of It in the Upanishads, as for instance, the Nad Bind Upanishads, which deal with the matter in a very lucid manner. The Hatha Toga Pradipaka also speaks of this Sound Principle.

    • He has taken the support of the Word, the melodious Tune.
      -- Chandogya Upanishad

    • Let Yogi sit on Sidh Asan and while practising the Vaisnavi mudra,
      he should hear the Sound through his right ear.
      --Nad Bind Upanishad
      By communion with the Word he will become deaf to the external sounds, and will attain the Turiya Pad or a state of equipoise within a fortnight. --Nad Bind Upanishad


      Mohammedanism: Among the Muslim Sufis, it is known as Sultan-ul-Azkar, (the king of prayers). Another order of Sufis calls it Saut-i-Sarmadi, (the Divine Song). They also call it Nida-i-Asmani, (the sound coming down from the (Heavens), Kalam-i-Qadim (the ancient sound) and the Kalma or Word. The fourteen regions were made by the Kalma--the Word.
      Khawaja Hafiz, a great divine, says:

      • From the turret of the Heaven a call bids thee Home.
        But fallen into the snares thou listeneth not.
        No one knows where the Mansion of the Beloved lies,
        But sure enough the chiming of the bells proceeds therefrom.

      Again:
      • Take the stop-cock from thy ears, and hear thou the voice of emancipation,
        coming to thee.
        Attach not to the material world.
        The Elixir of life is showering from above.
        The beat of love while sounding in the Heavens,
        Sounds blessings to the souls of the devotees."

      Maulana Rumi, in his Masnavi says:
      • Grow not skeptical, but attune thyself to the Sound coming down
        from the Heavens.
        Thy soul shall have revelations from afar.
        What are these but glimpses of the Unrevealed:
        Were I to speak of these sweet melodies
        Even the dead shall rise from their graves.

      Again:

      • Rise above the horizon, O brave soul, and hear the melodious song
        coming from the highest heaven.

      Prophet Mohammed says:

      • The Voice of God comes unto my ears as any other sounds.

      Shah Niaz, another Muslim devotee, says: Soul is the Will and the Secret of God. Its meditation is carried without the help of tongue and palate. Alas! thou art stuck fast in the physical bondage and do not hear the Holy Sound of God. My Beloved is speaking to thee all the while, but woe to thee for thou heareth not the Voice.
      The whole universe is resounding with the Sound, and thou hast only to open the door of thine ear.
      For opening the ear, it is sufficient to stop hearing the outer sounds. If you do this, you will hear the perpetual and unending Sound. It is infinite and has no beginning nor end, and on account of that, it it called Anhad (without any limits). Without this Word--the Eternal Sound- an infinite expression of the Infinite, the world could not have come into existence. Hold communion with the Melodious Sound and lose yourself in it, O wise man.

      Sikhism : Kabir Sahib says:

      Without the Word, Sound or Eternal Song, the soul sees not. Where could she go? As she cannot fathom the mystery of the 'Word,' she is wandering from place to place. --Kabir

      Through the medium of Word, soul doth cross the endless ocean of matter. Lowly Nanak, therefore, glorifies His Naam (the Word). --Ram Kali M.1

      The all-pervading Word has attracted all my mind. What else have I to think of? Communion of the soul with the Word creates everlasting Bliss. At-one-ment with the Lord procures the Essence of Joy and Peace. --Shri Rag M.1

      How can the ignorant get to the principle of union of soul with the Word ? Without communion with the Word, soul comes and goes. O Nanak, the Gurmukh who is himself emancipated, meets by the merciful Writ of the Lord. --Maru M.1

      The creation and the ultimate dissolution of the universe is caused through the Word. Again, through Word, it takes its existence anew. --Magh M.3

      By good luck, the Lord consort has become ours. The Endless Song (the Word), resounding everywhere, gives a clue to His Court.
      --Bilawal M.5
      The Word made all the earthly systems. --Gauri M.5
     
  4. Astroboy

    Astroboy Malaysia
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    ਨਾਮ ਤੇਰੇ ਕੀ ਜੋਤਿ ਲਗਾਈ (Previously namjap)
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    Hindu Unity - Links



    Kaaba a Hindu Temple?
    [Note: A recent archeological find in Kuwait unearthed a gold-plated
    statue of the Hindu deity Ganesh. A Muslim resident of Kuwait requested
    historical research material that can help explain the connection between Hindu civilisation and Arabia.]
    Was the Kaaba Originally a Hindu Temple?
    By P.N. Oak (Historian)
    Glancing through some research material recently, I was pleasantly surprised to come across a reference to a king Vikramaditya inscription found in the Kaaba in Mecca proving beyond doubt that the Arabian Peninsula formed a part of his Indian Empire.
    The text of the crucial Vikramaditya inscription, found inscribed on a gold dish hung inside the Kaaba shrine in Mecca, is found recorded on page 315 of a volume known as ‘Sayar-ul-Okul’ treasured in the Makhtab-e-Sultania library in Istanbul, Turkey. Rendered in free English the inscription says:
    "Fortunate are those who were born (and lived) during king Vikram’s reign. He was a noble, generous dutiful ruler, devoted to the welfare of his subjects. But at that time we Arabs, oblivious of God, were lost in sensual pleasures. Plotting and torture were rampant. The darkness of ignorance had enveloped our country. Like the lamb struggling for her life in the cruel paws of a wolf we Arabs were caught up in ignorance. The entire country was enveloped in a darkness so intense as on a new moon night. But the present dawn and pleasant sunshine of education is the result of the favour of the noble king Vikramaditya whose benevolent supervision did not lose sight of us- foreigners as we were. He spread his sacred religion amongst us and sent scholars whose brilliance shone like that of the sun from his country to ours. These scholars and preceptors through whose benevolence we were once again made cognisant of the presence of God, introduced to His sacred existence and put on the road of Truth, had come to our country to preach their religion and impart education at king Vikramaditya’s behest."
    For those who would like to read the Arabic wording I reproduce it hereunder in Roman script:
    "Itrashaphai Santu Ibikramatul Phahalameen Karimun Yartapheeha Wayosassaru Bihillahaya Samaini Ela Motakabberen Sihillaha Yuhee Quid min howa Yapakhara phajjal asari nahone osirom bayjayhalem. Yundan blabin Kajan blnaya khtoryaha sadunya kanateph netephi bejehalin Atadari bilamasa- rateen phakef tasabuhu kaunnieja majekaralhada walador. As hmiman burukankad toluho watastaru hihila Yakajibaymana balay kulk amarena phaneya jaunabilamary Bikramatum".
    (Page 315 Sayar-ul-okul).
    [Note: The title ‘Saya-ul-okul’ signifies memorable words.]
    A careful analysis of the above inscription enables us to draw the following conclusions:

    1. That the ancient Indian empires may have extended up to the eastern boundaries of Arabia until Vikramaditya and that it was he who for the first time conquered Arabia. Because the inscription says that king Vikram who dispelled the darkness of ignorance from Arabia.
    2. That, whatever their earlier faith, King Vikrama’s preachers had succeeded in spreading the Vedic (based on the Vedas, the Hindu sacred scriptures)) way of life in Arabia.
    3. That the knowledge of Indian arts and sciences was imparted by Indians to the Arabs directly by founding schools, academies and cultural centres. The belief, therefore, that visiting Arabs conveyed that knowledge to their own lands through their own indefatigable efforts and scholarship is unfounded.
    An ancillary conclusion could be that the so-called Kutub Minar (in Delhi, India) could well be king Vikramadiya’s tower commemorating his conquest of Arabia. This conclusion is strengthened by two pointers. Firstly, the inscription on the iron pillar near the so-called Kutub Minar refers to the marriage of the victorious king Vikramaditya to the princess of Balhika. This Balhika is none other than the Balkh region in West Asia. It could be that Arabia was wrestled by king Vikramaditya from the ruler of Balkh who concluded a treaty by giving his daughter in marriage to the victor. Secondly, the township adjoining the so called Kutub Minar is named Mehrauli after Mihira who was the renowned astronomer-mathematician of king Vikram’s court. Mehrauli is the corrupt form of Sanskrit ‘Mihira-Awali’ signifying a row of houses raised for Mihira and his helpers and assistants working on astronomical observations made from the tower.
    Having seen the far reaching and history shaking implications of the Arabic inscription concerning king Vikrama, we shall now piece together the story of its find. How it came to be recorded and hung in the Kaaba in Mecca. What are the other proofs reinforcing the belief that Arabs were once followers of the Indian Vedic way of life and that tranquillity and education were ushered into Arabia by king Vikramaditya’s scholars, educationists from an uneasy period of "ignorance and turmoil" mentioned in the inscription.
    In Istanbul, Turkey, there is a famous library called Makhatab-e-Sultania, which is reputed to have the largest collection of ancient West Asian literature. In the Arabic section of that library is an anthology of ancient Arabic poetry. That anthology was compiled from an earlier work in A.D. 1742 under the orders of the Turkish ruler Sultan Salim.
    The pages of that volume are of Hareer – a kind of silk used for writing on. Each page has a decorative gilded border. That anthology is known as Sayar-ul-Okul. It is divided into three parts. The first part contains biographic details and the poetic compositions of pre-Islamic Arabian poets. The second part embodies accounts and verses of poets of the period beginning just after prophet Mohammad’s times, up to the end of the Banee-Um-Mayya dynasty. The third part deals with later poets up to the end of Khalif Harun-al-Rashid’s times.
    Abu Amir Asamai, an Arabian bard who was the poet Laureate of Harun-al-Rashid’s court, has compiled and edited the anthology.
    The first modern edition of ‘Sayar-ul-Okul’ was printed and published in Berlin in 1864. A subsequent edition is the one published in Beirut in 1932.
    The collection is regarded as the most important and authoritative anthology of ancient Arabic poetry. It throws considerable light on the social life, customs, manners and entertainment modes of ancient Arabia. The book also contains an elaborate description of the ancient shrine of Mecca, the town and the annual fair known as OKAJ which used to be held every year around the Kaaba temple in Mecca. This should convince readers that the annual haj of the Muslims to the Kaaba is of earlier pre-Islamic congregation.
    But the OKAJ fair was far from a carnival. It provided a forum for the elite and the learned to discuss the social, religious, political, literary and other aspects of the Vedic culture then pervading Arabia. ‘Sayar-ul-Okul’ asserts that the conclusion reached at those discussions were widely respected throughout Arabia. Mecca, therefore, followed the Varanasi tradition (of India) of providing a venue for important discussions among the learned while the masses congregated there for spiritual bliss. The principal shrines at both Varanasi in India and at Mecca in Arvasthan (Arabia) were Siva temples. Even to this day ancient Mahadev (Siva) emblems can be seen. It is the Shankara (Siva) stone that Muslim pilgrims reverently touch and kiss in the Kaaba.
    Arabic tradition has lost trace of the founding of the Kaaba temple. The discovery of the Vikramaditya inscription affords a clue. King Vikramaditya is known for his great devotion to Lord Mahadev (Siva). At Ujjain (India), the capital of Vikramaditya, exists the famous shrine of Mahankal, i.e., of Lord Shankara (Siva) associated with Vikramaditya. Since according to the Vikramaditya inscription he spread the Vedic religion, who else but he could have founded the Kaaba temple in Mecca?
    A few miles away from Mecca is a big signboard which bars the entry of any non-Muslim into the area. This is a reminder of the days when the Kaaba was stormed and captured solely for the newly established faith of Islam. The object in barring entry of non-Muslims was obviously to prevent its recapture.
    As the pilgrim proceeds towards Mecca he is asked to shave his head and beard and to don special sacred attire that consists of two seamless sheets of white cloth. One is to be worn round the waist and the other over the shoulders. Both these rites are remnants of the old Vedic practice of entering Hindu temples clean- and with holy seamless white sheets.
    The main shrine in Mecca, which houses the Siva emblem, is known as the Kaaba. It is clothed in a black shroud. That custom also originates from the days when it was thought necessary to discourage its recapture by camouflaging it.
    According to the Encyclopaedia Britannica, the Kaaba has 360 images. Traditional accounts mention that one of the deities among the 360 destroyed when the place was stormed, was that of Saturn; another was of the Moon and yet another was one called Allah. That shows that in the Kaaba the Arabs worshipped the nine planets in pre-Islamic days. In India the practice of ‘Navagraha’ puja, that is worship of the nine planets, is still in vogue. Two of these nine are Saturn and Moon.
    In India the crescent moon is always painted across the forehead of the Siva symbol. Since that symbol was associated with the Siva emblem in Kaaba it came to be grafted on the flag of Islam.
    Another Hindu tradition associated with the Kaaba is that of the sacred stream Ganga (sacred waters of the Ganges river). According to the Hindu tradition Ganga is also inseparable from the Shiva emblem as the crescent moon. Wherever there is a Siva emblem, Ganga must co-exist. True to that association a sacred fount exists near the Kaaba. Its water is held sacred because it has been traditionally regarded as Ganga since pre-Islamic times (Zam-Zam water).
    [Note: Even today, Muslim pilgrims who go to the Kaaba for Haj regard this Zam-Zam water with reverence and take some bottled water with them as sacred water.]
    Muslim pilgrims visiting the Kaaba temple go around it seven times. In no other mosque does the circumambulation prevail. Hindus invariably circumambulate around their deities. This is yet another proof that the Kaaba shrine is a pre-Islamic Indian Shiva temple where the Hindu practice of circumambulation is still meticulously observed.
    The practice of taking seven steps- known as Saptapadi in Sanskrit- is associated with Hindu marriage ceremony and fire worship. The culminating rite in a Hindu marriage enjoins upon the bride and groom to go round the sacred fire four times (but misunderstood by many as seven times). Since "Makha" means fire, the seven circumambulations also prove that Mecca was the seat of Indian fire-worship in the West Asia.
    It might come as a stunning revelation to many that the word ‘ALLAH’ itself is Sanskrit. In Sanskrit language Allah, Akka and Amba are synonyms. They signify a goddess or mother. The term ‘ALLAH’ forms part of Sanskrit chants invoking goddess Durga, also known as Bhavani, Chandi and Mahishasurmardini. The Islamic word for God is., therefore, not an innovation but the ancient Sanskrit appellation retained and continued by Islam. Allah means mother or goddess and mother goddess.
    One Koranic verse is an exact translation of a stanza in the Yajurveda. This was pointed out by the great research scholar Pandit Satavlekar of Pardi in one of his articles.
    [Note: Another scholar points out that the following teaching from the Koran is exactly similar to the teaching of the Kena Upanishad (1.7).
    The Koran:
    "Sight perceives Him not. But He perceives men's sights; for He is the knower of secrets, the Aware."
    Kena Upanishad:
    "That which cannot be seen by the eye but through which the eye itself sees, know That to be Brahman (God) and not what people worship here (in the manifested world)."
    A simplified meaning of both the above verses reads:
    God is one and that He is beyond man's sensory experience.
    The identity of Unani and Ayurvedic systems shows that Unani is just the Arabic term for the Ayurvedic system of healing taught to them and administered in Arabia when Arabia formed part of the Indian empire.
    It will now be easy to comprehend the various Hindu customs still prevailing in West Asian countries even after the existence of Islam during the last 1300 years. Let us review some Hindu traditions which exist as the core of Islamic practice.
    The Hindus have a pantheon of 33 gods. People in Asia Minor too worshipped 33 gods before the spread of Islam. The lunar calendar was introduced in West Asia during the Indian rule. The Muslim month ‘Safar’ signifying the ‘extra’ month (Adhik Maas) in the Hindu calendar. The Muslim month Rabi is the corrupt form of Ravi meaning the sun because Sanskrit ‘V’ changes into Prakrit ‘B’ (Prakrit being the popular version of Sanskrit language). The Muslim sanctity for Gyrahwi Sharif is nothing but the Hindu Ekadashi (Gyrah = elevan or Gyaarah). Both are identical in meaning.
    The Islamic practice of Bakari Eed derives from the Go-Medh and Ashva-Medh Yagnas or sacrifices of Vedic times. Eed in Sanskrit means worship. The Islamic word Eed for festive days, signifying days of worship, is therefore a pure Sanskrit word. The word MESH in the Hindu zodiac signifies a lamb. Since in ancient times the year used to begin with the entry of the sun in Aries, the occasion was celebrated with mutton feasting. That is the origin of the Bakari Eed festival.
    [Note: The word Bakari is an Indian language word for a goat.]
    Since Eed means worship and Griha means ‘house’, the Islamic word Idgah signifies a ‘House of worship’ which is the exact Sanskrit connotation of the term. Similarly the word ‘Namaz’ derives from two Sanskrit roots ‘Nama’ and ‘Yajna’ (NAMa yAJna) meaning bowing and worshipping.
    Vedic descriptions about the moon, the different stellar constellations and the creation of the universe have been incorporated from the Vedas in Koran part 1 chapter 2, stanza 113, 114, 115, and 158, 189, chapter 9, stanza 37 and chapter 10, stanzas 4 to 7.
    Recital of the Namaz five times a day owes its origin to the Vedic injunction of Panchmahayagna (five daily worship- Panch-Maha-Yagna) which is part of the daily Vedic ritual prescribed for all individuals.
    Muslims are enjoined cleanliness of five parts of the body before commencing prayers. This derives from the Vedic injuction ‘Shareer Shydhyartham Panchanga Nyasah’.
    Four months of the year are regarded as very sacred in Islamic custom. The devout are enjoined to abstain from plunder and other evil deeds during that period. This originates in the Chaturmasa i.e., the four-month period of special vows and austerities in Hindu tradition. Shabibarat is the corrupt form of Shiva Vrat and Shiva Ratra. Since the Kaaba has been an important centre of Shiva (Siva) worship from times immemorial, the Shivaratri festival used to be celebrated there with great gusto. It is that festival which is signified by the Islamic word Shabibarat.
    Encyclopaedias tell us that there are inscriptions on the side of the Kaaba walls. What they are, no body has been allowed to study, according to the correspondence I had with an American scholar of Arabic. But according to hearsay at least some of those inscriptions are in Sanskrit, and some of them are stanzas from the Bhagavad Gita.
    According to extant Islamic records, Indian merchants had settled in Arabia, particularly in Yemen, and their life and manners deeply influenced those who came in touch with them. At Ubla there was a large number of Indian settlements. This shows that Indians were in Arabia and Yemen in sufficient strength and commanding position to be able to influence the local people. This could not be possible unless they belonged to the ruling class.
    It is mentioned in the Abadis i.e., the authentic traditions of Prophet Mohammad compiled by Imam Bukhari that the Indian tribe of Jats had settled in Arabia before Prophet Mohammad’s times. Once when Hazrat Ayesha, wife of the Prophet, was taken ill, her nephew sent for a Jat physician for her treatment. This proves that Indians enjoyed a high and esteemed status in Arabia. Such a status could not be theirs unless they were the rulers. Bukhari also tells us that an Indian Raja (king) sent a jar of ginger pickles to the Prophet. This shows that the Indian Jat Raja ruled an adjacent area so as to be in a position to send such an insignificant present as ginger pickles. The Prophet is said to have so highly relished it as to have told his colleagues also to partake of it. These references show that even during Prophet Mohammad’s times Indians retained their influential role in Arabia, which was a dwindling legacy from Vikramaditya’s times.
    The Islamic term ‘Eed-ul-Fitr’ derives from the ‘Eed of Piters’ that is worship of forefathers in Sanskrit tradition. In India, Hindus commemorate their ancestors during the Pitr-Paksha that is the fortnight reserved for their remembrance. The very same is the significance of ‘Eed-ul-Fitr’ (worship of forefathers).
    The Islamic practice of observing the moon rise before deciding on celebrating the occasion derives from the Hindu custom of breaking fast on Sankranti and Vinayaki Chaturthi only after sighting the moon.
    Barah Vafat, the Muslim festival for commemorating those dead in battle or by weapons, derives from a similar Sanskrit tradition because in Sanskrit ‘Phiphaut’ is ‘death’. Hindus observe Chayal Chaturdashi in memory of those who have died in battle.
    The word Arabia is itself the abbreviation of a Sanskrit word. The original word is ‘Arabasthan’. Since Prakrit ‘B’ is Sanskrit ‘V’ the original Sanskrit name of the land is ‘Arvasthan’. ‘Arva’ in Sanskrit means a horse. Arvasthan signifies a land of horses., and as well all know, Arabia is famous for its horses.
    This discovery changes the entire complexion of the history of ancient India. Firstly we may have to revise our concepts about the king who had the largest empire in history. It could be that the expanse of king Vikramaditya’s empire was greater than that of all others. Secondly, the idea that the Indian empire spread only to the east and not in the west beyond say, Afghanisthan may have to be abandoned. Thirdly the effeminate and pathetic belief that India, unlike any other country in the world could by some age spread her benign and beatific cultural influence, language, customs, manners and education over distant lands without militarily conquering them is baseless. India did conquer all those countries physically wherever traces of its culture and language are still extant and the region extended from Bali island in the south Pacific to the Baltic in Northern Europe and from Korea to Kaaba. The only difference was that while Indian rulers identified themselves with the local population and established welfare states, Moghuls and others who ruled conquered lands perpetuated untold atrocities over the vanquished.
    ‘Sayar-ul-Okul’ tells us that a pan-Arabic poetic symposium used to be held in Mecca at the annual Okaj fair in pre-Islamic times. All leading poets used to participate in it.
    Poems considered best were awarded prizes. The best-engraved on gold plate were hung inside the temple. Others etched on camel or goatskin were hung outside. Thus for thousands of years the Kaaba was the treasure house of the best Arabian poetic thought inspired by the Indian Vedic tradition.
    That tradition being of immemorial antiquity many poetic compositions were engraved and hung inside and outside on the walls of the Kaaba. But most of the poems got lost and destroyed during the storming of the Kaaba by Prophet Mohammad’s troops. The Prophet’s court poet, Hassan-bin-Sawik, who was among the invaders, captured some of the treasured poems and dumped the gold plate on which they were inscribed in his own home. Sawik’s grandson, hoping to earn a reward carried those gold plates to Khalif’s court where he met the well-known Arab scholar Abu Amir Asamai. The latter received from the bearer five gold plates and 16 leather sheets with the prize-winning poems engraved on them. The bearer was sent away happy bestowed with a good reward.
    On the five gold plates were inscribed verses by ancient Arab poets like Labi Baynay, Akhatab-bin-Turfa and Jarrham Bintoi. That discovery made Harun-al-Rashid order Abu Amir to compile a collection of all earlier compositions. One of the compositions in the collection is a tribute in verse paid by Jarrham Bintoi, a renowned Arab poet, to king Vikramaditya. Bintoi who lived 165 years before Prophet Mohammad had received the highest award for the best poetic compositions for three years in succession in the pan-Arabic symposiums held in Mecca every year. All those three poems of Bintoi adjudged best were hung inside the Kaaba temple, inscribed on gold plates. One of these constituted an unreserved tribute to King Vikramaditya for his paternal and filial rule over Arabia. That has already been quoted above.
    Pre-Islamic Arabian poet Bintoi’s tribute to king Vikramaditya is a decisive evidence that it was king Vikramaditya who first conquered the Arabian Peninsula and made it a part of the Indian Empire. This explains why starting from India towards the west we have all Sanskrit names like Afghanisthan (now Afghanistan), Baluchisthan, Kurdisthan, Tajikiathan, Uzbekisthan, Iran, Sivisthan, Iraq, Arvasthan, Turkesthan (Turkmenisthan) etc.
    Historians have blundered in not giving due weight to the evidence provided by Sanskrit names pervading over the entire west Asian region. Let us take a contemporary instance. Why did a part of India get named Nagaland even after the end of British rule over India? After all historical traces are wiped out of human memory, will a future age historian be wrong if he concludes from the name Nagaland that the British or some English speaking power must have ruled over India? Why is Portuguese spoken in Goa (part of India), and French in Pondichery (part of India), and both French and English in Canada? Is it not because those people ruled over the territories where their languages are spoken? Can we not then justly conclude that wherever traces of Sanskrit names and traditions exist Indians once held sway? It is unfortunate that this important piece of decisive evidence has been ignored all these centuries.
    Another question which should have presented itself to historians for consideration is how could it be that Indian empires could extend in the east as far as Korea and Japan, while not being able to make headway beyond Afghanisthan? In fact land campaigns are much easier to conduct than by sea. It was the Indians who ruled the entire West Asian region from Karachi to Hedjaz and who gave Sanskrit names to those lands and the towns therein, introduce their pantheon of the fire-worship, imparted education and established law and order.
    It may be that Arabia itself was not part of the Indian empire until king Vikrama , since Bintoi says that it was king Vikrama who for the first time brought about a radical change in the social, cultural and political life of Arabia. It may be that the whole of West Asia except Arabia was under Indian rule before Vikrama. The latter added Arabia too to the Indian Empire. Or as a remote possibility it could be that king Vikramaditya himself conducted a series of brilliant campaigns annexing to his empire the vast region between Afghanisthan and Hedjaz.
    Incidentally this also explains why king Vikramaditya is so famous in history. Apart from the nobility and truthfulness of heart and his impartial filial affection for all his subjects, whether Indian or Arab, as testified by Bintoi, king Vikramaditya has been permanently enshrined in the pages of history because he was the world’s greatest ruler having the largest empire. It should be remembered that only a monarch with a vast empire gets famous in world history. Vikram Samvat (calendar still widely in use in India today) which he initiated over 2000 years ago may well mark his victory over Arabia, and the so called Kutub Minar (Kutub Tower in Delhi), a pillar commemorating that victory and the consequential marriage with the Vaihika (Balkh) princess as testified by the nearby iron pillar inscription.
    A great many puzzles of ancient world history get automatically solved by a proper understanding of these great conquests of king Vikramaditya. As recorded by the Arab poet Bintoi, Indian scholars, preachers and social workers spread the fire-worship ceremony, preached the Vedic way of life, manned schools, set up Ayurvedic (healing) centres, trained the local people in irrigation and agriculture and established in those regions a democratic, orderly, peaceful, enlightened and religious way of life. That was of course, a Vedic Hindu way of life.
    It is from such ancient times that Indian Kshtriya royal families, like the Pahalvis and Barmaks, have held sway over Iran and Iraq. It is those conquests, which made the Parsees Agnihotris i.e., fire-worshippers. It is therefore that we find the Kurds of Kurdisthan speaking a Sanskritised dialect, fire temples existing thousands of miles away from India, and scores of sites of ancient Indian cultural centres like Navbahar in West Asia and the numerous viharas in Soviet Russia spread throughout the world. Ever since so many viharas are often dug up in Soviet Russia, ancient Indian sculptures are also found in excavations in Central Asia. The same goes for West Asia.
    [Note: Ancient Indian sculptures include metal statues of the Hindu deity Ganesh (the elephant headed god); the most recent find being in Kuwait].
    Unfortunately these chapters of world history have been almost obliterated from public memory. They need to be carefully deciphered and rewritten. When these chapters are rewritten they might change the entire concept and orientation of ancient history.
    In view of the overwhelming evidence led above, historians, scholars, students of history and lay men alike should take note that they had better revise their text books of ancient world history. The existence of Hindu customs, shrines, Sanskrit names of whole regions, countries and towns and the Vikramaditya inscriptions reproduced at the beginning are a thumping proof that Indian Kshatriyas once ruled over the vast region from Bali to Baltic and Korea to Kaaba in Mecca, Arabia at the very least.
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    Sword of truth Aditi Chaturvedi

    The following explanation is reproduced from the Sword of Truth archives.
    All Arabic copies of the Koran have the mysterious figure 786 imprinted on them . No Arabic scholar has been able to determine the choice of this particular number as divine. It is an established fact that Muhammad was illiterate therefore it is obvious that he would not be able to differentiate numbers from letters. This "magical" number is none other than the Vedic holy letter "OM" written in Sanskrit (Refer to figure 2). Anyone who knows Sanskrit can try reading the symbol for "OM" backwards in the Arabic way and magically the numbers 786 will appear! Muslims in their ignorance simply do not realise that this special number is nothing more than the holiest of Vedic symbols misread.

    [​IMG]
    Figure 2.
    Read from right to left this figure
    of OM represents the numbers 786
    Look at this symbol of Om in a mirror and
    you can make out the Devnagari (Sanskrit-Hindi)
    numerals 7-8-6​
    ___________________
    We received the following email from one of our readers
    Sun, 07 Nov 2004 02:24:39+0300
    Kabaa-Kabaali-Lord Shiva*
    Dear Sir,
    First of all I heartly thank for hosting such a beautiful website. I read the message " Is the Kabaa a Hindu temple ???". It was a very Intresting, thought provoking and informative message. I would like to bring to your notice regarding this, that the word Kabaa might have come from the TAMIL language - Kabaalishwaran temple (TAMIL is considered as one of the oldest languages of the world). Dravidian's worshiped Lord Shiva as their Primal Deity - Indus valley civilization. Shiva Temple's in South India are called as Kabaalishwaran temple's. Kabaali - refers to Lord Shiva.
    -Dr.Davis S.Senthilkumar
     
  5. Astroboy

    Astroboy Malaysia
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    ਨਾਮ ਤੇਰੇ ਕੀ ਜੋਤਿ ਲਗਾਈ (Previously namjap)
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    Our Prophet’s Great Attachment to His Birth Religion

    by Ayesha Ahmed
    01 May, 2007
    Our great prophet picked something from every great religion so that all practicing Muslims can get blessings from every major God. Since he himself was a born idols praying Hindu/pagan, needless to say that Hinduism was closest to his heart. That is the reason he chose Hindu Moon God Allah as Islamic deity and moon as as the universal Islamic symbol.
    "Hindus have been referring their Deity moon goddess Durga as “Allah” in Sankrit in their chants since early period of Hinduism”; Ref: Kaaba a Hindu temple
    He also chose Hindu God Lord Siva’s temple “Kaaba” (built by King Vikramaditya* for Moon God Siva) as Islam’s holiest place and required all Muslims to pray and bow towards it. In addition he picked Hindu pilgrimage Haj as the highest form of worship and the only worship which washes all the sins away. He made black stone (Hajar Aswad ,the symbolic lingum (private part ) of Lord Siva , which was made a part of Siva temple Kabah by King Vikramaditya), as the most revered stone of of Islam , to be touched and kissed by all pilgrims.
    King Vikramaditya inscription was found in the Kaaba in Mecca proving beyond doubt that the Arabian Peninsula formed a part of his Indian Empire and that he, who highly revered Lord Siva, built the Siva temple called Kabah.. The text of the crucial Vikramaditya inscription, found inscribed on a gold dish hung inside the Kaaba shrine in Mecca, is found recorded on page 315 of a volume known as ‘Sayar-ul-Okul’ treasured in the Makhtab-e-Sultania library in Istanbul, Turkey. Rendered in free English the inscription says: "Fortunate are those who were born (and lived) during king Vikram’s reign. He was a noble, generous dutiful ruler, devoted to the welfare of his subjects. But at that time we Arabs, oblivious of God, were lost in sensual pleasures. Plotting and torture were rampant. The darkness of ignorance had enveloped our country. Like the lamb struggling for her life in the cruel paws of a wolf we Arabs were caught up in ignorance. The entire country was enveloped in a darkness so intense as on a new moon night. But the present dawn and pleasant sunshine of education is the result of the favour of the noble king Vikramaditya whose benevolent supervision did not lose sight of us- foreigners as we were. He spread his sacred religion amongst us and sent scholars whose brilliance shone like that of the sun from his country to ours. These scholars and preceptors through whose benevolence we were once again made cognizant of the presence of God, introduced to His sacred existence and put on the road of Truth, had come to our country to preach their religion and impart education at king Vikramaditya’s behest."
    Many Kabah stones have Sanskrit words inscribed from pagan days, however the black curtain covers these inscriptions. ​
    The hajar-e-Aswad is an oval black stone , about seven inches in diameter 2 feet 6 inches long in the shape of a male private part. Kissing and praying to this stone representing Lord Siva’s lingum is for libido and fertility . It was the practice of arab pagans including Prophet Mo to kiss Hajar-e-Aswad, and pray for shakti (hindi word for strength) to men’s sexual strength and women’s fertility.

    Sahih Bukhari ,page 396, No. 808
    `Umar (May Allah be pleased with him) came near the Black Stone and kissed it and said, " Had I not seen Allah's Messenger (Peace be upon him) kissing you, I would not have kissed you”

    It is a well known fact that most of the healthy and well fed non Muslim men hardly manage to impregnate their wives once or twice in their life time. The result is that their populations are dwindling.. On the other hand thanks to the baraka of black stone touching and kissing Muslim men grow up with a very high libido. That is why they are allowed four wives and unlimited number of slave girls, enabling them to multiply like rabbits( Ask the French, they know, from almost a nonexistent Muslim population just a few years back France will become a Muslim majority country within next 20 years. If this is not the irrefutable proof of Islam’s truth, then what is? (Dr. Zaheer and Dr. Ghamdi can use this in their debates in FFI)

    Another Hindu tradition our great prophet maintained from his Hindu days is that of the sacred water concept* during Hindu pilgrimage and worship. According to the Hindu tradition sacred water (of Ganga) is also inseparable from the Shiva emblem as the crescent moon. Wherever there is a Siva emblem, sacred water must co-exist. True to that association a sacred fountain exists near the Kaaba. Its water is held sacred because it has been traditionally regarded representing Ganga water since pre-Islamic times (Zam-Zam water). Muslim pilgrims who go to the Kaaba for Haj regard this Zam-Zam water with reverence and take some bottled water with them as sacred water. (like Hindus take Ganga water home from pilgrimage). Many Muslims soak their shrouds with the sacred zam zam water, a religious tradition from their Hindu ancestry of pouring sacred Ganga water on their dead.

    Prophet Mo also kept the Hindu religious tenet of circumambulating seven times in their religious ceremonies. Our prophet ordered Muslims to go around kabah seven times as part of Haj which was part of Hindu worship prior to capture of Mecca..

    Another great tenet our prophet carried on from Hinduism is the concept of washing of all of one’s sins through pilgrimage to Hindu temples at Ganga river and by taking a dip in Ganga water.. Prophet said you wash all your sins by going to pilgrimage to Kaaba and drinking sacred Zam Zam water. This Haj worship concept is a win win situation for all concerned.. God Siva is happy that millions come and circumambulate his temple and kiss his symbolic private part, pilgrims including killers, pedophiles, adulterers, robbers and rapists are happy that their sins of lifetime get washed just by walking seven times around Kaaba and the local businesses and Muallims (prayer leaders) are happy that they can laugh all the way to the bank all year round.
    Prophet Mo also maintained the word Eid from Hinduism to celebrate the completion of Haj worship at the Siva temple of Kabah. Eid in Sanskrit means worship. The Islamic word Eid for festive days, signifying days of worship, is a pure Sanskrit word.
    Hindus also practice all night worship of moon Goddess Durga (Allah) on certain nights called “Jagratta” and believe that by doing that their worship is worth a lot more blessings.. Prophet Mo did not want Muslims to lose out on that count and thus included three “Jagratas” in Islam, shab-e-Qadar, Shab-e-Barat and Shab-e-Meraj when Muslim salats are worth a lot more than average salat. Practising Muslims pray like crazy during these nights to gain extra blessings ( mostly out of shape Muslims can hardly walk next day from all night of sit ups)

    In summary our great prophet incorporated the following Hindu religious rituals and concepts to ensure that Muslims also get blessed by Hindu Gods Siva and Hindu Goddess Allah ( Durga) (along with Yahweh, the God of Abraham and Ahuramazda the God of Zoroastrians whose religious tenets he also incorporated in our beloved religion of Al Islam).
    1. Adopting Hindu deity moon God Allah as the deity of Islam
    2. Making Hindu Moon God Siva’s temple Kaaba as the holiest place of Islam
    3. Making the black stone as the most holy stone of Islam and making touching and kissing of it as a a blissful act of Sunnah.
    5. Adopting the Hindu pilgrimages Haj and Umra as the highest worship in Islam.
    6. Shaving the heads as Hindus do for pilgrimages
    7. Circumambulating the Siva temple Kabah 7 times as Hindus did.
    8. Adopting the Hindu concept of washing all the sins by making the holy pilgrimage.
    9. Collecting holy water representing Ganga Jal (zam zam water) as Hindus do to take holy blessings home.
    10. Wearing White seamless cloth during pilgrimage as Hindus wear during their religious ceremonies and pilgrimages.
    11. Celebrating the completion of worship of Siva temple Kabah by giving it the Hindu Sanskrit name of EidEid.
    12. Including all night worships of moon God Allah (Durga) called Jagratta as part of Islam.

    Jazakallah Khair and namaste.

    http://www.islam-watch.org/AyeshaAhmed/Paganism-Hinduism-in-Islam.htm
     
  6. pk70

    pk70
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    This article explains well that, the world divided today, has actually the same origin. rooted back in History. I saw a documentary by a biologist( unfortunately I forgot his name, some one can help me on this), in that documentary he proves on the basis of DNA, our( human race) origin is from a tribe still lives in Africa. The scientist went to Africa and obtained DNA from that tribe, then to middle east, to another country north of Afghanistan, to Tamil Nadu( India), to an island of Australia, to remote Russian, to Alaska and to U.S. Long time ago when earth was not the same as it appears today, our ancestors migrated from that part of Africa to Middle east, through a way out close to ocean bank went towards Iran then to India passing through Tamil Nadu, then to an Island of Australia. He found the same DNA, proving that all of us originated from there. I do not feel wondered if prints of sects of Hinduism are found in Arabia. A lot of History is hidden, or covered up, whatever is found, points to one thing that one origin keeps a kind of a print even after lapse of centuries. Muslims wouldn’t believe it as they have no Shiva’s private part in mind while they touch that black stone, or when they go through shaving in white attire, they or their souls never ever link to ancient Vedic traditions as explained in the essay( so attaching their ritual to the sect of Hinduism may not be fair analysis). Literally those concepts are dead with new meanings. One can say that King Bikarama ruled over there and left prints of his careful and compassionate rule, it still does not make Muslim any part of that sect of Hinduism.
    I see there is no difference of bowing to stairs of a Gurduwara and bowing to a deity. What those Sikhs who do this, what they visualize is quite different than what a sect of Hinduism visualizes. It is very interesting that Muslims invaded India and did their best to destroy Hindu temples but never figured out that ancient Hindu King remained a part of their Kabba. I still feel we keep many things in our behavior that might have originated from a tribe from Africa.
    Guru Nanak in Japji Sahib Pouri # 35 clearly describes that the knowledge of all His creation as a part of one family must be understood instead of sticking to various established entities to box ourselves into small boxes. Without knowledge leaping within a small well is enviable.
    I call that documentary a divine revelation.
     
  7. vijaydeep Singh

    vijaydeep Singh
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    Gurfateh

    we have to be carefull about what Dr. Oak and his men write.They write that Taj Mahal was a temple.Kaba was a Temple.

    One of Hindu said to das that Harmandir sahib has some thing to do with Lord Krishna.

    There are two books or three books.
    1.Bharat Ke Itihas Ki Bhayankar Bholen
    2.Kaun kehta Hai Akbar Mahna Tha
    3.Taj mahal Ya Tejo Mahalya.

    They tend to write the fictatious hisroty of other faiths.Like they wrote about Sikhism. So be carefull.


    They wrote a lie that Allah is the name of Devi and Allah upnishad is an upnishad.Das has most of the Upnishads and Ten Mahvidya Tantric upnishads also but there is no such thing.

    so better be ware of them.


    Suppose we agree that Islam is an offshot of hindus only then why do ot they all be Muslims?

    Our Guru Mahraj already said and it was recorded in Sau Sakhi that Jews are only an outshoot of those Brahmins,who did not leave thier formless God and did not bow to idolatory forced upon them by then Budhist rulers(as per Dr Ambedkar But(or idol in Arebic) is more dervied from Buddha.


    No book of Hindu as such propogate idolatory(Vedas condem it).Yet just for the sake of justifying falsehood of thier forefathers they try to say that whole wrold was idolator.Say if Idol worshipping was there in middle east or say in Arebia,presently we have Islam or Chrisitiantiy.They should rather feel ashamed of thier defeat,as worshipper of formless have eliminated them.

    above writing are just intellectual attack of Muslims as they do it on Sikhs.Das is the member of Hindu Unity but could not open it here as it is banned by congress government in India.Thats the democrcy we enjoy.

    ਪੰਨਾ 534, ਸਤਰ 4
    ਬ੍ਰਹਮ ਮਹੇਸ ਸਿਧ ਮੁਨਿ ਇੰਦ੍ਰਾ ਮੋਹਿ ਠਾਕੁਰ ਹੀ ਦਰਸਾਰੇ ॥੧॥
    ब्रहम महेस सिध मुनि इंद्रा मोहि ठाकुर ही दरसारे ॥१॥
    Barahm mahės siḏẖ mun inḏrā mohi ṯẖākur hī ḏarsārė. ||1||
    Brahma, Shiva, the Siddhas, the silent sages and Indra - I seek only the Blessed Vision of my Lord and Master's Darshan. ||1||
    गुरू अरजन देव जी - [SIZE=-1]view Shabad/Paurhi/Salok


    Hindu Unity is offical website of Bajrang dal.And whenever das meets them,das tells them that if they have to be ever victorius,they have to go in for true God of thier ancestor ie Akal Purakh(Holy kuran tells that why you do shirk or worship demigods,just for your ancestor did it,why do not worship the one who gives you well being).

    It is our duty to inform Hindus that Islam and Christianity and Judaism are from same God,who is praised in Vedas and they removed pagan demigods from rest of the world.Sikhs can do the same in India.Likewise due to pagan influnce some sects of islam(Wahabis) and Chrisitnity(Protestants) have conceptulsied the universal God who is all as thier pagan tribal God.So to go back to true Allah/Yehove,they have to revert to Sikhism.
    [/SIZE]
     
    #6 vijaydeep Singh, Aug 7, 2008
    Last edited by a moderator: Jan 5, 2016
  8. Astroboy

    Astroboy Malaysia
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  9. Huck_Finn

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    786 is a sphenic number.
    A sphenic number (Old Greek sphen = wedge) is a positive integer which is the product of three distinct prime numbers.
    Note that this definition is more stringent than simply requiring the integer to have exactly three prime factors; e.g. 60 = 22 × 3 × 5 has exactly 3 prime factors, but is not sphenic.
    All sphenic numbers have exactly eight divisors. If we express the sphenic number as , where p, q, and r are distinct primes, then the set of divisors of n will be:

    All sphenic numbers are by definition squarefree, because the prime factors must be distinct.
    The Möbius function of any sphenic number is −1.
    The first few sphenic numbers are: 30, 42, 66, 70, 78, 102, 105, 110, 114, 130, 138, 154, 165, ... (sequence A007304 in OEIS)
    The first case of two consecutive integers which are sphenic numbers is 230 = 2×5×23 and 231 = 3×7×11. The first case of three is 1309 = 7×11×17, 1310 = 2×5×131, and 1311 = 3×19×23. There is no case of more than three, because one of every four consecutive integers is divisible by 4 = 2×2 and therefore not squarefree.
    The largest known sphenic number is currently (232,582,657 − 1) × (230,402,457 − 1) × (225,964,951 − 1), i.e., the product of the three largest known primes.
     
  10. Huck_Finn

    Huck_Finn
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    More on Prime numbers

    [​IMG]

    this is the representation of prime number distribution betwen 1 and 78600

    Can you see me in there?

    concentrate hard...i can see my picture there :)
     
  11. pk70

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    Can you see me in there?

    concentrate hard...i can see my picture there :)

    amarsanghera ji
    Why do you see only yourself there, what about others in there?
     
  12. Huck_Finn

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    Lo, behold

    everyone see's himself

    when you break this...you see the truth !!!
     
  13. Gyani Jarnail Singh

    Gyani Jarnail Singh Malaysia
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    Ya..its Like The Mirror...whoever Stands In Front Of It Sees Himself/herself/itself !!

    Gyani Js
     
  14. Astroboy

    Astroboy Malaysia
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    Mirror mirror on the wall, who's the fairest of us all ?

    The answer came = Pythagoras
     
  15. Astroboy

    Astroboy Malaysia
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    Here's something interesting that would turn the tables by saying that Vedas did not originate from India --- Brunnhofer and others argue that the composition of the Rig-veda took place not in the Punjab, but in Afghanistan or Iran. This theory assumes that Aryan entrance into India was much later.

    Source: Death of the Aryan Invasion Theory
     
  16. spnadmin

    spnadmin United States
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    I have been reading similar/related documents regarding the topic of the origins of the Vedas from a different slant, for a different purpose. Your comment IMHO would make a brilliant thread starter with just a little more context for the source document. What do you think?

    Title - Origins of the Vedas: Issues and Controversies -- just a thought.
     
  17. Astroboy

    Astroboy Malaysia
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    ਨਾਮ ਤੇਰੇ ਕੀ ਜੋਤਿ ਲਗਾਈ (Previously namjap)
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    That's brilliant heading Aad ji. You may start the topic and I will pitch in later. :happy:
     
  18. spnadmin

    spnadmin United States
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    Nam Jap ji,

    I will do my best -- actually the thread starter will have to be very short. And you will have to take the ball and run to the first down. ;) American football. :rofl!!:
     
  19. naingwin1976

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    Dear namjap,
    i would like to request you to review all possible history of world before posting. because of i knew and learn a lot of history of worlds. that is because of interesting in religions and history connection between all part of world.
    you may be right.
    first review my posting and then decided yourself.
    did you knew the that there are no history of arabia was conquered by indian.
    Aryan conquered to middle eastern and eastern europe and establish kingdoms. Then to India and started more legend.
    They were atlantean and Lemurian, i doubt that you already knew those peoples. They were aryans and like most of panjapi and northern indian peoples whiles sourthern were dravians nations.
    Atlantean and Lemurian are not in only invaded to indias they also invaded to europe,asia minors, africa sinces prehistoris times. I suggested you to review worlds history in full regions first.

    Here is a breife history of ARYANS.

    They called themselves the "noble ones" or the "superior ones." Their names are lost; their tribal names are lost. But when they found themselves conquerors, they gave themselves the name "superior" or "noble."

    They were a tribal and nomadic peoples living in the far reaches of Euro-Asia in hostile steppe lands barely scratching out a living. They were unquestionably a tough people, and they were fierce and war-like. Their religion reflects it dominated as it is by a storm-god or sky-god that enjoins warfare and conquest. This god was called something like "Dyaus," a word related to "Zeus," "deus" (the Latin word for "god"), "deva" (the Sanskrit word for "god"), and, of course, the English word "divine." Their culture was oriented around warfare, and they were very good at it. They were superior on horseback and rushed into battle in chariots. They were a tribal people ruled over by a war-chief, or raja (the Latin word "rex" (king) comes from the same root word, along with the English "regal"). Somewhere in the early centuries of the second millenium BC, they began to migrate southwards in waves of steady conquest across the face of Persia and the lands of India.

    There, they would take on the name "superior" or "noble" to distinguish themselves from the people they conquered. Their name is derived from the Indo-European root word, "ar," meaning "noble." In Sanskrit, they were the "Aryas" ("Aryans"); but that root, "ar," would also serve as the foundation of the name of the conquered Persian territories, "Iran." This concept of nobility, in fact, seems to lie at the heart of Indo-European consciousness, for it appears in another country's name, "Ireland," or "Eire." You can bet, however, that when a people go around calling themselves superior that it spells bad news for other people.

    And there is no question that they were bad news for the southern Asians. They swept over Persia with lightening speed, and spread across the northern river plains of India. Their nature as a warlike, conquering people are still preserved in Vedic religion, the foundation of Hinduism. In the Rig Veda, the collection of praises to the gods, the god Indra towers over the poetry as a conquering god, one that smashes cities and slays enemies. The invading Aryans were originally nomadic peoples, not agricultural. They penetrated India from the north-west, settling first in the Indus valley. Unlike the Harappans, however, they eventually concentrated their populations along the Ganges floodplain. The Ganges, unlike the Indus, is far milder and more predictable in its flooding. It must have been a paradise to a people from the dry steppes of central Asia and Iran, a paradise full of water and forest. When they arrived, the vast northern plains were almost certainly densely forested. Where now bare fields stretch to the horizon, when the Aryans arrived lush forests stretched to those very same horizons. Clearing the forests over the centuries was an epic project and one that is still preserved in Indian literature.

    The Aryans, or Vedic civilization were a new start in Indian culture. Harappa was more or less a dead end (at least as far as we know); the Aryans adopted almost nothing of Harappan culture. They built no cities, no states, no granaries, and used no writing. Instead they were a warlike people that organized themselves in individual tribal, kinship units, the jana. The jana was ruled over by a war-chief. These tribes spread quickly over northern India and the Deccan. In a process that we do not understand, the basic social unit of Aryan culture, the jana, slowly developed from an organization based on kinship to one based on geography. The jana became a janapada, or nation and the jana-rajya , or tribal kingdom, became the jana-rajyapada, or national kingdom. So powerfully ingrained into Indian culture is the jana-pada , that Indians still define themselves mainly by their territorial origins. All the major territories of modern India, with their separate cultures and separate languages, can be dated back to the early jana-padas of Vedic India.

    The earliest history of the Aryans in India is called the Rigvedic Period (1700-1000 BC) after the religious praise poems that are the oldest pieces of literature in India. These poems, the Rig Veda, are believed to represent the most primitive layer of Indo-European religion and have many characteristics in common with Persian religion since the two peoples are closely related in time. In this early period, their population was restricted to the Punjab in the northern reaches of the Indus River and the Yamuna River near the Ganges. They maintained the Aryan tribal structure, with a raja ruling over the tribal group in tandem with a council. Each jana seems to have had a chief priest; the religion was focused almost entirely on a series of sacrifices to the gods. The Rigvedic peoples originally had only two social classes: nobles and commoners. Eventually, they added a third: Dasas , or "darks." These were, we presume, the darker-skinned people they had conquered. By the end of the Rigvedic period, social class had settled into four rigid castes: the caturvarnas, or "four colors." At the top of the caturvarnas were the priests, or Brahmans. Below the priests were the warriors or nobles (Kshatriya), the craftspeople and merchants (Vaishya), and the servants (Shudra), who made up the bulk of society. These economic classes were legitimated by an elaborate religious system and would be eventually subdivided into a huge number of economic sub-classes which we call "castes." Social class by the end of the Rigvedic period became completely inflexible; there was no such thing as social mobility.

    In the early centuries of Later Vedic Period or Brahmanic Period (1000-500 BC), the Aryans migrated across the Doab, which is a large plain which separates the Yamuna River from the Ganges. It was a difficult project, for the Doab was thickly forested; the Aryans slowly burned and settled the Doab until they reached the Ganges. While the Rig Veda represents the most primitive religion of the Aryans during the Rigvedic Period, the religion of the Later Vedic period is dominated by the Brahmanas, or priestly book, which was composed sometime between 1000 and 850 BC. Later Vedic society is dominated by the Brahmans and every aspect of Aryan life comes under the control of priestly rituals and spells. In history as the Indians understand it, the Later Vedic Period is the Epic Age; the great literary, heroic epics of Indian culture, the Mahabharata and the Ramayana, though they were composed between 500 and 200 BC, were probably originally formulated and told in the Later Vedic Period. Both of these epics deal with heroes from this period and demonstrate how Aryan cultural values, as we can understand them from the Rig Veda , are being transformed by mixing with Indus cultures.

    What did the Aryans do with their time? They seem to have had a well-developed musical culture, and song and dance dominated their society. They were not greatly invested in the visual arts, but their interest in lyric poetry was unmatched. They loved gambling. They did not, however, have much interest in writing even though they could have inherited a civilization and a writing system when they originally settled India. We do not know exactly when they became interested in writing, but it may have been at the end of the Brahmanic period somewhere between 650 and 500 BC. Still, there are no Aryan writings until the Mauryan period—from Harappa (2500-1750 BC) to Maurya (300 BC) is quite a long time. The script that the Mauryans used is called "Brahmi" script and was used to write not only the religious and literary language of the time, Sanskrit, but also the vernacular languages. This script, Brahmi, is the national alphabet of India.

    The Vedic period, then, is a period of cultural mixing, not of conquest. Although the Aryans were a conquering people when they first spread into India, the culture of the Aryans would gradually mix with indigenous cultures, and the war-religion of the Aryans, still preserved in parts of the Rig Veda, slowly became more ritualized and more meditative. By 200 BC, this process of mixing and transforming was more or less complete and the culture we call "Indian" was fully formed.

    I will discuss it later with you again.
     
  20. naingwin1976

    naingwin1976
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    If you want to review about Atlantis and Lemuria, i have a whole research collection.

    :D
    naingwin1976
     
  21. Astroboy

    Astroboy Malaysia
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    ਨਾਮ ਤੇਰੇ ਕੀ ਜੋਤਿ ਲਗਾਈ (Previously namjap)
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    Please bring forth Atlantis and Lemuria, naingwin Ji. It would be a feast for my mind.
     

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