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Ruqan-ud-Deen: The Sikh Martyr of Guru Nanak Period

Discussion in 'Sikh Personalities' started by dalvindersingh grewal, Dec 31, 2012.

  1. dalvindersingh grewal

    dalvindersingh grewal India
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    Ruqan-ud-Deen: The Sikh Martyr of Guru Nanak Period​
    Col Dr Dalvinder Singh Grewal

    Recently new facts about Qazi Ruqun-ud-Deen of Mecca Mosque, a devout follower of Guru Nanak have come to light where he has been stoned to death on the order of Ameer of Mecca because he followed and propogated Guru Nanak’s teaching instead of Islam Name of Ruqun-ud-Deen appears in 3 Janamsakhis: Puratan Janamsakhi (pp.105-107) (1), Janamsakhi B 40 (p.66) (2) and Janamsakhi Bhai Mani Singh (pp. 379-389) (3). In a recent paper by Prof. Himmat Singh (4) details of Ruqun-ud-Deen also appear in three recently located manuscripts ‘Syahto Baba Nanak Faqir’ (1509 AD) (5) written by Taj-u-deen Naqshbandi, Twareekh-i-Arab’(1505-06 AD) (6) written by Khwaja Zain ul Abideen and Gunitusalehin (1506-07) written by Abdul Rahman.(7)

    According to Puratan Janamsakhi, Ruqun-ud-Deen was a Qazi and was present at the famous Mecca mosque during Guru Nanak’s visit to Mecca. Reaching Mecca, Guru Nanak slept keeping his feet towards Qaba. Ruqun-ud-Deen asked him not to do so since feet should not be towards God’s home. Guru Nanak asked him to move his feet to the direction where God is not present. Qazi Ruqun-ud-Deen caught Guru Nanak’s feet and moved. In whatever direction he moved Guru’s feet the Qaba followed. Astonished Ruqun-ud-Deen kissed Guru’s feet and asked his name and held discussions with him. (1) Details of ‘Makke di Goshat’ are given thereafter in which Guru sang his hymn ‘Yak arz guftam pes(i) tu dargos kun kartar’. (Mahla 1; Tilang, Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji, p. 721).

    ‘Syahto Baba Nanak Faqir’(5) whose writer Taj-u-deen Naqshbandi had joined Guru Nanak’s party from Iran and recorded daily movements of Guru Nanak, wrote about this event as well. According to him, Guru Nanak moved from there to the Qabristan of Mecca and stayed there for three days. Mardana started his music (in accompaniment of Guru Nanak’s hymns). The people of Arab gathered in the presence of Guru Nanak. Heaps of dates and pots of milk were presented by these devotees. At the end of the music, Guru Nanak delivered a sermon. Qazi Ruqun-ud- Deen, Khwaja Zain-ul-aab(i) Deen (writer of Tareekh(i) Arab), Qazi Gulam Ahmed (Richest man of Mecca) and Ibni Aswad , the head of Quresh tribe and heads of Budhu tribes were also present then. The hymn ‘Yak Arz Guftam’ became a fad for Qazi Ruqun-ud-Deen.

    Khwaja Zain-ul-aab(i) Deen the writer of Twareekh(i) Arab, was present in Qabristan of Mecca. He wrote in the chapter Bab-ul-Mecca of his book ‘Twareekh-i-Arab’ (p. 300): The sermon of Guru Nanak was heard by 300 followers. Ruqun-ud-Deen went into deep meditation. Thereafter Ruqun-ud-Deen never went back to his home and remained in meditation in a cave till he was put to death by the fundamentalist regime.
    When Amir of Mecca came to know that the Muslims are following an infidel, he issued fatwas. These fatwas (religious orders) were;

    1. Nanak faqir is an infidel. His teachings are falsehood and against the Muslim religion.
    2. Ruqun-ud-Deen’s entire property will be confiscated.
    3. The Khwesh tribe, the follower of Guru Nanak is ordered to leave the country.
    4. Each followers of Guru Nanak ‘to undergo beating by 30 lashes and to be without food for 11 days.’
    5. They will then be burried in sand dunes.
    6. Before this they will be taken on camels around the city with blackened faces.
    7. They will be hung upside down.
    8. The strongest follower of Guru Nanak (Ruqun-ud deen) will be burried in ground till his chest and then stoned to death.

    Since it was announced in the city that a criminal is being stoned to death; the citizens thronged to watch the event. The citizens of Mecca gathered round with stones….The writer of Twarikh-e-Arab sums up this event saying: “The sacrifice of Ruqun-ud-Deen was special.Watching the sacrifice, 50% of the onlookers became followers of Nanak”. This is how the number of followers of Guru Nanak increased with each sacrifice.

    Amir of Mecca sent his men to locate and eliminate Guru Nanak as well. Abdul Rahman the writer of another book Gunitusalehin (1506-07) was one such person assigned the job. He wrote about his encounter with Guru Nanak in his book: “When I was driving my horse with speed and hurry; my horse stopped abruptly. I tried to move him by kicking and hitting but the horse did not move. I lifted my head to find in front that at a distance of 100 yards the faqirs were seated. The elderly person in the midst of them had a brightened face and an aura around of him more powerful than thousands of suns. This brightness shut my eyes and I had a revelation that I was about to commit a crime. The horse proved better than me who saved me from committing this crime even though I gave him lashes to advance. In front of me is the same Godly person who had moved Mecca mosque. Shah Sharaf and Ruqun-ud-Deen became his devout followers. He has rightly spread the True Name of God among the Arabs and is now in front of me. I regained my senses and thought of doing the right. I immediately saw the reason; left my horse and shoes and fell at his feet.” This is how the person who had come to kill Guru Nanak turned his follower. Ruqun-ud-Deen had become a devout follower of Guru Nanak and was put to death because of his following of Guru Nanak. Ruqun-ud-Deen can thus be considered as the first martyr of Sikhism. His two tribes Sibi and Budhu migrated immediately from Mecca to Tirah area of Afghanistan where they are now permanently settled and have faith in reciting Japuji Sahib till date.


    References
    1. Shamsher Singh Ashok (ed.), (November 1969), Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee, Sri Amritsar, p. 104:‘Tab Guru Baba Makke vich jai vadia…..jai kar(i) soi rahia. Pair Makke di taraf kar(i) ke suta. Tab pesi ki nivaz ka ka vakht(u) hoia. Tab Qazi Ruqundeen niwaj(i) karn(i) aaia. Dekh kar(i) aakhios: “ Ai bande Khudai ke! Tu jo pair Khudai ke ghar val(i) keete hain(i) Qabe ki taraf, so kio keete hain(i)? Tab Guru Babe aakhia,” Jit(u) val(i) Khudai ate Qaba naahi, ***(u) val(i) mere pair(u) kar(i) chhad(u). Ta Qazi Ruqundeen jat(u) val(i) Guru Babe de pair(u) fere ***(u) val(i) Makke da muhra (mehrab) firda jaave. Tab Qazi Ruqundeen hairan(u) hoi rahia. Pair chumios, aakhios, “Ai darves! Tera nau kia hai. Guru Baba sang a sabd(u) in Tialng Raag(u)…. ’
    2. Piar Singh (ed.) (1989) B.40; Janamsakhi Sri Guru Nanak Dev Ji, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, pp.66-67.
    3. Kirpal Singh Dr. (Ed.) (1969), Janamsakhi Prampra; Bhai Mani Singh Wali Janam Sakhi, Punjabi University, Patiala, p. 379-380
    4. Himmat Singh (Prof) (2011), Guru Nanak Viaktitav: Ati parmaneek punravlokan, (Tatkaleen Arbi-Farsi srotan anusaar), paper published in seminar proceedings: Guru Kaal de Sarotan vich Guru Nanak Sahib: Jiwan te Shakhshiat, 22-23 November, 2011, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, pp. 135-140
    5. Taj-u-deen Naqshbandi (1509 AD, unpublished) Syahto Baba Nanak Faqir, original in Mecca State Library, translated into Punjabi by Sayyad Prithipal Singh in 1927-30, presently with Prof Himmat Singh (Reference 4)
    6. Khwaja Zain ul Abideen (1505-06 AD, unpublished) Twareekh-i-Arab, translated by Mohammed Iqbal, manuscript presently with Prof Himmat Singh (Reference 4)
    7. Abdul Rahman (1506-07), Gunitusalehin, manuscript presently with Prof Himmat Singh (Reference 4)
     
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  3. Chaan Pardesi

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    Thank you Ji.I note there is no proper date in terms of years when exactly the martyrdom took place.Can that be specifically pointed out.Thank you for this additional information.
    Reference:: Sikh Philosophy Network http://www.sikhphilosophy.net/showthread.php?t=39820

    Also you say" ... His two tribes Sibi and Budhu migrated immediately from Mecca to Tirah area of Afghanistan where they are now permanently settled and have faith in reciting Japuji Sahib till date"

    I have noted that none of the history of the Afghan Sikh history records this so far.There is a lot of Sikh historical records preserved by the Sikhs of Afghanistan, but no record of this, if the recitation of Jaap ji sahib does indeed continue to this day.Any further evidence upon this would be greatly appreciated.<!-- google_ad_section_end -->
     
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  4. Kanwaljit Singh

    Kanwaljit Singh India
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    Apache Spark, Scala developer
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    Now we know why it happened!
     
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  5. aristotle

    aristotle
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    @SPNers...
    Is any book (English/Punjabi/Hindi/Urdu) available which covers this topic or the life history of Ruqan-ud-Deen Ji?
    Most of the books mentioned are out of common circulation or in Arabic....
    o_O
     
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    #4 aristotle, Jan 1, 2013
    Last edited: Jan 1, 2013

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