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Sin and Salvation in Sikhism, Jewish Scriptures, Old and New Christian Testaments

Discussion in 'Interfaith Dialogues' started by vijaydeep Singh, Oct 25, 2008.

  1. vijaydeep Singh

    vijaydeep Singh
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    Gurfateh
    At spritual level Sikhism and Christianity are one and the same.Christian is Sikh of Lord Jesus for many.Khalsa is form of Gurbar Akal incarnated on earth.

    Father(creator),Son(Panth Khalsa) and Holy Ghost(Concept of having one mind and one sprit with spirit of God).

    Just one Info about Sikhism.In us Salvation means attaining the state of "being in Holy Ghost" which we called Jivit Mukt.

    so having faith in Lord Jesus,having love for him and remebering him for ever so that seeing him every where in all will make you Sikh.This is first step.

    So far Das has not said anything anti Chrisitian and all things are at par with Holy Bible.If anything wrong has been writtan then kindly forgive das.Akal Bless.Halle Lu Jah.
     
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  3. spnadmin

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    Re: Wedding Between Sikh and Christian

    vijaydeep ji

    Why don't you develop your thinking on this subject in Interfaith Dialogs. It is the most remarkable comparison of two religions in concise form I think I have ever read.

    Amazing and intriguing. Write more. :thumbup:
     
  4. shearwater

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    Re: Wedding Between Sikh and Christian

    I have Sikh friends, but can't generalize for their faith or make a stereotype. But there are many parallels with Christianity. I like their open commitment to help the poor and disenfranchised. That is a Christian concept. My thought is that Sikhism evolved in an area where Christianity was not known at the time and perhaps Guru Nanak was influenced by the Holy Spirit to do his writings as a "half step" toward Christian faith. I emphasize that these thoughts are my own and I as a human being do not have knowledge to verify that this is true. The Bible says of itself, "For prophecy never had its origin in the will of man, but men spoke from God as they were carried along by the Holy Spirit." If I were to say that Guru Nanak was one of these holy men, I would be making a heretical claim by Christian reckoning. But what I can say is that I believe that God does move human beings to change toward the good in unique and seemingly strange ways. Guru Nanak accomplished a monumental positive when his teachings renounced the idolatry of the Hindu belief system and Sikhism is a monotheistic religion. But I must tell you that many false religions have evolved through the syncretism of Christianity with other religions and come out wrong. Theexample from the Bible is in 2nd Samuel toward the end where Solomon was turned away from his fidelity to God by his pagan wives for whom he place idols of there various religions in the temples. Jesus Christ made some exclusive truth claims that will not make Christianity compatible with any other religion. He said, "I am the way, the truth and the life. No one comes to the Father (God Almighty) but through me." You must understand that I believe that God works in strange ways beyond our understanding and that many who will ultimately be in heaven we would not suspect when we saw them on earth. In the New Testament there is a verse that says, "Be not unequally yoked together with unbelievers, for what fellowship hath light with darkness and what concord has Christ with satan?" My advice would be to ask your Sikh friend to read the New Testament and compare the scripture teaching with his gut beliefs before you get married. Also see a wise spiritual adviser. I would venture that a Sikh could become a Christian by acknowledging that he is a sinner in need of a Savior (Jesus Christ) and asking Jesus Christ to come into his heart and be Lord of his life.
     
  5. spnadmin

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    Re: Wedding Between Sikh and Christian

    shearwater ji

    Why would a Sikh need to claim he/she was a sinner? This is not true for all Christian sects in order for conversion to occur. Only some. And I was thinking that perhaps the Christian would remain Christian and the Sikh remain Sikh, each appreciating the depth of spiritual possibilities offered by each one's religion.

    Seems a lot of assumptions. Forgive me.
     
  6. shearwater

    shearwater
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    Re: Wedding Between Sikh and Christian

    The Christian religion teaches that all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God.

    I certainly admire the Sikhs I have met and believe they are attempting to lead a life of virtue. But the standard with which we judge God's holiness and absolute perfection would dictate how we reckon to measure up in terms of our own virtue. Most people will acknowledge that however good they are, God is still higher and those who are highly advanced in grace seem to recognize this even more.

    The Christian religion and our human experience shows that all men are sinners. A sinner is one who does not obey God's laws. Everyone at some point in time lies, steals, cheats, commits adultery, etc. These are violations of the Ten Commandments (The Law) which Christians subscribe to as foundational for civil order and virtuous living. We acknowledge our human nature to God and he displays forgiveness when we confess these sins to God and turn our life to virtue through the means of grace: prayer, meeting together with other Christians, Bible study, and obedience to all the commandments, and to Christ himself who indwells those who are his followers. Every Christian sect which believes in the sacrificial atonement acknowledges that through the capital sin of Adam all are sinners because of Adams initial disobedience and fall. The New Testament teaches this as well and a Christian sect can not really be considered "Christian" if it does not follow the teachings of the New Testament.
     
  7. spnadmin

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    Re: Wedding Between Sikh and Christian

    Shearwater ji

    The sentence in bold font clarifies my point. You said conversion depends on claiming one is a sinner. And I know that this is not the case with every Christian sect.

    States of sinfulness are also varied within Christianity -- original sin, sins of commission, sins of omission, mortal sins, cardinal sins, venial sins. How these sins are atoned may or may not involved sacrificial atonement. :)

     
  8. vijaydeep Singh

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    Re: Wedding Between Sikh and Christian

    Gurfateh

    Well Vars of Bhai Gurdas talk of Christians.

    Vaar 8 Pauri 16 Sects among semitic religions
    ਕਿਤੜੇ ਸੁੰਨੀ ਆਖੀਅਨਿ ਕਿਤੜੇ ਈਸਾਈ ਮੂਸਾਈ ।
    kitarhay sunnee aakheeani kitarhay eesaaee moosaaee|
    Many are Christians, Sunnis and followers of Moses. Many are Rafizis and Mulahids
    Line 1

    ਕੇਤੜਿਆ ਹੀ ਰਾਫਜੀ ਕਿਤੜੇ ਮੁਲਹਿਦ ਗਣਤ ਨ ਆਈ ।
    kaytarhiaa hee raadhajee kitarhay mulahid ganat n aaee|
    (those who do not believe in the day of judgement).
    Line 2

    ਲਖ ਫਿਰੰਗੀ ਇਰਮਨੀ ਰੂਮੀ ਜੰਗੀ ਦੁਸਮਨ ਦਾਈ ।
    lakh dhirangee iramanee roomee jangee dusaman daaee|
    Millions are firangis (Europeans), Arminis, Rumis and other warriors fighting the enemy.
    Line 3

    ਕਿਤੜੇ ਸਈਯਦ ਆਖੀਅਨਿ ਕਿਤੜੇ ਤੁਰਕਮਾਨ ਦੁਨਿਆਈ ।
    kitarhay saeeyad aakheeani kitarhay turakamaan duniaaee|
    In the world many are known by the names of Sayyads and Turks.
    Line 4

    ਕਿਤੜੇ ਮੁਗਲ ਪਠਾਣ ਹਨਿ ਹਬਸੀ ਤੈ ਕਿਲਮਾਕ ਅਵਾਈ ।
    kitarhay mugal patdaan hani habasee tai kilamaak avaaee|
    Many are Mughals, Pathans, Negroes and Kilmaks (followers of Solomon).
    Line 5

    ਕੇਤੜਿਆਂ ਈਮਾਨ ਵਿਚਿ ਕਿਤੜੇ ਬੇਈਮਾਨ ਬਲਾਈ ।
    kaytarhiaan eemaan vichi kitarhay bayeemaan balaaee|
    Many are spending honest life and many live by dishonesty.
    Line 6

    ਨੇਕੀ ਬਦੀ ਨ ਲੁਕੈ ਲੁਕਾਈ ॥੧੬॥
    naykee badee n|ukai|ukaaee ॥16॥
    Even then, the virtue and evil cannot remain hidden
    Line 7


    Likewise Shri Dasham Granth Sahib has full mention of Christains (there they are termed as Westerners,Brithsers or French.

    ਫਰਾ ਕੇ ਫਿਰੰਗੀ ਮਾਨੈਂ ਕੰਧਾਰੀ ਕੁਰੇਸੀ ਜਾਨੈਂ ਪਛਮ ਕੇ ਪੱਛਮੀ ਪਛਾਨੈਂ ਨਿਜ ਕਾਮ ਹੈਂ ॥
    Pharaa ke phirangoo maanain Kandhaaroo Kuresoo jaanain pachham ke pachchamoo pachhaanain nij kaam hain||
    The people of France and England revere Thee, the inhabitants of Kandhaar and Quraishis know Thee; the people of western side recognize their duty towards Thee.
    Line 10

    ਮਰਹਟਾ ਮਘੇਲੇ ਤੇਰੀ ਮਨ ਸੋਂ ਤਪਸਿਆ ਕਰੈ ਦ੍ਰਿੜਵੈ ਤਿਲੰਗੀ ਪਹਚਾਨੈ ਧਰਮ ਧਾਮ ਹੈਂ ॥੨॥੨੫੪॥
    Marhataa Maghele teroo man son tapasiaa karai Dri?vai Tilangoo pahchaanai dharam dhaam hain||2||254||
    The inhabitants of Maharashtra and Magadha perform austerities with profound affection; the residents of Drawar and Tilang countries recognise Thee as the Abode of Dharma.2.254
    Line 11

    ਬੰਗ ਕੇ ਬੰਗਾਲੀ ਫਿਰਹੰਗ ਕੇ ਫਿਰੰਗਾਵਾਲੀ ਦਿਲੀ ਕੇ ਦਿਲਵਾਲੀ ਤੇਰੀ ਆਗਿਆ ਮੈ ਚਲਤ ਹੈਂ ॥
    Bang ke Bangaaloo Phirhang ke Phirangaavaaloo Diloo ke Dilvaaloo teroo aagiaa mai chalet hain||
    The Bengalis of Bengal, the Phirangis of Phirangistan and Dilwalis of Delhi are the followers of Thy Command.
    Line 12

    ਰੋਹ ਕੇ ਰੁਹੇਲੇ ਮਾਘ ਦੇਸ ਕੇ ਮਘੇਲੇ ਬੀਰ ਬੰਗ ਸੀ ਬੁੰਦੇਲੇ ਪਾਪ ਪੁੰਜ ਕੋ ਮਲਤ ਹੈਂ ॥
    Roh ke ruhele Maagh des ke Maghele boor Bang soo Buaadele paap punj ko malat hain||
    The Rohelas of Rohu mountain, the Maghelas of Magadha, the heroic Bangasis of Bangas and the Bundhelas of Bundhelkhand destroy their sins in Thy devotion.
    Line 13

    ਗੋਖਾ ਗੁਨ ਗਾਵੈ ਚੀਨ ਮਚੀਨ ਕੇ ਸੀਸ ਨਯਾਵੈ ਤਿੱਬਤੀ ਧਿਆਇ ਦੇਖ ਦੇਹ ਕੋ ਦਲਤ ਹੈਂ ॥
    Gokhaa gun gaavai Choon Machoon ke soos nyaavai Tibbati dhiaae dokh deh ko dalat hain||
    Gorkhas sing Thy Praises, the residents of China and Manchuria bow their heads before Thee and the Tibetans destroy the sufferings of their bodies by remembering Thee.
    Line 14

    Term Anjeel is used by Tenth Guru in Hiqayatan.First Guru uses term Kateb(it is of Four Books ie Holy Bible(Two Books in Old Testments while One in New Testment) and Holy Kuran.)

    Further there is mention of First Master meeeting Sidhas or miracle showing Guys of Kajali Ban which could be understood as Christains of Kerala ,where Guru disapproves the Miracles attributed to the Humans.

    Explaining Sikhism in Christian terms.

    As per New Testment we have Adam doing a Sin making all humans as sinner and Lord Jesus giving up life to pardon the Humans.Anyone who behold Lord Jesus as lord will be there fore pardoned and Salvaged in the New Jerusalam Deceninding on earth on the last day of Judgement.While rest will be in fire of hell.

    So where do Sikhs stand?

    As per Deutrionomy of Old Testment we are told that all things in universe(there it is writtan on earth and whithin) are of God.God is the only lord.

    So by this our spritis,all matters,all deeds are owned by God.

    Further to it in book of Issiah,we are told that what so ever we see or hear is nothing beside God.

    As per Gospel of Saint John,God as created very thing with Word.Which came in form of Lord Jesus.And God is Omnipotant also.

    So in Sikhism we belive that as God could make everthing,God can whenever God wants can destroy everything also.Including Hevan and Hell.

    As our God is in All,that God is in Lord Jesus also.But we do not have greed for Salvation or Hevan.What we want is Faith.Faith in God.

    When we love some one,we should not have greed to seek return but should be happy the way Lord keeps us(REad book of Job,where God orders Satan to test the Sikhi of Hazrat Ayob Ahle Sala,who is called Job bu Judeu Christians).

    Akal Bless.And Happy Libration Day(Bandi Chhor Divas)..
     
  9. Balwant Singh Ahluwalia

    Balwant Singh Ahluwalia
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    Re: Wedding Between Sikh and Christian

    Vijaydeep ji

    Wahe guru ki khalsa wahe guru ki fateh!

    For some reason you do not seem to be a native english speaker. Also, you have used the word "we" to intermittently signify sikh and christian. The word jah at the very end of your post halle lu jah seems to signify that you are either portuguese or a spaniard. So who are you? Are you really a man or a woman?

    Of course we are tolerant towards all religions. But to come here and prescribe to us that we should have faith, love and rememberance towards jesus may be a little too much. And to dictate this as the first step seems that you have some personal agenda. Isn't it? Please let us know honestly, would you?

    Are you by any chance in love with a sikh boy or girl?
     
  10. Archived_Member4

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    Re: Wedding Between Sikh and Christian

    Whats the difference between the New Testament and Old Testament? Has the Old Testament been changed and called the New Testament? :confused:
     
  11. spnadmin

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    Singh ji

    Your question IMHO is very important because it gets at some fundamental misunderstandings about the meaning of sacred scriptures to both Jews and Christians.

    That there is a both new testament and an old testament is solely a Christian idea. For Jews, the sacred scriptures were originally passed down orally and then were written down centuries later. Christians refer to an Old Testament (which more accurately should be termed the Hebrew Bible) as a way of marking the difference between an 'old covenant' (humankind's relationship with God before the arrival of Jesus of Nazareth) and a 'new covenant' (the Christian idea of salvation through death and resurrection of Jesus of Nazareth). Here the distinction is made that Jesus of Nazareth was the Messiah or Deliverer -- who delivered Israel (Jews) from bondage, but also humankind from the bondage of sin.

    Now for Jews there is no Old Testament -- only their sacred scriptures which include the Torah or the 5 Books of Moses (books from the scriptures that outline religious law, belief and practice) and other scriptures as well. To call the Hebrew bible the Old Testament is something of an insult or at best ignorance of their religion.

    All the other books along with the 5 books of Moses that make up the Hebrew Bible are as follows: Genesis Exodus Leviticus Numbers Deuteronomy Joshua Judges Ruth 1 Samuel 2 Samuel 1 Kings 2 Kings 1 Chronicles 2 Chronicles Ezra Nehemiah Esther Job Psalms Proverbs Ecclesiastes Song of Solomon Isaiah Jeremiah Lamentations Ezekiel Daniel Hosea Joel Amos Obadiah Jonah Micah Nahum Habakkuk Zephaniah Haggai Zechariah Malachi

    The need of Jews to have their scriptures in written form increased after the destruction of their Temple in Jerusalem by the Romans in 70 AD or Common Era. At that time the Temple Judaism of many past centuries was essentially destroyed along with the priestly classes. A new form of Judaism emerged called rabbinical Judaism, a religion guided by scholars and teachers. Jews were dispersed throughout the known world and their written scriptures then became their most important connection with their history as a religious path, and ethic, and as a people.

    Christian faiths differ in the degree to which they consider the Hebrew Scriptures part of their own religious canon. The New Testament, however, is sacred scripture for all Christians because it chronicles the life of Jesus of Nazareth and his teachings, as well as the writings of apostles who followed him, and who explained how his teachings applied to Christian life.

    The idea of Old and New Testaments makes sense only within Christianity. This is because of the Christian view that there is an old covenant (God's covenant with Abraham through the sacrifice of Jacob) and a new covenant (the sacrifice of Jesus of Nazareth). Jesus of Nazareth himself referred to a 'new covenant' immediately before he was crucified. And his apostle Paul called himself the minister of the 'new covenant' in his letter to the Corinthians.

    So the answer to your question depends on whether one answers from the experience of a follower of Judaism or one answers from the experience of a Christian.

    p/s Old and New Testaments are completely different scriptures. My answer is based on information from New Advent encyclopedia and personal understanding.
     
  12. Astroboy

    Astroboy Malaysia
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    ਨਾਮ ਤੇਰੇ ਕੀ ਜੋਤਿ ਲਗਾਈ (Previously namjap)
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    We cannot escape sin so long as we consider ourselves as born of the flesh. As Sikhs we are taught that we are Spirit Born. This adds a whole new understanding about ourselves. A Christian coming into contact with Sikh teachings is exposed to a whole new paradigm shift.
     
  13. spnadmin

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    NamJap ji

    Yes.
     
  14. Archived_Member4

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    Thanks Aad ji, your post cleared up the question. But now another question arises. Who wrote the Old Testament and New Testament?
     
  15. spnadmin

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    Singh ji,

    It is important to start off by saying that biblical scholars themselves are not completely confident of who wrote many of the scriptures, and when Old Testament/Hebrew Bible scriptures were written because of the lack of ancient evidence, and because of philosophical controversies. There is no equivalent of Bhai Gurdas who was able to provide interpretation, history, and personal confirmation when talking about either testament. Bhaii Gurdas was a contemportary of 6 Gurus and supervised the compilation of the Adi Granth. No one quite like him existed to be the historical commentator for either Jewish or Christian scriptures. And we must remember that historical conquests of the ancient Jews led to the destruction of a lot of evidence.

    Starting with the Hebrew Bible or Old Testament.

    Jews and Christians consider the bible to have 3 parts that follow one another roughly in historical sequence. They are: Hat-Torah, Nebiim, wa-Kéthubim, i.e. The Law, the Prophets, and the Writings. But the historical age of the last two, Prophets and Writings, is still debated. Some scriptures in Prophets may be of the same age historically as other scriptures in the Writings: for example, the book of Kings and the book of Psalms. both connected to Kind David.

    The scriptures in Hat Torah or The Law include: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy. These are the Books of Moses and are believed to be very ancient, revealed to Moses as the word of God by God, and handed down by Moses to scribes who recorded these revelations.

    Jews consider all the scriptures in the book of Prophets as both prophesy and history, and include them all together: Josue, Judges, 1 and 2 Samuel, and 1 and 2 Kings and the prophets Isaias, Jeremias, Ezechiel.

    In the Hebrew Bible, the Writings include: Psalms, Proverbs, Job, Canticle of Canticles, Ruth, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes, Esther, Daniel, Esdras, Nehemias.

    Rough time-line.

    Some many centuries before 700 BCE
    It is believed that the 5 Books of Moses or Hat Torah were almost certainly written down by scribes shortly after the scriptures were revealed to Moses. It is documented in the Book of Deuteronomy that these revelations were written and stored in the sacred arc to be read to the people of Israel on important religious occasions by the priests.

    The first written record of the Hat Torah was not found until it was discovered by Kind Josias in the Temple in 621 BCE. Prior to this date there is no record of a written code of laws having supreme and Divine authority. This book of laws according to historians was practically identical with the Book of Deuteronomy,

    6th Century BCE - Palestinian Canon
    The time when the remaining books were written down is less clear. The authors of the books of Prophets would certainly be the prophets themselves, and many of the books of Writings are believed authored by some of the same individuals. The earliest date given for the completion of the early Hebrew Bible, also known by Christians as the Palestinian Canon, is 596 BCE. This means that the books of Prophets and the books of Writings were compiled after the Hat-Torah or Books of Moses and through the 6th Century, before the birth of Jesus of Nazareth. The Palestinian Canon included all the books of the later Hebrew Bible except Isaiah 34:16; 2 Chronicles 29:30; Proverbs 25:1; Daniel 9:2.

    5th Century BCE - Later documentation of the Hebrew Bible
    It is believed that Esdras, a priest and scribe, and Nehemias, a governor under the Babylonian diaspora and oppression of the Jews, guided the completion of the Palestinian Canon no later than the 5th Century BC or BCE. Their leadership appears documented in the Book of Nehemiah. In addition the Persian king Artaxerxes Longiamanus (465-425 B.C) chronicled the books of the Hebrew Bible during his reign in the 5th Century BC or BCE.

    2nd Century BCE through the Christian era

    There are many Christian theologians who believe that many portions of the Writings may not have been completed until 165 BCE or later, and perhaps into the early Christian era in the 200 years following the birth and death of Jesus of Nazareth.

    We can tackle the New Testament later. It is even more complicated because of the political controversies among Christians in the early centuries of Christianity. New Testament scriptures were translated into Greek (I don't remember when). Then..... Scriptures of the Jews and Christians were finally translated as one book and into one language by the Christian scholar, Jerome, in the 4th Century AD. The language he used was Latin.
     
    #14 spnadmin, Dec 6, 2008
    Last edited by a moderator: Dec 6, 2008
  16. KulwantK

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    For purposes of clarification, there is something we must remember. There have been many translations, and translations of translations, of the books called the Old Testament and the New Testament. Something may be lost-or added- in translations. Also, each one of us is a unique creation by God, and so, each one of us could view the readings of vaious Scriptures in a unique fashion. Each of us has our very own Relationship with the Divine, and so, when we share, we add to that Relationship! It is all wonderful! Blessings to All!
    Happy New Year!
    Wahe Guru
    Kulwant
     
  17. spnadmin

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    Happy New Year, KulwantK ji! Good to hear your voice here again. Glad to read your words which are in fact the fact. :)
     
  18. shearwater

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    The Massoretic Text

    During the early part of the tenth century (916 A.D.), there was a group of Jews called the Massoretes. These Jews were meticulous in their copying. The texts they had were all in capital letters, and there was no punctuation or paragraphs. The Massoretes would copy Isaiah, for example, and when they were through, they would total up the number of letters. Then they would find the middle letter of the book. If it was not the same, they made a new copy. All of the present copies of the Hebrew text which come from this period are in remarkable agreement. Comparisons of the Massoretic text with earlier Latin and Greek versions have also revealed careful copying and little deviation during the thousand years from 100 B.C. to 900 A.D. But until this century, there was scant material written in Hebrew from antiquity which could be compared to the Masoretic texts of the tenth century A.D.
    The Dead Sea Scrolls

    In 1947, a young Bedouin goat herdsman found some strange clay jars in caves near the valley of the Dead Sea. Inside the jars were some leather scrolls. The discovery of these "Dead Sea Scrolls" at Qumran has been hailed as the outstanding archeological discovery of the twentieth century. The scrolls have revealed that a commune of monastic farmers flourished in the valley from 150 B.C. to 70 A.D. It is believed that when they saw the Romans invade the land they put their cherished leather scrolls in the jars and hid them in the caves on the cliffs northwest of the Dead Sea. The Dead Sea Scrolls include a complete copy of the Book of Isaiah, a fragmented copy of Isaiah, containing much of Isaiah 38-6, and fragments of almost every book in the Old Testament. The majority of the fragments are from Isaiah and the Pentateuch (Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy). The books of Samuel, in a tattered copy, were also found and also two complete chapters of the book of Habakkuk. In addition, there were a number of nonbiblical scrolls related to the commune found.
    These materials are dated around 100 B.C. The significance of the find, and particularly the copy of Isaiah, was recognized by Merrill F. Unger when he said, "This complete document of Isaiah quite understandably created a sensation since it was the first major Biblical manuscript of great antiquity ever to be recovered. Interest in it was especially keen since it antedates by more than a thousand years the oldest Hebrew texts preserved in the Massoretic tradition."{2}
    The supreme value of these Qumran documents lies in the ability of biblical scholars to compare them with the Massoretic Hebrew texts of the tenth century A.D. If, upon examination, there were little or no textual changes in those Massoretic texts where comparisons were possible, an assumption could then be made that the Massoretic Scribes had probably been just as faithful in their copying of the other biblical texts which could not be compared with the Qumran material.
    What was learned? A comparison of the Qumran manuscript of Isaiah with the Massoretic text revealed them to be extremely close in accuracy to each other: "A comparison of Isaiah 53 shows that only 17 letters differ from the Massoretic text. Ten of these are mere differences in spelling (like our "honor" and the English "honour") and produce no change in the meaning at all. Four more are very minor differences, such as the presence of a conjunction (and) which are stylistic rather than substantive. The other three letters are the Hebrew word for "light." This word was added to the text by someone after "they shall see" in verse 11. Out of 166 words in this chapter, only this one word is really in question, and it does not at all change the meaning of the passage. We are told by biblical scholars that this is typical of the whole manuscript of Isaiah."{3}
     

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