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Pran Sangli - Attributed To Guru Nanak Sahib

Discussion in 'Other Scriptures' started by Admin Singh, May 19, 2016.

  1. Admin Singh

    Admin Singh
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    Jun 1, 2004
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    PRAN SANGLI, lit. the chain of breath or vital air, is a collection of compositions, attributed to Guru Nanak but in reality apocryphal, dealing with yogic practices, particularly prdndydma or control of vital air. The original Prdn Sangli, was, in all probability, a small composition, though the now available recension, edited by Sant Sampuran Singh and published in 1898 in the Devanagri script, in three volumes by Bhai Mohan Singh Vaid, Tarn Taran, runs into more than 700 pages and contains as many as 80 chapter which, with the exception of the first few, are not closely related or coordinated.Each of these chapters is presented as an exposition by Guru Nanak of a question raised by Raja Shivnabh of Sarigladip (Sri Lanka) where Prdn Sangli is said to have been composed.

    Tradition goes that Guru Arjan, when compiling the Guru Granth Sahib, despatched Bhai Paira Mokha, a learned Sikh, to Sarigladip to bring a copy of the manuscript of Prdn Sangli believed to be in the possession of the descendants of Raja Shivnabh. The copy he brought was scrutinized by Guru Arjan and adjudged spurious. Thus, on page one of the original KartdrpuriBlr of the Guru Granth Sahib the title Prdn Sangli has been inscribed in Arabic characters, but nothing else.The rest of the page remains blank. In spite of the text having been rejected by Guru Arjan some people continued to treat Prdn SangH as an approved text.

    Over the generations it grew in size through the addition of more spurious compositions. Probably the original Prdn Sangli consisted of the first ten chapters which comprise the first volume of the published version. The first six of these ten chapters explain the evolution of the universe, myriads of earths and skies, the elements, man with all his internal organism, etc., from the state of the unmanifest termed as sunn (sunya, literally meaning void or nothingness and in yogic theology representing the Primal Being).The next three chapters explain the intricacies, forms and ideals of yoga, through dialogues between Gorakhnath and Guru Nanak Gorakhnath posing questions and Guru Nanak providing answers.

    The tenth chapter asserts that the Unmanifest, Real Being also remained in contemplation and concentration on the VdhVdh (wonderful). There was the Transcendent Being who remained in perfect concentration and equilibrium for myriads of aeons, all alone, without any creation of any form or name. This was the state of unmani. This state gave place to the onkdr state.As Brahman willed to multiply, there emerged the three gunas (qualities of prakriti), five elements, four Vedas, six Sastras, six Vedarigas, etc.

    Of the remaining 70 chapters in the following two volumes, around twenty-four are by and large an interpretation of yoga. These chapters, complete in themselves, are devoted exclusively to the exposition of yoga in its own terminology, and also in the bhakti terminology of Guru Nanak, emphasizing the importance of guru, his sabdaand the ethical and spiritual regeneration through meditation on the Name. These yogic texts repeat and elaborate what has been said in Volume I and claim to explain the ideal of yoga according to Guru Nanak`s views.Chapters XI and XII in this section deal with Udas Bairag and Yog Bairag.

    The latter gives details of the mind as it transcends itself to reach the Realm of Truth by practising yoga. The composition Sunnte Utpatior Creation out of the Void (Ch. XIV) describes the process of the formation of the body in the womb. From here onward, the theme takes a new course emphasizing how forgetfulness of the Lord ensues after birth and how liberation lies in the remembrance of the Name alone. Chapters XV to XVII stress the need of guru and meditation on the Name.

    The Ratanmalds (Chs. XIX and XX) advert to the qualities of an ideal bairdgi who, following the teaching of the guru, transcends the three gunas, fights against desires with the sword ofjndna (knowledge), bathes at the sixty-eight drthas of the body and meditates on the Name by churning the curd of sahaj in the milkpot of the body. He is the one who lights the path leading to the tenth door (dasam dvdr) with effort as the lamp, discrimination as the oil, concentration as the wick and sahajas the matchstick. The Yog Garbhdvalt Chhutkdrd (Ch. XXVII) and the Prakriti Vistdr (Ch. XXXI) are elaborations of Chs. IVVL The KriydsdrJog (Ch.

    XXIX) stresses how vital the Guru`s grace is to controlling the senses.The Kathd Agam Mahal Ki (Ch. XXXII) emphasizes the role of the guru in helping one to apprehend the Supreme Being. The Anbhau Pragds (Ch. XXXIII) counts the 84 dsanas (postures) of the yogis. As the name indicates, the Astdng Yoga (Ch. XXXIV) speaks of the eight stages of the yogic discipline. The Kalapmald deals with the preparation of medicines from herbs, plants and metals for various maladies.

    All this apocryphal literature seems to have grown up in imitation of Guru Nanak`s Sidha Gosti and a large number of hymns about the theme of yoga as incorporated under Raga Ramkali in the Guru Granth Sahib.Applying Sidha Gosti as the touchstone, these compositions in the Prdn SangK are easily proved apocryphal, for they do not have Guru Nanak`s compact expression, his intensely theistic devotion or bhakti and his clear verdict in favour of the household and a piouslylived worldly life. Apart from yoga, the Prdn SangHha.s compositions addressed to Hindu saints. Among them is a Gost, i.e. a dialogue, with Ramanand and Kabir (Ch. XIII) which stresses devotional bhakti by referring to the example of some early Hindu saints such as Shuk, Narada, Dhru, Prahlad, Namdev, Trilochan and Kabir.

    The chapter on Nirjog Bhakti (Ch. XXI) refers to the Sakta (materialist) who remains involved in evil and sin, but who can by concentrating on the sabda of the guru win honour in the court of the Lord. Sach Khand kiJugti (Ch. XXII) says that the guru`s sabda can change dross into gold, a sinner into a saint. The Sahansarandmd (Ch. XXIV) enlists the different names of the Lord and DasAvtdrdn di Vdrtd (Ch. XXVIII) tells of the ten ancient incarnations of Visnu. Dakkham Oankdr (Ch. XXXV) is Guru Nanak`s own composition as incorporated in the Guru Granth Sahib. The Bhogal Purdn (Ch. LIX), a prose work, gives, according to mythological astrology and astronomy, details about the creation, universes and myriads upon myriads of earths, skies, stars, etc., all supported on the back of a tortoise of unimaginable magnitude.

    The Pindi Daiv Asur Sangrdm (Ch. LXXII) is the description of a battle between the good and evil tendencies of man. The Gidn Sur Udaya (Ch. LXXV) has for its theme the time, its concept and measures. The JugdvaH (Ch. LXXIX) recounts the Hindu theories about the yugas (aeons), or time cycles and measurements. The third category of apocryphal literature, written in Persianized Punjabi and addressed to the Muslim divines and kings, is contained in chapters LXXVII and LXXVIIL Chapter LXXVII comprises Tilang ki Vdr Mahalld /which follows the general pattern of the vdrs included in the Guru Granth Sahib but is suffused with Islamic thought and terminology.

    Opening with the line than thanantari miharvdn sachu khaliq subhdnu, a description of the creation or qudrat follows. All rdgas and rdginis are shown singing the praises of Khuda. Says another line: duniyd upari dyd bhejiyd dpi Allah (man comes into this world having been sent by Allah). The iwis followed by another composition, entitled Rdga RdmkaU Mahalld /, partially composed on the pattern of Guru Nanak`s Sodaru.

    The hymn states how millions of Muhammads, Ramas, Gorakhs, etc. are singing His praises in the grand court of Allah and how everything moves under His command only. Other compositions in this category include: Nasihat Ndmah or an epistle of admonitions; Hdzar Ndmah or a discourse on the importance of being alert; Pdk Ndmah or an address on pure living and Kami Ndmah or an address on the importance of good conduct.
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  3. dalvindersingh grewal

    dalvindersingh grewal India
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    Bhai Paira was sent by Guru Nanak to collect Pran sangli (chain of breath) supposed to have been written by Guru Nanak and held by King Mayadune grandson of Shivnabh at Sitwaka. Bhai Paira collected the same and handed over Guru Arjan who did not accept as authentic gurbani of Guru Nanak hence did not include in SGGS.

    When Guru Nanak visited the place around 1511-1512 AD, Vijaybahu VII s/o Bhuvneka Bahu ruled over Kotte. He however did not have absolute control over Sri Lanka as other parts were ruled by other kings. These included Udarata kings Sennasamanta Vikrambahu (1469-1511A D) and his son Jayvira (1511- 1552 AD) who ruled Kandy area; Jaffna kingdom at Nallur under the King Pararajasekharan (1478-1519 AD) and the Vani principalities which extended from Jaffna borders along east coast to Yala and Panama in the south. [29]After the death of Vijaybahu VII, Kotte was divided into 4 kingdoms of 4 sons of Vijaybahu VII i.e., Bhuvanekabahu, Mayadunne (King of Sitwaka) and Raigama Bhandara.

    7 kingdoms of Sri Lanka in 16 century as claimed by Bhai Paira

    Out of these there were three fairly large kingdoms and several vassal states. The most prominent was the Sinhalese kingdom situated in the south-west with its capital at Kotte (near modern Colombo). The second Sinhalese kingdom, known as Kandyan, was situated on the central highland regions with its capital first at Gampola and later (after 1540 A.D.) at Kandy. The third was the Tamil kingdom in north Sri Lanka, which included Jaffna peninsula, the coastal areas as far as Mannar and many other adjacent islands with its capital at Nallur near Jaffna town. The vassal states, seven in number, were: Mullativa, Trincomalee, Batticola, Kottiyar, Palugana, Panam, and Yala. These were mostly found in Vanni district, south of Jaffna peninsula and along the eastern coast.

    The names available of kings during the visit of Guru Nanak and Bhai Paira are as under[30]

    1. House of Siri Sanga Bo (1412–1597)

    (a) Parakramabahu VIII : Ambulagala Kumara, Son of Parakrama Bahu VI- 1484-1518 AD

    (b) Dharma Parakramabahu IX (from Kelaniya), Son of Vira Parakrama Bahu VIII 1509-1528 AD

    (c) Vijayabahu VII: Brother of Dharma Parakram Bahu IX, Rajah of Menik Kadavara- 1509-1521 AD

    (d) Bhuvanekabahu VII: Eldest son of Vijaya Bahu, 1521-1551 AD

    2. Kingdom of Sitawaka (1521–1593)

    (a) Mayadunne (1521-1581) and his son Rajasinha I (1582-1593 AD): Mayadunne: Brother of Bhuvaneka Bahu

    VII :Son of Vijaya Bahu VII, 1521-1581 AD

    Mayadunne(1501–1581) was the king of Kingdom of Sitawaka in Sri Lanka who ruled for 60 years between 1521 and 1581.[31] He was the son of Vijay Bahu VII who reigned Kotte as king from 1509 to 1521. Mayadunne was the youngest child born to Vijaya Bahu VII and his main Queen. He had two full brothers, Bhuvanekabahu and Raigama Bhandara. In 1521 together with his brothers he revolted against his father, suspecting him of planning to pass the throne of Kotte to one of Vijaya Bahu VII's second queen's sons (Devaraja) after his death. Although Mayadunne was the youngest of the three brothers he was the mastermind behind this revolt which ended with the death of their father Vijaya Bahu VII (he was assassinated by a hired foreigner) and the Kotte Kingdom was divided between the three brothers. Bhuvanekabahu came to power as Bhuvanekabahu VII of Sri Lanka and got established in the Kotte kingdom with a region roughly including present day Colombo, Gampaha Districts, North Western Province and southern province coastline. Rajgama Bandara got established in Rajgama with his control roughly over present day Kalutara District & Southern Province except the coastline (which was under Kotte kingdom). Mayadunne got established in the Kingdom of Sitawaka (present day Avissawella) controlling roughly the modern day Sabaragamuwa province (Kegalle, Ratnapura Districts).

    Mayadunne was a fierce opponent of the Portuguese, who had arrived on the Island in 1505. He devoted his whole life attempting to oust his brother Bhuvanekbahu, the king of Kottee and thereby preserve the independence of Lanka, which was being undermined by the Portuguese intrigue. He constantly invaded the territory of Bhuvanekabahu of Kotte [32].

    Due to the fact that he stood against Portuguese invaders and stopping them from conquering the whole island, Mayadunne is considered one of the greatest kings of Sri Lanka who later united the whole kingdom of Sri Lanka. He died at the ripe age of 80 years in 1581 proving the statement of Bhai Paira that he united the kingdom with the blessing of Guru Nanak.

    From the above it is clear that: ‘There were seven kingdoms of Sri Lanka during the period of Guru Nanak’s visit; foremost was the kingdom of Kotte’. Separate dynasty was ruling in Kandy, having broken away from Kotte and another separate kingdom of Jaffna in the North. Vijaya Bahu VIof Kotte, b: circa 1445, 1509-1524 AD was the king of Kotte, Sri Lanka’s main kingdom. Vijaya Bahu VIof Kotte had three sons i.e., Bhuvaneka Bahu, Maha Raigam Bandara and Mayadunne from his first wife and Deva Raja Kumara from his second wife. Deva Raja Kumara was installed king by his father Vijaya Bahu VIof Kotte which annoyed the three elder brothers, who killed their father the king in anger and installed eldest son of Vijaya Bahu as King Bhuvaneka Bahu VII, b:circa 1475, 1524-1557 AD of Kotte. The other two brothers Maha Raigam Bandara and Mayadunne were given the rule of smaller states within Kotte. Later Mayadunne established King Mayadunneannexed much of the Kotte kingdom and was threatening the security of the capital city itself. Mayadunne was in power at the time of Bhai Paira.

    From this available evidence all other statements are true except that names Rai Singh and Shivnabh could not be related to Mayadunne. Mayadunne was the youngest child born to Vijaya Bahu VII and not Rai Singh and was the grandson of Dharam Parkarmbahu (Bhuvneka Bahu) s/o Vir Parkaram Bahu- 1489-1509 AD and not Shivnabh. Whether the name of Vijaya Bahu VII was Rai Singh and the name of Dharam Parkarmbahu (Bhuvneka Bahu) s/o Vir Parkaram Bahu- 1489-1509 AD was Sivnabh needs further research.

    Bhai Paira’s note thus proves correct in all other points except the name of Mayadunne’s grandfather was Shivnabh. Guru Nanak’s visit to Sitwaka and Kotte and other areas around the kingdom also needs to be confirmed. However assuming Mayadunne’s grandfather’s name to be Shivnabh i.e., Parkarmbahu (Bhuvneka Bahu) s/o Vir Parkaram Bahu 1489-1509 AD, the period of visit of Guru Nanak has to be before 1509 AD which the chronicles do not confirm. if Guru Nanak visited Sri Lanka in 1510-1512 the king then was Vijaybahu s/o Bhuvneka Bahu 1509-1521 AD as given in Vanshavli/Sri Lanka Sinhala Royal Family Genealogy. [33][34][35][36][37][38]

    Gyani Gyan Singh [39] has more details about Guru Nanak’s visit to Sri Lanka since he visited it himself. After visiting Raskumara and mountains around, according to the wishes of Mardana, Guruji moved next to Singhladeep to redeem the beings. This island is also called Ceylon and Sri Lanka. He landed at Trincomalee after visiting the island…. (‘Uthon agge Raskumara ate parbat ton hunde hoe Mardane di ichha anusar jeevan da udhaar karan vaste samundron paar Sangla deep vich ja fire, ese tapu nu Ceylon te Sri Lanka bhi aakhde han. Tapu di sair karde Tricnomalai ja utre.’). He also mentions Mattiakalam (Batticoloa) as the place of Shivnabh, Dibar (8 km in the North from Batticoloa), Swami Kartik Van near Khandi city on the bank of Manak Ganga, Badula, Ashok Vani (Noormali basti), Pushpalpur (Pushala) on the bank of Champa river, Bijaygarh, Lankagarh, Nagalpatti, Meghdambar Parbat, Japapattnam and back to Nagapatnam and Neelgiri Parbat in India.

    Dr Kirpal Singh (1969)[40] in Janamsakhi Prampara mentions Guru Nanak’s visit from Nagapatnam, Trincomalee, Batticaloa, Kurukalmadam, Kalmunae, Tiukoil, Patuvil, Panam, Katargama (Kartik Swami temple), Nuwara Eliya, Sitwaka (Aviswella) Kotte (Colombo), Anuradhapura, and Manar, Rameshwaram.

    Ashok Kumar Kainth, a Punjabi historian working in Sri Lanka, who claimed that he, along with other researchers, had recovered a 16th century inscription having reference to Guru Nanak's visit to Sri Lanka in 1511. Kainth, said, “28 pieces of inscription excavated near Batticoloa district of Sri Lanka, mentioned about talks between Guru Nanak and the then king of Lanka, Bikram Bahu VI. The inscription is in Sanskrit, Tamil and Gurmukhi script, which was a mixture of Sharda and Takri scripts of that time. Although the inscription is quite clear, two pieces (of the inscription) are yet to be excavated. It dates back to AD 1511," said Kainth, who worked as Arabic-Hindi translator in Kuwait court before moving to Sri Lanka in 2004. [41]

    Another researcher Sarvjeet Singh Modi [42] wrote: ‘A number of locations of gurdwaras were mentioned in Sikh chronicles and internet, but actually there isno gurdwarain Sri Lanka. and locations such as Battikola, Deebar, Koti, Kurukkalmadapam had nothing on record about gurdwaras as mentioned. We hired personal guide from each respective city and searched every place including the various churches, Hindu temples and mosques in order to locate gurdwaras. We even inquired at various libraries, record rooms, museums, police stations, post offices, GPOs and the respective Archeological Departments and had long conversation with local residents of each respective city, but there was no clue of any Gurdwara Sahib in Sri Lanka. We went to Colombo, the Capital of Sri Lanka. In Colombo there is aSindhi Samaj Association, which has created a club. At the first floor of that club, they had donePrakash of Guru Granth Sahib Ji, along with other Hindu idols. They truly believe in Guru Nanak Sahib with full respect. We found no other Gurudwara there. We went to the archeological center of Colombo, where we consulted the director, who told us that there is a script of Guru Nanak Dev ji in Anuradh Pura museum (300 km away from Colombo). We also told that in District Kotte there was a copper plate with inscription "Nanak Acharya", honoring of Guru Nanak dev ji (and ascribed) by the people of Kotte. We searched for this copper plate, in various temples and museum of Kotte but we were not able to locate it. We found a village known as Mardana Nagar. It clicked to us that the city is might have been named on the name of Mardana ji, who accompanied Guru Nanak Dev ji everywhere. We discussed with the headman of Mardana Nagar but he was not clear about the history’.

    The above accounts of Bhai Paira, Gyani Gyan Singh, Dr Kirpal Singh, Dr Kainth and Mr Modi were quite valuable. Guru Nanak’s visit generally has been to the kingdoms and religious places. Since there were seven major kingdoms and 7 small kingdoms in Sri Lanka, indications are that Guru Nanak visited most of them. Also there were numerous ancient temples; some are given below most of which the Guru might have visited. Places connected with Ram, Sita, Hanuman and Ravan e.g., Sitwaka, Nuwara Elliya, Gampola, Kandy, Kegall, Kotte, Katargama too might have been visited.

    Dr Kainth and Mr Modi [41][42] searched for the place thoroughly but could not locate it. Mr Modi writes: “On internet,it was mentioned that at Deebar in Sri Lanka, there is a gurudwara, but when we reached there, there was no gurudwara. We researched a lot; enquired from local people and went to every single lane in Batticaloa to understand the truth. We found that there was a Hindu temple, where scholars disclosed that it was the place where Hanumanji’s tail was put on fire when he came to Ravan’s kingdom to rescue Sitaji but HanumanJi in turn burnt Sri Lanka”.

    Guru Nanak visited Kurukalmadam, next the details of which have been given by Dr. Kirpal Singh and Mr. Modi. Mr Modi visited the place along with Mr Ashok Kainth [41,42] and found that “Near Batticolova atKurukkalmadapam evidence about Guru Nanak Dev’s visit exists. When Guruji visited this place there was no village then. The village owes its name to Guruji. The tradition of the visit of a saintly missionary from the Punjab to that place is still well known to the local residents. According to a tradition Bhai Changa Bhatra belonged to this area.We visited Kurukkalmadapam and started looking for traces of visit all over the city. We reached every possible agency and all the local residents about the history of the place. We also went to every possible temple, mosque and church because their population is from Muslim and Hindu religions. These people mentioned of two Gurus visiting the place one in 1511 AD and one later.

    We discussed this aspect with various local people who hesitated in the beginning but later as they got to know us and our work and opened up with us. They told us that there was a temple which was here since 100 years but the Dutch destroyed it, when they were in Sri Lanka and still the remaining of the temple were buried at that very place. Next day myself and my friend Brij Mohan Singh went to the temple in Kurukkalmadam and it was divine being in that temple. We went to a temple, and found a symbol of a flower inscribed on a silver plate which matched the symbol in the script we had found in the museum. We tried to figure out the importance of that symbol, from various scholars and priest of the temple. They told us that that the symbol is considered very religious and the people worship it whole heartedly.

    The priest of the temple disclosed that there was a pond behind the temple. We went to the pond and were astonished by the strange attraction. That water of the pond was different… felt instincts of powerfulness. (That was the first time during my whole journey I felt instincts that were so powerful and peaceful). Main uss jal nu chakya bhi, tanh mainu vibration mehsus hui!! (I even tasted that holy sweet water and felt a vibration inside me).

    Next day, near the pond I prayed to God ……and continued looking around that area. There was ….. a huge tree bearing small fruits similar to retha. We tried tasting that fruit, but local people stopped us from tasting it, they said it was poison. But we had faith in the power and we tasted it and it was a sweet (after the fact that retha is always considered sour, most bitter and such a product is used as a soap in other parts of the world)Finding the sweet retha was our biggest achievement…..we asked local ersons, “Are there any more trees like this?” The reply was, “No this is the only one.”

    A gurdwara as shown below has now been planned at the site by Guru Nanak Sewa Trust which has been set uip in Colombo. Dr Bajwa, S. Brijmohan Singh, Dr Chawla, Mr. Modi and S. Chaddha are actively working to set up a gurdwara at the site.

    1. Site and the Day and night view of the planned Gurdwara Proposal of a new gurdwara at Kurukalmandap 2 Day view 3. Night view

    Modi writes further [42]: “They gave us a book written by a Tamil resident of Sri Lanka. The book is about the history, community and religions of Sri Lanka. It also mentions that Guru Nanak Dev ji came to Sri Lanka in 1511. It says that later Nanak Gurunath visited Sri Lanka after 90-100 years. When we discussed this aspect with the author, he focused his words that, there were 2 Nanaks who came to Srilanka….But we explained him that it meansNanak Nath means "Nanak Guru Ka Nath" (Nanak Guru ka follower) and not Nanak Gurunath. The second was Bhai Paira whom he mentioned as Guru Nanak. It was clear that they confused Bhai Paira Ji as Guru Nanak. They were very much convinced. When we were to leave they presented us with a copy of the book written by the head of Kurukalmandpam. Images of the book written by the head of Kurukkalmadam are given below:

    42. Saravjit Singh Modi About

    Dr Kainth and Mr Modi did not find any dharmsal at Sitwaka. There was no clue of any Sikh settlement either.

    Mr Modi records: “… we went to AnuradhaPura Museum where Guru Nanak Dev ji went according to our Sakhiyan and where he debated and spread his message of humanity all around the district among the Buddhist (Buddh ghosht). There's a Buddhist Spoot, the biggest spoot in the world.We also discovered various Scripts, We found that there were bits of Punjabi language inscribed over them and we also found a script with Nanak written over it. We discovered that the script might contain 1400-1600 AD languages i.e Landa, Takri, Sharda, Gupta and Devagiri which were used in North India i.e Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Punjab till Sindh. These languages were getting mixed during this period and Gurmukhi originated from the mix of these languages only.We are still working, over decoding the Script found in Srilanka.

    We did our survey by going to various museums, morgue record points, various churches and mosques and unlimited temples. We also conducted Secondary Research, We google about the various locations that where pointed containing gurudwara, we also visited such places and we found that there were no gurudwara in those areas and not even sikh families were residing there “We found these stone carvings from the Anuradhapra Museum and the other scripts we found are:

    Inscriptions in Anuradhpuram Museum

    From Anuradhapura, the Guru travelled towards Manar. The sea coast was relatively dry. The sandy dunes were spread all over and the water was rarely to be seen.[40]

    21. Sri Lanka: largest cities and towns and statistics of their population, World Gazetteer.

    22. Punch-marked coins called puranas that were current in India during the time of Buddha (6th to 5th centuries B.C.) and copper rods – "kohl" sticks that were very similar to the ones Egyptians used to paint with and dating back to 2000 B.C. – were discovered. Sir Paul E. Pieris, who conducted these excavations, expressed his conviction that the Northern part of Sri Lanka was a "flourishing settlement" even before the birth of Vijaya, the legendary founder of the Sinhalese eelavar.com, Early Jaffna.

    23. e Silva, K.M.D (1981),AHistory of Sri Lanka, University of California, Berkley, ISBN 0-520-04320-0, p.91-92.

    24. Peebles, Patrick (2006), TheHistory of Sri Lanka, USA: Greenwood Press, ISBN 0-313-33205-3, p.31-33.

    25. de Silva, AHistory of Sri Lanka, p.132-133

    26. Peebles,History of Sri Lanka, p.34

    27. Kunarasa, KThe Jaffna Dynasty, p.73-75

    28. Google

    29. de Silva, K.M., 2005, A History of Sri Lanka, Vijita Yava Publications Sri Lanka, 4th edn Jan 2014, pp.144-145.

    30.List of Sinhalese monarchs - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    31. Codrington, Humphry William,A Short History of Sri Lanka: Dambadeiya and gampola Kings, 1215-1411

    Lakdiva.org. Retrieved2007-11-25. de Silva, K.M.D (1981), AHistory of Sri Lanka, University of California, Berkley, ISBN 0-520-04320-0, p.91-92.

    32. de Silva, AHistory of Sri Lanka, p.132-133

    33. Geiger Wilhelm, tr., 1912, The Mahawansa or Great Chronicle of Ceylon, Oxford: Oxford University Press

    (for the Pali Text Society), p. 300. www.google.com

    34. Dhammakitti; tr. Geiger, Wilhelm; tr. Rickmers, C. Habel (1212), Culavamsa: Being the most recent part of

    35. Geiger, Wilhelm; Bode, Mabel Haynes, tr. 1912, Mahawansa or Great Chronicle of Ceylon, London: Oxford University Press

    36. Gunasekara, B. ed., 1900, The Rajavaliya: or, A Historical narrative of Sinhalese kings from Vijaya to Vimala Dharma Surya II, Colombo: Government Printer, Ceylon.ISBN81-206-1029-6.

    37. Knox, Robert (1681), An Historical Relation of the Island Ceylon, London: Richard Chiswell.

    38. Oldenberg, Hermann ed. & tr., 1879,The Dîpavaṃsa, an Ancient Buddhist Historical Record.Williams and Norgate.

    39. Gyani Gyan Singh, Twareekh Khalsa, Janamsakhi Dasan Guruan ki, Guru 1 Bhag 1, pp.164-172

    40. Kirpal Singh, 1969, Janamsakhi Prampra, Punjabi University, Patiala

    41. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/Inscription-referring-to-Guru-Nanaks-visit-to-Sri-Lanka-in-1511 -found- Punjabi-historian/articleshow/21497495.cms

    42. Saravjit Singh Modi About
  4. dalvindersingh grewal

    dalvindersingh grewal India
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    ਰੀਠਾ ਸਾਹਿਬ ਪੁਰਬ ਤੇ ਵਿਸ਼ੇਸ਼

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    ਡਾ: ਦਲਵਿੰਦਰ ਸਿੰਘ ਗ੍ਰੇਵਾਲ, 1925, ਬਸੰਤ ਐਵੇਨਿਊ ਲੁਧਿਆਣਾ: 919815366726

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    ਇਕ ਖਾਸ ਗਲ ਦਸਣੀ ਜ਼ਰੂਰੀ ਹੈ ਕਿ ਜਦ ਇਹ ਲਿਖਿਆ ਜਾ ਰਿਹਾ ਸੀ ਤਾਂ ਮੇਰੇ ਨਜ਼ਦੀਕੀ ਸੁਪਰਟੈਂਡਿੰਗ ਇੰਜਨੀਅਰ ਸਤਪਾਲ ਸਿੰਘ ਤੇ ਇੰਜਨੀਅਰ ਜਸਪਾਲ ਸਿੰਘ ਪਰਿਵਾਰ ਸਮੇਤ ਨਾਨਕਮਤਾ।ਰੀਠਾ ਸਾਹਿਬ ਉਤਰਾਖੰਡ ਦੀ ਯਾਤਰਾ ਕਰਕੇ ਪਰਤੇ ਸਨ ਤਾਂ ਉਨ੍ਹਾਂ ਨੇ ਇਸ ਲਿਖਾਰੀ ਦੇ ਸੀ੍ਰ ਲੰਕਾ ਤੋਂ ਲਿਆਂਦੇ ਰੀਠੇ ਤੇ ਦਰਖਤ ਦੇ ਪੱਤੇ ਦੇਖਕੇ ਹੈਰਾਨੀ ਪਰਗਟ ਕੀਤੀ ਕਿ ਉਹ ਤਾਂ ਉਤਰਾਖੰਡ ਤੋਂ ਲਿਆਂਦੇ ਰੀਠਿਆਂ ਵਰਗੇ ਹਨ ਤੇ ਕਹਾਣੀ ਵੀ ਵੱਖਰੀ ਨਹੀਂ। ਦੋਨਾਂ ਥਾਵੁਾਂ ਦੇ ਰੀਠਿਆਂ ਦੀ ਤੇ ਫਲਾਂ ਦੀਆਂ ਫੋਟੋਆਂ ਪਾਠਕਾਂ ਦੇ ਹਾਜ਼ਿਰ ਹਨ।

    ਸ: ਜਗਪਾਲ ਸਿੰਘ ਨੇ ਦਸਿਆ ਕਿ ਉਤਰਾਖੰਡ ਜਾਣ ਲਈ ਪੰਜਾਬ ਤੋਂ ਜਾਣ ਵਾਲਿਆਂ ਲਈ ਪਹਿਲਾਂ ਰੁਦਰਪੁਰ ਰੇਲਵੇ ਸਟੇਸ਼ਨ ਤੇ ਉਤਰ ਕੇ ਨਾਨਕ ਮਤਾ ਦੇ ਦਰਸ਼ਨ ਕਰਕੇ ਅੱਗੇ 192 ਕਿਲੋਮੀਟਰ ਦਾ ਸਫਰ ਟੈਕਸੀਆਂ ਰਾਹੀਂ ਕੀਤਾ ਜਾਂਦਾ ਹੈ। ਟੈਕਸੀਆਂ ਨਾਨਕਮਤਾ ਤੋਂ ਸਵੇਰੇ ਸਤ ਕੁ ਵਜੇ ਚਲਦੀਆਂ ਹਨ ਤੇ ਦੋ ਕੁ ਵਜੇ ਦੁਪਿਹਰ ਰੀਠਾ ਸਾਹਿਬ ਗੁਰਦਵਾਰਾ ਪੁਚਾ ਦਿੰਦੀਆਂ ਹਨ। ਸਾਰਾ ਤ ਦਪਹਾੜੀ ਹੈ ਪਰ ਸੜਕ ਚੰਗੀ ਹੈ। ਕੁਝ ਯਾਤਰੀ ਟਨਕਪੁਰ ਤਕ ਬਸ ਰਾਹੀਂ ਤੇ ਅਗੇ ਟੈਕਸੀ ਰਾਹੀਂ ਰੀਠਾ ਸਾਹਿਬ ਪਹੁੰਚ ਜਾਂਦੇ ਹਨ। ਰਹਿਣ ਦਾ ਬੰਦੋਬਸਤ ਦੋਨੋਂ ਥਾਵੀਂ ਬਹੁਤ ਵਧੀਆ ਹੈ।ਗੁਰੂ ਨਾਨਕ ਦੇਵ ਜੀ ਕਤਕ ਦੀ ਪੂਰਨਮਾਸ਼ੀ ਨੂੰ ਰੀਠਾ ਸਾਹਿਬ ਆਏ ਦਸੇ ਜਾਂਦੇ ਹਨ ਪਰ ਇਨ੍ਹੀ ਦਿਨੀ ਏਥੇ ਬਹੁਤ ਸਰੀ ਹੌਣ ਕਰਕੇ 21 ਮਈ ਦੀ ਬੁੱਧ-ਪੂਰਨਿਮਾ ਨੂੰ ਮਨਾਇਆ ਜਾਂਦਾ ਹੈ ਜੋ ਹੁਣੇ ਆਉਣ ਵਾਲਾ ਹੈ। ਹੋਵੇਗਾ।
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