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Origin of Universe as per SGGS - A Comparative Study with Other Religions and Science

Discussion in 'Sikh Sikhi Sikhism' started by dalvindersingh grewal, Jan 5, 2010.

  1. dalvindersingh grewal

    dalvindersingh grewal India
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    Origin of Universe - Recorded in Sri Guru Granth Sahib Compared with Other Religions and Science
    auqpiq prlau sbdy hovY ] sbdy hI iPir Epiq hovY ](m 3,117-8)
    (The universe originates from the Word (sabd) and assimilates with the Word. It again originates from the Word.).

    The concepts ‘known universe’, ‘observable universe’, or ‘visible universe’ are often used to describe the part of the universe that we can see or otherwise observe. But there is much more than whatever we observe. The limits of the boundaries of universe have not been fathomed, hence is called limitless. The Universe here is referred to as the entire creation and existence, visible and invisible; material and living; approachable and unapproachable for the beings.

    The universe has always been a wonder for the man. The more he looks deep, the more he is in wonder. When mothers point their fingers to the sky at night, tell their children about the universe in sky; the Big Bear, the satellites, the planets, the young minds gaze in amazement at the immenseness of the world around. As they grow, they become eager to know the numbers of these stars, their spread. They want to know, ‘Who created these?’ ‘How were these created?’ ‘When were these created?’ ‘What all do these contain?’ etc. Mothers do not have right answers to such questions. No one has! Some guess; others philosophize.


    Philosophers like Aristotle philosophisized at the God’s wonder world; the phenomena of the moon and those of the sun and the stars, and about the origin of the universe.1 Derek Parfit, a contemporary philosopher, declared that "No question is more sublime than why there is a Universe: why there is anything rather than nothing."2 Philosopher Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz philosophized that ‘the existence of a metaphysically necessary being which carries within itself the sufficient reason for its own existence and which constitutes the sufficient reason for the existence of everything else in the world’. Bertrand Russell in his BBC radio debate with Frederick Copleston thought it to be beyond any philosophy. He simply said "The universe is just there, and that's all." 3


    Scientists too, have been trying to fathom limits of the boundaries. Most of the recent Nobel prizes in physics including in 2006, have been won on measurement tools of the distances to the ****hest stars in the universe. But so far no verifiable records exist to reply ‘wh’ questions about this universe. There is nothing to confirm if it originated itself or someone else created it. No account gives the length, breadth, depth or height of the universe. No one has seen the ends of The Universe. None knows time of creation. No one even correctly knows whether the universe is expanding or contracting. Yet there is so much written about ‘wh’s of the universe because we are inquisitive and we want to know the truth about the universe of which we are part and parcel. Similarly no one can definitely state about life whether it came from egg, earth, water, air or from elsewhere. Yet there are numerous sciences and philosophies which base their theories and experiments on the life in The Universe. Similarly no one knows how the life in the universe was originated or came into existence.


    A lot has been written or imagined about the life on other planets. The new generation is crazy about the ‘life in other worlds.’ Books have been written imagining fighting and cooperating with beings from the other planets. A number of films have shown imaginary worlds with different beings.

    Thus to know about origin and the originator of the universe and life and to find answers to other related questions, there is always a craze among the children, young and the aged, throughout the ages. Various legends, anecdotes, stories and theories have been attributed to the origin of The Universe.

    According to David, world religions are subdivided into a total of 270 large religious groups, and even many thousands of smaller ones. Among these various faith groups, there are probably at least 500 different creation stories to draw from -- all different.

    From the beginning of the times, the man, has tried to solve the mystery of the creation of the universe. Countless they have been those myths and the legends that, in the diverse cultures, they have arisen as faithful.

    During my research on tribes of Arunachal Pradesh in India, I found Adis, the most populated tribe in the state, believing in Sun-Moon God (Abo-Tani) who created the universe and its people. There are 110 tribes spread over the entire state. Most of them believe in different Creators.

    Hindu Scriptures
    According to Indian tradition the Hindu religion itself has various stories about the origin in their scriptures. Not long ago, the earth was stated to be seated on bull’s horns, or on the back of a tortoise or a whale. Maha-Bhagwat (Devipuran) records the following: ‘In the beginning, this universe was without any sun, moon, stars, day-night, fire, directions, word, touch or any other form of energy.4 Shatpath Brahma describes, “Prajapati said ‘bhoo’; lo there was the earth: he then said ‘bhuvah’; lo there was the sky.”5 Matsya Puran, Harivansh Puran, Vishnu Puran etc., have many such mythologies. Bhagvat Gita, Sankhya Shastra, Yog Shastra, Nayaya Shastra and Vaisheshik Shastra discuss these legends and stories in some detail.

    According to Shaivism, the universe and its beings originated from the Unmanifest. The Unmanifest is the Supreme Substance or Essence (Mula Bhuta or Para Vastu)6 There are three factors or entities: generation, generated and the generator; (Janman, Janaka, and Janya). The generator is the substrate or the cause of the generation while the effect is the substance, the generated one. The substance is under continuous change (Vikrita) modification or transformation. The Unmanifest is the creator, the Great Principle (Maha Tattva) which has the three basic qualities (Gunas), Virtue, passion, and darkness (Sattva, Rajas and Tamas) in the Internal-organs (the seat of thought and feeling, mind, the thinking faculty, the heart, the conscience, the soul).7 He generates three kinds of Ahamkara, colored by Sattva, Rajas, and Tamas. Nature or matter (Prakriti) is the originally created substance which in the process of continuous transformation (Vikrita) becomes changed product (Vikrti). Therefore, the changed product (Vikriti) is the reflection (pratibimba) of the nature, the original product (Maha Tattva or Vikrti). Nature generates eight products:1. Intution (Mahat or Buddhi) 2. Ego (Ahamkara), 3. Mind (Manas), 4. Ether (Akasa), 5. Air (Vayu), 6 Fire (Tejas), 7. Water (Apas), and 8. Earth (Kshiti).
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    The transformed nature of matter (Vikrti) and the eight elements that are its progeny are the primary and secondary causes of the universe. (In Tantra Sastra, all powers are of equal importance, while in Vaidic Sastras, Purusa is the spirit and Prakriti is the matter.) The nine centers of powers or Conscious Powers (Chakras) are the eight Lotuses (Padmas) 1. Sahasrara (seat of universal power), 2. Sound (Nada), 3. Light (Bindu), 4. Ajna 5. Visuddha, 6. Anahata, 7. Manipura, 8. Svadhisthana, and 9. Muladhara.

    Lotus (Sahasrara Padma) is the seat of universal power which generated sound (Nada) and light (Bindu). From sound energy (Nada Shakti), the universe of beings and matter emanated. The lower six chakras contain fifty petals with 50 Sanskrit letters inscribed on them, attesting to the fact that the universe originated from Sound. The first three centers form the basis of Saiva Siddhanta philosophy. They are the Conscious Centers, the brain and the know-how behind creation, having the Will (Iccha) to create; they represent the knowledge (Gyan) aspect of the Creator. The 4th, 5th, and 6th centers represent the action based on knowledge and creativity (Kriya) power of the Creator. The 7th, 8th, and 9th are the dilute human versions of Siva-Sakti's Knowledge (Gyan), Will (Iccha) and Creativity (Kriya).

    The three qualities of the insentient and the sentient, Sattva, Rajas and Tamas assume an ontological status in Brahma, Vishnu, and Rudra under the aegis of Mahesvara for creation, sustenance, and dissolution of the universe. Mahesvara pervades them all, and in their roles, they are called Alinga, Linga, and Lingalinga. He is Pradhana (primordial unmanifested matter), Bija (the seed), and Yoni (the womb). Prakrti, the unmanifest matter, wakes up to become manifest and fecund upon the glance of the Lord Mahesvara. This potentially nubile and fecund Aja (the unborn Prakrti) of red, white and black complexion (Rajas, Sattva and Tamas) enjoys the advances of Purusa when it comes of age and gives birth to this universe and beings. This gestation goes through several stages. The gunas of Aja undergo agitation and Mahat springs forth. This creative cascade, starting from Mahat, in a downstream fashion, results in ego (ahamkara) with three colors or gunas: Sattvika (white) ahankar, Rajasic (red) ahamkara, and Tamasic (black) ahamkara. The Sattvika ahamkara gives rise to the mind and the presiding deities of the senses; the Rajasic ahamkara gives rise to the sensory and motor organs; the Tamasika ahamkara gives rise to the subtle elements like sound, touch, color and vision, taste, and odor.

    The five subtle elements, upon combination, starting from sound give rise to gross elements with cumulative qualities.
    Element––––––––––> Resulting product–––> Cumulative & Special Quality Sound––––––-> Ether–>All-pervasive Sound Ether –––––––> Air––––––––––> Sound and touch Air and Ether–––> Fire–––––––––-> Sound, touch, and color or form Air and Fire–––-> Water––––––––-> Sound, touch, color, and taste Water and Fire––> Earth–––––––––> Sound, touch, colour, taste, and odour


    Christian Scriptures

    Christian Scripture ‘Bible’ narrates the origin of the universe and life in Genesis chapters 1 and 2. According to it God created the universe in the first four days and the living creatures on fifth and sixth day, man having been created on the first day itself

    ‘In the beginning, God created the heaven and the earth, ’the earth was without form and void’; ‘darkness was upon the face of the deep’; ‘the spirit of God moved upon the face of waters’. ‘God said, let there be light and there was light.’ ‘God divided the light from the darkness.’ God called the light Day, and the darkness He called night.’ ‘The evening and morning were the first day.’’ Second day, God made the firmament, and divided the waters which were under the firmament. From the waters which were above the firmament. God called the firmament Heaven. Waters under the heaven gathered together unto one place, and the dry land appeared.’ ‘God called the dry land the earth and the gathering together of the waters called the Seas’ ‘The grass, the herb yielding seed, and the fruit tree yielding fruit were created on third day’. ‘Seasons and stars were created on fourth day.’ 8
    Many religious persons, including many scientists and philosophers, hold that God created the universe and the various processes driving physical and biological evolution and that these processes then resulted in the creation of galaxies, our solar system, planets, atmosphere and life on Earth. This belief, which sometimes is termed "theistic evolution," is not in disagreement with scientific explanations of evolution. Indeed, it reflects the remarkable and inspiring character of the physical universe revealed by cosmology, paleontology, molecular biology, and many other scientific disciplines and theories.
    The advocates of "creation science" hold a variety of viewpoints. Some claim that earth and the universe are relatively young, perhaps only 6,000 to 10,000 years old. These individuals often believe that the present physical form of earth can be explained by "catastrophism," including a worldwide flood, and that all living things (including humans) were created miraculously, essentially in the shapes and forms we now find them and observe. Other advocates of creation science are willing to accept that earth, the planets, and the stars may have existed from unknown times. But they argue that the various types of organisms, and especially humans, could only have come about with supernatural intervention, because they show "intelligent design."
    Charles Darwin propagated the theory of evolution as against this theory of creation. The term "evolution" usually refers to the biological evolution of living things. But the processes by which planets, stars, galaxies, and the universe form and change over time are also types of "evolution." In all of these cases there is change over time, although the processes involved are quite different.9 The two theories are compared below:
    Creation Theory Genesis1-2 gives the same order of formation of the earth as later proposed by noted astronomer (astrophysicist) Hugh Ross
    1. Creation of the physical universe (space, time, matter, energy, galaxies, stars, planets, etc.)

    2. Transformation of the earth’s atmosphere from opaque to translucent.
    3. Formation of a stable water cycle.
    4. Origination of continent(s) and ocean(s).


    5. Creation of plants on the continent(s).
    6. Transformation of the atmosphere from translucent to transparent (Sun, Moon, and stars become visible).

    7. Creation of small sea animals.
    8. Creation of sea mammals.
    9. Creation of birds.
    10. Conversion of land mammals (wild mammals, mammals that can be domesticated, and rodents).
    11. Creation of mankind.

    In Genesis chapters 6 through 8—what can be referred to as “The Flood”, to save themselves, Noah and his family built a covered boat called an “ark.” It was a large, boxy craft that resembled a covered barge.
    Evolution Theory Charles Darwin studied wildlife while on a voyage and he noticed the variation in the appearance of the individual animals. He guessed that this variation, given enough time, would allow these animals to change to the point that they looked different. This process of changing an organism’s appearance through a series of small and continuous changes is correctly called “microevolution” After a series of micro-evolutionary changes, a frog may be larger or changed in color, but it is still a frog—not a fish or a lizard.
    According to modern scientists we came into existence by a two step process: First, 10 plus billion years of accidental, random atomic collisions effected in the formation of some simple form of life. Scientists call this development of living organisms from nonliving matter “abiogenesis.”
    Second, they use Darwin’s theory, stating that this simple life evolved over the next 3 plus billion years into the plants, animals, and humans we see around us today—using the long term effects of continuous micro-evolutionary changes. Scientists call this process of developing new life forms “macroevolution” Both of these processes complete together are what the public at large and specially the scientific community think that the “theory of evolution” isTherefore, abiogenesis combined with macroevolution is what we are call the “theory of evolution”..

    There are no valid scientific data or calculations to substantiate the belief that earth was created just a few thousand years ago. Independent scientific methods and techniques consistently give an age for earth and the solar system of about 5 billion years, and an age for our galaxy and the universe that is two to three times greater. These inferences make the origin of the universe as a whole intelligible, lend coherence to many different branches of science, and form the core conclusions of a remarkable collection of knowledge about the origins and behavior of the physical world. Nor is there any evidence that the entire geological record, with its orderly succession of fossils, is the effect of a single universal flood that occurred a few thousand years ago, lasted a little longer than a year, and covered the highest mountains to a depth of several meters. On the contrary, inter-tidal and terrestrial deposits demonstrate that at no recorded time in the past has the entire planet been under water. Moreover, a universal flood of sufficient magnitude to form the sedimentary rocks seen today, which together are many kilometers thick, would require a volume of water far greater than has ever existed on and in earth, at least since the formation of the first known solid crust about 4 billion years ago. The belief that earth's sediments, with their fossils, were deposited in an orderly sequence in a year's time defies all geological observations and physical principles concerning sedimentation rates and possible quantities of suspended solid matter.
    Scientists and philosophers who promote evolutionary thought usually come from one of three scientific fields. The first field is called paleontology. A paleontologist is a scientist who (1) examines fossils, (2) proposes the “family tree of life” they come from, (3) estimates the time frame in which they lived (based on the geologic rock layers they were found in), and (4) speculates on their evolutionary paths. The other two fields in this area are geology (the study of “rocks”) and biology (the study animals and plants). The scientists in these areas are closely related and often work together.

    The work that involves studying the evolutionary development of groups of organisms (plants and animals) is called phylogeny and can be done by any of these people. There are other related fields such as anthropology and even astronomy that provide knowledge relevant to our discussion of creation and evolution. These are simply the scientific fields that supply most of the facts related to this topic. Many of them, especially scientists in the related fields of astronomy and astrophysics, are realizing that the Bible’s creation account is a good explanation of “how we got here.” Still, although many astronomers accept a “Creator,” many still interpret the Bible so loosely that they believe that the universe (and the earth) is billions of years old.

    Muslim Scriptures
    According to Quran, God said kun (be it so) and the entire world came into existence. It also confirms the story of Bible saying, ”We created sky and earth along with all other things created within six days but we never felt tired.” (Surat Kaf, Ayt 38) The angels were created from light, demons were created from fire and the human were created from earth. Following other verses in Quran have the references to the origin of the universe:
    "He (The God) is the Originator of the heavens and the earth." (The Qur'an, 6:101) "And it is We who have constructed the heaven with might, and verily, it is We who are steadily expanding it." (The Qur'an, 51:47)"Do not the Unbelievers see that the heavens and the earth were joined together (as one unit of creation), before We clove them asunder, and We made from water every living thing. Will they not then believe?" (The Qur'an, 21:30)
    "It is He Who created the night and the day, and the sun and the moon. They swim along, each in an orbit. “(The Qur'an, 21:33)"And the sun runs to its resting place. That is the decree of the Almighty, the All-Knowing. "He has created the Heavens and the Earth for Truth. He wraps the night up in the day, and wraps the day up in the night." (The Qur'an, 39:5)
    We made the sky a preserved and protected roof yet still they turn away from Our Signs." (The Qur'an, 21:32)"It is He Who created everything on the earth for you and then directed His attention up to heaven and arranged it into seven regular heavens. He has knowledge of all things." (The Qur'an, 2:29). "Then He turned to heaven when it was smoke. In two days He determined them as seven heavens and revealed, in every heaven, its own mandate." (The Qur'an, 41:12)"We placed firmly embedded mountains on the earth, so it would not move under them…" (The Qur'an, 21:31). Have We not made the earth as a bed and the mountains its pegs?" (The Qur'an, 78:6-7) "And We send the fecundating winds, then cause water to descend from the sky, therewith providing you with water in abundance." (The Qur'an, 15:22)
    "He has let loose the two seas, converging together, with a barrier between them they do not break through." (The Qur'an, 55:19-20)"Or (the unbelievers' state) are like the darkness of a fathomless sea which is covered by waves above which are waves above which are clouds, layers of darkness, one upon the other. If he puts out his hand, he can scarcely see it. Those God gives no light to, they have no light." (The Qur'an, 24:40)
    "It is He who sends down water in due measure from the sky by which We bring a dead land back to life. That is how you too will be raised (from the dead)." (The Qur'an, 43:11)
    "It is God Who sends the winds which stir up clouds which He spreads about the sky however He wills. He forms them into dark clumps and you see the rain come pouring out from the middle of them. When He makes it fall on those of His slaves He wills, they rejoice" (The Qur'an, 30:48)
    "Have you not seen how God drives along the clouds, then joins them together, then makes them into a stack, and then you see the rain come out of it? And He sends down from the sky mountain masses (of clouds) with cold hail in them, striking with it anyone He wills and averting it from anyone He wills. The brightness of His lightning almost blinds the sight." (The Qur'an, 24:43)
    "You will see the mountains you reckoned to be solid going past like clouds." (The Qur'an, 27:88)"…And We sent down iron in which there lies great force and which has many uses for mankind...." (The Qur'an, 57:25). "Glory be to Him Who created all the pairs: from what the earth produces and from themselves and from things unknown to them." (The Qur'an, 36:36) By Heaven with its cyclical systems." (The Qur'an, 86:11).Qur’an thus records that universe including earth, sky, seas, water, clouds, mountains, winds, light, day, night, dark all, were created by the God. Creation process and time of origin are not found recorded.Iranian, Yunanians Chinese and Semetic religions have different legends and stories to tell. Budhism, Jainism, and Deism too describe origin of the universe differently.
    Many esoteric and occult teachings involve highly elaborate cosmologies which constitute a "map" of the Universe and of states of existences and consciousness according to the worldview of that particular doctrine. Such cosmologies cover many of the same concerns also addressed by religious and philosophical cosmology, such as the origin, purpose, and destiny of the Universe and of consciousness and the nature of existence. Common themes addressed in esoteric cosmology are emanation, involution, evolution, epigenesis, planes of existence, hierarchies of spiritual beings, cosmic cycles (e.g., cosmic year, Yuga), Yogic or spiritual disciplines, and references to altered states of consciousness. Examples of esoteric cosmologies can be found in Gnosticism, Tantra (especially Kashmir Shaivism), Kabbalah, Sufism, Surat Shabda Yoga, Theosophy, Anthroposophy, the Fourth Way teaching of Gurdjieff and Ouspensky, the teachings of Patrizia Norelli-Bachelet, Gnostic circle and in The Rosicrucian Cosmo-Conception. These propagate universe to be a thought process than of any material existence.
    The Scientists Version

    The Greek philosophers Aristarchus, Aristotle and Ptolemy announced different theories about universe. In particular, the geocentric Ptolemaic system was the accepted theory to explain the motion of the heavens until Nicolaus Copernicus, and subsequently Tycho Brahe, Johannes Kepler and Galileo Galilei proposed a heliocentric system in the 16th century. With Isaac Newton and the 1687 publication of Principia Mathematica, the problem of the motion of the heavens was finally solved. Newton provided a physical mechanism for Kepler's laws and his law of universal gravitation allowed the anomalies in previous systems, caused by gravitational interaction between the planets, to be resolved. A fundamental difference between Newton's cosmology and those preceding it was the Copernican principle that the bodies on earth obey the same physical laws as all the celestial bodies.
    Modern scientific cosmology may be considered to begin in 1915 with Albert Einstein's publication of his general theory of relativity and the growing ability of astronomers to study very distant objects. Prior to this, physicists had taken that the Universe was static and unchanging. However, the general theory of relativity was not amenable to a static Universe. Thus the Big Bang theory was proposed by the Belgian priest Georges Lemaître in 1927 and rapidly confirmed by Edwin Hubble's discovery of the red shift in 1929 and later by the discovery of the cosmic microwave background radiation by Arno Penzias and Robert Woodrow Wilson in 1964.
    Recent observations made by the COBE and WMAP satellites observing this background radiation have effectively, in many scientists eyes, transformed cosmology from a highly speculative science into a predictive science, as these observations matched predictions made by a theory called Cosmic inflation, which is a modification of the standard big bang theory.
    As the universe expanded, according to current scientific understanding, matter collected into clouds that began to condense and rotate, forming the forerunners of galaxies. Within galaxies, including our own Milky Way galaxy, changes in pressure caused gas and dust to form distinct clouds. In some of these clouds, where there was sufficient mass and the right forces, gravitational attraction caused the cloud to collapse. If the mass of material in the cloud was sufficiently compressed, nuclear reactions began and a star was born.
    Some proportion of stars, including our sun, formed in the middle of a flattened spinning disk of material. In the case of our sun, the gas and dust within this disk collided and aggregated into small grains, and the grains formed into larger bodies called planetesimals ("very small planets"), some of which reached diameters of several hundred kilometers. In successive stages these planetesimals coalesced into the nine planets and their numerous satellites. The rocky planets, including Earth, were near the sun, and the gaseous planets were in more distant orbits.
    However there have been various other scientific theories which came up regarding origin of universe are summed up below:



    [​IMG] Universe


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    • [​IMG] [​IMG] Creation Evolution

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    • By Superpower Self Creation

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    • Tidal Protoplanet Higg’s Boson Lou William’s Super String Big Bang Other

    • Theory Theory Theory Theory Theory Theory Theories

    1. Creation Theories:

    • a) Superpower Theory: Some superpower created the universe.

    • b) Self creation theory: Matter somehow transformed into universe.

    1. Evolution Theories:
      1. Tidal Theory: Big nebulae (cloud of gaseous matter) revolving around itself formed into sun. A big star moved close to sun whose gravitational force caused tidal waves on sun throwing up powerful sprays of gas
      2. Protoplanet Theory: Nebulae collapse formed proto-star. Thermonuclear reactions ignited it ensuring spin around own axis and flattened forming into planets, planetoids including earth.
      3. Higg’s Boson Theory: God particle in space picked up cosmic dust and formed planets.
      4. Lou William’s Theory: Lou Williams and Thorton Page stated that planets and satellites formed out of coalescing of small bodies of icy conglomerate planetesimals made up of matter embedded in ice.
      5. Super String Theory: Space is full of very minute subatomic particles in vibrating strings which with time developed into plasma which grew bigger till exploded with energy resulting in birth of universe.
      6. Other Theories: Other theories are more of speculations rather than having been based on any record or facts available. Plato surmised that the universe came out of inanimate matter like a chicken from an egg. Kant guessed that darkness and chaos generated gravity in the inanimate matter. Gravity generated heat and revolutions of matter around itself and the cooled matter formed into universe. R.A. Littleton advanced double star theory. According to it our sun and other star formed double star. Companion star exploded into gas which was captured by gravity of sun. Planets developed from this cloud. Condensation Theory suggests that only one star fragmented and formed into planets after condensation, large part remaining sun.

    The ages of the universe, our galaxy, the solar system, and earth has also been estimated using modern scientific methods. The age of the universe can be derived from the observed relationship between the velocities of and the distances separating the galaxies. The velocities of distant galaxies can be measured very accurately, but the measurement of distances is more uncertain. Over the past few decades, measurements of the Hubble expansion have led to estimated ages for the universe of between 7 billion and 20 billion years, with the most recent and best measurements within the range of 10 billion to 15 billion years

    The age of the Milky Way galaxy has been calculated in two ways. One involves studying the observed stages of evolution of different-sized stars in globular clusters. Globular clusters occur in a faint halo surrounding the center of the Galaxy, with each cluster containing from a hundred thousand to a million stars. The very low amounts of elements heavier than hydrogen and helium in these stars indicate that they must have formed initially in the history of the Galaxy, before large amounts of heavy elements were created inside the initial generations of stars and later distributed into the interstellar medium through supernova explosions (the Big Bang itself created primarily hydrogen and helium atoms). Estimates of the ages of the stars in globular clusters fall within the range of 11 billion to 16 billion years.
    A second method for estimating the age of our galaxy is based on the present abundances of several long-lived radioactive elements in the solar system. Their abundances are set by their rates of production and distribution through exploding supernovas. According to these calculations, the age of our galaxy is between 9 billion and 16 billion years. Thus, both ways of estimating the age of the Milky Way galaxy agree with each other, and they also are consistent with the independently derived estimate for the age of the universe.
    Radioactive elements originating naturally in rocks and minerals also provide a means of estimating the age of the solar system and Earth. Several of these elements decay with half lives between 700 million and more than 100 billion years (the half life of an element is the time it takes for half of the element to transform radioactively into another element). Applying these time-keepers, it is calculated that meteorites, which are fragments of asteroids, formed between 4.53 billion and 4.58 billion years ago (asteroids are small "planetoids" that revolve around the sun and are remnants of the solar nebula that gave rise to the sun and planets). The same radioactive time-keepers applied to the three oldest lunar samples returned to Earth by the Apollo astronauts infer ages between 4.4 billion and 4.5 billion years, providing minimum approximates for the time since the origin of the moon.
    The oldest known rocks on earth occur in northwestern Canada (3.96 billion years), but well-studied rocks equally as old are also found in other parts of the world. In Western Australia, zircon crystals encased within younger rocks have ages as old as 4.3 billion years, making these tiny crystals the oldest materials so far found on earth. The best estimates of earth's age are obtained by calculating the time required for development of the observed lead isotopes in Earth's oldest lead ores. These estimates yield 4.54 billion years as the age of Earth and of meteorites, and hence of the solar system.
    In 1929 Edwin Hubble's measurements of the red-shift in the optical spectra of light from distant galaxies,10 which was taken to indicate a universal recessional motion of the light sources in the line of sight, provided a dramatic verification of the Friedman-Lemaitre model. Incredibly, what Hubble had discovered was the isotropic expansion of the universe predicted by Friedman and Lemaitre. It marked a veritable turning point in the history of science. "Of all the great predictions that science has ever made over the centuries," exclaims John Wheeler, "was there ever one greater than this, to predict, and predict correctly, and predict against all expectation a phenomenon so fantastic as the expansion of the universe?"11
    In 1923-29 Hubble was able to resolve Cepheids in M31 (the Andromeda galaxy) with the 100" telescope at Mt Wilson. He developed a new distance measure using the brightest star for more distant galaxies. He correlated these measurements with Slipher's nebulae to discover a proportionality between velocity v vand distance d, that is, Hubbles law v=Hd. The constant of proportionality H is called Hubble's constant (it was significantly over-estimated by Hubble himself).
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    In 1964 working with a horn antenna (7.35cm) at Bell Labs, Penzias & Wilson fortuitously discovered an isotropic radio background, a relic left-over from the primordial fireball. This cosmic microwave background radiation is key evidence for the Hot Big Bang model. The temperature of this blackbody radiation is today measured to be T = 2.73K (that is, a rather cold -270C).
    In 1986 deep red shift galaxy surveys demonstrated the existence of huge bubbles, filaments and sheets on scales from 25Mpc to over 100Mpc. Subsequent galaxy surveys are providing detailed information about the distribution of large-scale structure. Radio galaxy and quasar surveys indicate homogeneity (or uniformity) is approached on scales of several hundred Mpc (that is, nearly a billion light years).
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    APM survey of thousands of galaxies showing their large-scale angular distribution in the sky.

    In April 1992, the COBE satellite team announced the discovery of anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background radiation at the level of one part in 100,000. These are thought to be a snapshot at t=400,000 years of the primodial fluctuations that led to galaxy formation. This map of the sky is also the best evidence for the isotropy (or spherical symmetry) of the Universe.
    1995-96 the Hubble Space Telescope was able to resolve Cepheid variable stars in galaxies in the Virgo cluster, ensuring a much better calibration of distance measures. This has allowed more accurate estimates to be made of Hubble's constant H. Early galaxies and quasars have also been observed by the HST raising serious doubts about current structure formation models.

    The model which remained the bane of the researchers in twentieth century is Lemaitre’s Big Bang Model

    Big Bang Theory:
    George Lemaitre of Belgium advanced this theory in 1930, supported by Garag Gamov of Russia IN 1940 basing on an assumption of big bang having occurred 15 to 20 billions years ago which created the universe instantaneously in the millionth part of a second. `The evolution of the world can be compared to a display of fireworks that has just ended; some few red wisps, ashes and smoke. Standing on a cooled cinder, we see the slow fading of the suns, and we try to recall the vanishing brilliance of the origin of the worlds.' Lemaitre.

    The explosion from zero volume at zero time of a corpuscle of energy equivalent to the mass and radiation that now constitute the Universe. It means that everything we now see or know about was once compacted into an unimaginably small blip that instantaneously expanded in a huge explosion that created the very space and time it was expanding into.

    [​IMG] [​IMG] [​IMG]
    a & b :The pictures represent the Big Bang, which revealed once again that God created the universe from nothingness. c) Photo from Hubble Space Telescope of the Southern Sky

    The Universe was created by a big bang which occurred about 13 billion years ago. Prior to the big bang, all the matter which exists in the universe as we know it today was compressed into an area perhaps no larger than the head of a pin.
    After the big bang, all matter was scattered into what can be thought of as fine dust, or a cloud or mist. The particles were too small to be detected today. They were what we now call nano-particles; much smaller than even the basic building blocks of electrons, protons and neutrons. Larger structures came later. In the years after the big bang, the universe rapidly expanded. The universe may be thought of as a balloon blowing up. As air is pumped into a balloon, the dots on the surface get further and further apart. Similarly, as the universe grew older and expanded, the objects in it got further and further apart.

    Some objects randomly came together and fused into larger objects. More particles unified and bigger objects formed. About 100,000 years after the Big Bang, the temperature of the Universe had dropped sufficiently for electrons and protons to combine into hydrogen atoms, p + e --> H, which consists of one proton, one neutron and one electron. From this time onwards, radiation was effectively unable to interact with the background gas; it has propagated freely ever since, while constantly emitting energy because its wavelength is stretched by the expansion of the Universe. Originally, the radiation temperature was about 3000 degrees Kelvin, whereas today it has fallen to only 3K.
    About one second after the Big Bang, matter - in the form of free neutrons and protons - was very hot and dense. As the Universe expanded, the temperature fell and some of these nucleons were synthesized into the light elements: deuterium (D), helium-3, and helium-4. Theoretical calculations for these nuclear processes predict, for example, that about a quarter of the Universe consists of helium-4, a result which is in good agreement with current stellar observations.
    The heavier elements, of which we are partly made, were created later in the interiors of stars and spread widely in supernova explosions. The standard Hot Big Bang model also provides a framework in which to understand the collapse of matter to form galaxies and other large-scale structures observed in the Universe today. At about 10,000 years after the Big Bang, the temperature had fallen to such an extent that the energy density of the Universe began to be dominated by massive particles, rather than the light and other radiation which had predominated earlier. This change in the form of the main matter density meant that the gravitational forces between the massive particles could begin to take effects, so that any small perturbations in their density would grow. Ten billion years later we see the results of this collapse.
    Particle cosmology builds a picture of the universe prior to this at temperature regimes which still lie within known physics. For example, high energy particle accelerators at CERN and Fermi lab allow us to test physical models for processes which would occur only 0.00000000001 seconds after the Big Bang. This area of cosmology is more speculative, as it involves at least some extrapolation, and often faces intractable difficulties in calculations. Many cosmologists argue that reasonable extrapolations can be made to times as early as a grand unification phase transition.
    Quantum cosmology considers questions about the origin of the Universe itself. This endeavors to describe quantum processes at the earliest times that we can conceive of a classical space-time, that is, the Planck epoch at
    0.0000000000000000000000000000000000000000001 seconds.
    Given that we as yet do not have a fully self-consistent theory of quantum gravity, this area of cosmology is more speculative.
    Despite the self-consistency and remarkable success of the standard Hot Big Bang model in describing the evolution of the universe back to only one hundredth of a second, a number of unanswered questions remain regarding the initial state of the universe.
    The Steady State Model

    The Big Bang Model was questioned by many scientists. Sir Fred Hoyle, for example, could countenance neither an uncaused nor a supernaturally caused origin of the universe. With respect to the first alternative, he wrote, "This most peculiar situation is taken by many astronomers to represent the origin of the universe. The universe is supposed to have begun at this particular time. From where? The usual answer, surely an unsatisfactory one, is: from nothing!" Equally unsatisfactory in Hoyle's mind was the postulation of a supernatural cause. Noting that some accept happily the universe's absolute beginning, Hoyle complained,
    To many people this thought process seems highly satisfactory because a 'something' outside physics can then be introduced at t = 0. By a semantic manoeuvre, the word 'something' is then replaced by 'god,' except that the first letter becomes a capital, God, in order to warn us that we must not carry the enquiry any further.12 To Hoyle's credit, he did carry the inquiry further by helping to formulate in 1948 the first competitor to the Standard Model, namely, the Steady State Model of the universe13. According to this theory, the universe is in a state of isotropic cosmic expansion, but as the galaxies recede, new matter is drawn into being ex nihilo in the interstices of space created by the galactic recession.
    [​IMG]
    Steady State Model. As the galaxies mutually recede, new matter comes into existence to replace them. The universe thus constantly renews itself and so never began to exist.
    If one extrapolates the expansion of the universe back in time, the density of the universe never increases because the matter and energy simply vanish as the galaxies mutually approach!
    This theory was developed by Bondi, Gold and Fred Hoyle. According to this theory, "the universe is of infinite age and obeys a perfect Cosmological Postulates such that it appears the same at all instants of time as well as the locations in Space.' (Encyclopedia Britannica, Vol. 18, p. 1007). The number of galaxies is continuously being created out of empty space which will fill up the gaps caused by those galaxies which have crossed the boundary of observable universe. As a result of it; the overall size and mass of the observable universe remains constant. Thus a steady state of the universe is not disturbed at all. It thus postulates that the universe is not subject to evolutionary process. Its kinematic properties like that of other cosmological models are "isotropic, homogeneous and expanding." (Encyclopedia Britannica Vol.18, p.1007). According to this theory the past cannot be distinguished from the present for they are the same hence the appearance of galaxies will not vary with distance. This however is contradicted by the radio astronomical observations, which have conclusively established that the occurrence of radio galaxies is evidently very different distances. (Encyclopedia Britannica, Vol.18, p.1007). Hence based on "esoteric theories and uncertain data" they conclude that the universe will continue to expand indefinitely (Encyclopedia of Physics p. 142). This will however happen only if the universe is really completely self contained (saibhang) having no boundary of edge it would have neither beginning nor end."
    The Steady State theory never secured a single piece of experimental verification; its appeal was purely metaphysical.14 The discovery of progressively more radio galaxies at ever greater distances undermined the theory by showing that the universe had an evolutionary history. But the decisive refutation of the Steady State Model came with two discoveries which constituted, in addition to the galactic red-shift, the most significant evidence for the Big Bang theory: the cosmogenic nucleo-synthesis of the light elements and the microwave background radiation. As a result, in the words of Ivan King, "The steady-state theory has now been laid to rest, as a result of clear-cut observations of how things have changed with time."15
    Pulsating Theory: According to this theory, the universe is supposed to be expanding and contracting alternately i.e., pulsating. At present, the universe is expanding. According to this theory it is possible that at a certain time, the expansion of the universe may be stopped by the gravitational pull and the universe may contract again. After it has been contracted to a certain size, explosion again occurs and the universe will start expanding. The alternate expansion and contraction of the universe give rise to a pulsating universe16. The tragedy of this theory is the methods of verification of facts. The universe is so vast that it is not possible to fathom their behavior by sample observations. Another aspect is the variety in universal creation. No too beings or natural creations are the same. There is difference in each and to take one sample out of any group may not provide exact answer for the other. The second aspect of the universe is the continuous change. No one can measure the speed of change billions of miles away as the most stars are much beyond. Hence to provide computerized solutions is an imaginary solution and not a practical one at his stage. Thus the astronomers can never explain the Origin of the Universe as an observable fact and verifiable reality. Neither a satisfactory mathematical model can be worked out to explain the complex systems of the universe17.

    Shape of the Universe

    An important open question is the shape of the Universe. Firstly, whether the Universe is spatially flat, i.e. whether the rules of Euclidean geometry are valid on the largest scales is unknown. Currently, most cosmologists believe that the observable Universe is very nearly spatially flat, with local wrinkles where massive objects distort space-time, just as a lake is (nearly) flat.


    Secondly, whether the Universe is multiply connected, is unknown. The Universe has no spatial boundary according to the standard Big Bang model, but nevertheless may be spatially finite (compact). This can be understood using a two-dimensional analogy: the surface of a sphere has no edge, but nonetheless has a finite area. It is a two-dimensional surface with constant curvature in a third dimension. The 3-sphere is a three-dimensional equivalent in which all three dimensions are constantly curved in a fourth.


    If the Universe is indeed spatially finite, as described, then traveling in a "straight" line, in any given direction, would theoretically cause one to eventually arrive back at the starting point.


    Strictly speaking, we should call the stars and galaxies "views" of stars and galaxies, since it is possible that the Universe is multiply-connected and sufficiently small (and of an appropriate, perhaps complex, shape) that we can see once or several times around it in various, and perhaps all, directions. (Think of a house of mirrors.) If so, the actual number of physically distinct stars and galaxies would be smaller than currently accounted. Although this possibility has not been ruled out, the results of the latest cosmic microwave background research make this appear very unlikely.


    Fate of the Universe:


    Depending on the average density of matter and energy in the Universe, it will either keep on expanding forever or it will be gravitationally slowed down and will eventually collapse back on itself in a "big crunch". Currently the evidence suggests not only that there is insufficient mass/energy to cause a re-collapse, but that the expansion of the Universe seems to be accelerating and will accelerate for the whole of eternity. Other ideas of the fate of our Universe include the Big Rip, the Big Freeze, and Heat Death of the Universe theory.

    Multi-verse

    There is some speculation that multiple universes exist in a higher-level multi-verse (also known as a mega-verse), our Universe being one of those universes (lower case). For example, matter that falls into a black hole in our Universe could emerge as a "Big Bang," starting another universe. However, all such ideas are currently un-testable and cannot be regarded as anything more than speculation. The concept of parallel universes is understood only when related to string theory.18


    Most accepted theory amongst the scientific community now is the big bang theory and the inflationary theory of development.

    Thus the scientists themselves cannot say with certainty as to how the universe was created and who created it.

    Size of Universe and observable Universe

    There is disagreement over whether the Universe is finite or infinite in spatial extent and volume. However, the observable Universe, consisting of all locations that could have affected us since the Big Bang given the finite speed of light, is certainly finite.


    About the time of origin also there are many guesses, stories and legends. Many Hindu scholars guessed that in 1928, the period of creation of the universe was for 10 billion 9 millions 68 lakhs, 53 thousand and 28 years. According to Christian Scholars the world was created 4004 years before the Christ on 23 October. Below is another guessed geological time line of all the main events in the history of the universe19 based on the study of fossils?


    15 Billion Years ago: Macrocosms- FieldRadiationParticles-ElectronPositronInteractions-Higgs Fields- False VacuumInflation- Spontaneous Symmetry BreakingCosmos- UniverseBig Bang- Proton-Neutron- Nuclear Fusion- Alpha Particles -Beta Radioactivity- AtomCosmic- Background Radiation-GasGravity- Electric ChargeExpansion of the Universe
    13 Billion Years ago: Clusters of Galaxies-Galaxies- Globular Star Cluster- Disc of Galaxy
    12 Billion Years ago: Spiral Arms- Birth of a Star- Open Star Clusters- Milky Way Galaxy - -Binary Stars
    11 Billion Years ago: Red GiantWhite Dwarf Star -Nova- Supernova- Neutron Star -Black Holes -Cosmic Dust -Molecules- HONC Atoms- Water- Hydrogen- BondIce
    4.7 Billion Years ago: Sun- Solar Disc- Planets- Solar System- Earth
    4.5 Billion Years ago: Earth Structure -Volcanoes
    4 Billion Years ago :Meteorite Era -Early Atmosphere- Liquid Water- RainWeathering of Rock- Continental Drift -Sunlight- Greenhouse Effect- Weather- Climate -Ice Ages-
    According to another theory the vertical time axis is not linear in order to show early events on a reasonable scale. The temperature rises as we go backwards in time towards the Big Bang and physical processes happen more rapidly. Many of the transitions and events may be unfamiliar to newcomers; we shall explain these in subsequent pages. The following diagram illustrates the main events occurring in the history of our Universe.
    [​IMG]
    The timescales and temperatures indicated on this diagram span an enormous range. A cosmologist has first to get the order of magnitude (or the power of ten) correct. Quantities which are given as 10 to some power 6 (say) is simply 1 followed by 6 zeros, that is, in this case 1,000,000 (one million). Quantities which are given as 10 to some minus power -6 (say) have 1 in the 6th place after the decimal point, that is, 0.000001 (one millionth). At extremely high temperatures we tend to use giga-electron volts (GeV) instead of degrees Kelvin. One GeV is equivalent to about 10,000,000,000,000K.

    All these theories have been built on guesses as no one has seen the origin, originator or time of origin. This in itself proves that these theories are not scientifically proved; nor are they likely to be proved in near future at least not in our life time.


    Getting at the Truth

    Scientists depend on observations and experiments based on their five senses. They measure, register, record and draw inferences through deductions and inductions after due analytical reasoning. Their observations are about what they can observe. Their findings too are based on what is observed. About observation of the universe their observations are not fruitful. No body knows the limits of the universe of the limitless God; no one can know it either. Scientists are observing the universe sitting inside it. It is like observing the size of an egg sitting inside it. Any part of the egg will not provide details about its originator, the date of origin or the expanse and the future of the egg. Hence observations by science have their limitations. Scientists too have been looking towards God and religion in this state of darkness as is apparent from the special issue of Newsweek.
    [​IMG]
    This is because the religion adds another dimension i.e., the sixth sense. This is also called perception or intuition. Perception does not need the efforts for measuring, registering, recording and having deductions or inductions to draw inferences. Perception is direct without a medium. Newton’s intuition helped him to work out results from falling apple. Ren Descartes had the intuition about Coordinate Geometry in a dream. Similarly chain reaction was the product of a dream. Intuition compared by other ground realities helped the famous scientific discoveries. Some scientists do not accept God because the God is invisible. On the other hand the religions (except Buddhism) including Sikhism believe in the existence of God.

    Philosophy of Sikhism is based on Sri Guru Granth Sahib originally compiled by Sri Guru Arjan Dev and later given the status of Guru by Guru Gobind Singh after a few additions. Japuji, Aasa di Vaar, Siddh Goshth and Maru Sohile of Guru Nanak and Sukhmani Sahib of Guru Arjan have described about the universe and life in detail while other Gurus and saints have touched upon the subjects at random. Primary material here is obtained from hymns of Guru Nanak and Guru Arjan.

    According to Sri Guru Granth Sahib, the One and the only One God has created the entire universe.20 The God is the Greatest; His place is the highest. His end cannot be known. No one knows his limit. He is limitless. Only the one who can become greater and higher as Him, can know Him and fathom His limits21,22. His size remains same. It neither increases nor decreases.23 The God is Omnipresent but remains in secrecy. He is everywhere in the form of light. The beings are created by Him. He cannot be seen by any being. No being can say how the universe was created”.24

    The ‘created’ cannot know how the Creator carried out the creation.25 The greatest wonder is that while the God sees everything that goes on in the universe, the beings do not notice him doing so26. The beings are blinded by maya; hence they cannot see the Creator. As the blinded eyes cannot see Him; a true Guru can provide the divine sight with which one can see the God.27 No one can observe Him with ordinary eyes. He can only be seen through sixth sense. Guru Arjan wrote, “The eyes, which have seen my dear Lord, are different.”28 The God has kept a being in a cave and made him the instrument of air. The air instrument works through nine gates; the tenth gate is kept secret. By keeping one self attached to Guru’s door one can see the tenth gate.29 The sixth sense also called the tenth gate (‘dasam duar’) is different from the nine gates on which the senses are developed (2 eyes, 2 nostrils, 2 ears, one mouth and two outlets). Scientists fail to develop their sixth sense. They study the maya and not the Creator. Their eyes are blind to the world of maya and are lost in self and engrossed in ego. A being has to kill his ego and break the illusion of maya30. Subduing one’s ego, one shall find a lasting peace, and emotional attachment to Maya will be dispelled31. Through the Word (sabd), egotism is conquered and subdued, and the illusion of Maya is dispelled32.But without the Guru, no one finds the God.

    The God is functioning in the entire universe in secrecy. He can be seen only through the Word given by a guide33. The knowledge of the true Word can be given by a true guide.34 Only a true guide (Guru) can provide them the divine sight35 with which they can see Him and His entire universe in correct perspective. Only a true guide can help one to see the God through maya and help identify and finally reach Him. The true Guru only can help one differentiating the truth from the illusion (maya); can help getting detached from maya and attached to the truth, the God. The true guide helps in removing haumai and attachment to maya through Word. The Word not only helps in knowing the universe of maya but also the True God.36 The Guru helps in remembering Him through His Word (Name) and understanding Him. The God gets attracted to them who put efforts to attract Him. Once the nadr(i) of the Lord is set on a being, the being is surely to be emancipated from the transmigration system into which one is subjected. Remember Him always by reciting His name. This is the best method to draw His attention37. Love by remembering God and He will love you. Love begets love. Continuous attention from both sides develops into love and the result of this love is actual assimilation. Once the being totally forgets about self and remembers only God he reaches the ultimate stage (turia awstha), which can be reached through the guidance of the guide.38

    Getting attached to the God and then assimilating into Him is the only way to find the real peace; the only way to save oneself from the cycle of maya (transmigration). Guru Nanak has described this process of salvation in Japuji Step 38 by giving the simily of a goldsmith’s shop. Citing the body as a goldsmith’s shop, the body be kept clean of all the vices through contenance. Keeping patience the intellect must be sharpened with knowledge from the scriptures. Keeping Lord’s fear in mind, penance must hard enough to attract the attention and love of the Lord. The true word prepared in such a mint, under the direction of Guru, will assimilate the being with the God. The labor will be fruitful once the God’s grace is obtained and the being gets assimilated with Him.39

    The real research is in researching the cause and the effect. The tragedy is that the scientists are caught in observing the mirage, the maya the creation, and not its Creator. Their observations are of the effect and not the cause; of the action and not the producer. The God is the cause and the maya is the effect. The subject is thus forgotten and the activity is observed. These observations are of transitory things and not of permanent nature. The observed are all changeable. That is why the principles created by science keep on changing and do not stand for long. Knowing the permanent, the True God is the real find; getting attached to Him and to get assimilated into Him is the real achievement; the permanent stability and peace are the wanted results.

    The time of writing and compilation of the material shows that it was done much before the currency of modern science and scientific theories in vogue now. This shows that Guru Nanak and the other writers of Sri Guru Granth Sahib were much ahead of their times. Their description and theories not only stand the test of the day but also provide guidelines for future scientific research as well.

    The various religious luminaries have had the experiences with God through their sixth sense. The Gurus and the saints whose hymns have been recorded in Sri Guru Granth Sahib had developed this sixth sense. From their hymns we find answers to all the questions about universe, left unanswered and undiscovered so far by the science or for that matter by any other human being. The Gurus and saints had the sixth sense which the scientists normally do not develop. Hence scientists have been unable to reach the Truth so far about the creation.

    Record of Creation in Sri Guru Granth Sahib

    According to Sri Guru Granth Sahib, the universe originates from the Word (sabd) and assimilates with the Word. It again originates from the Word.40. The God and His creation can be understood by the one who is either greater than the God or has become like Him. It is futile to observe an egg sitting in the egg and finding facts about the originator, origin time and the process and outer dimensions of the egg. The calculations by the scientists about the date and process of origin are not true as all the observations made by the scientists are based on maya of the God and not the Truth. It is impossible to observe the past without sixth sense. The First Guru questions, “What was the time, date, month, season when the universe was created?” He puts the question and provides the answer too41, “No pandit (worldly knowledgeable Hindu) has known the time, otherwise it would have been recorded in ancient Hindu scriptures. No Muslim scholar (Qazi) has yet known, this otherwise it would have been recorded in Quran. Neither any ascetic nor anyone else has known the date, month or season when the universe was created. No living person has lived to tell the tale of the origin and no one has yet seen it. No one can measure the spread of universe”.42

    “God alone knows when He created the universe”.43 He further says. “In this sphere, there are many types of gases (airs), liquids (waters) and fires (energies). There are several worldly gods transforming beings into numerous forms and colours and clad in diverse attires. There are many earths and mountains….. There are numerous rain gods, moons, suns, constellations and countries”.44 “There is no limit to the creation”.45 “No one can describe the limit of various countries, worlds and universes as there is no end. In every part of light there is a shape of beings”46. “The continents and underworlds are billions; beyond anyone’s count.”47

    According to Sri Guru Granth Sahib the One and the only One God has created the entire universe.48 .The entire universe originated from Him alone.49 He, The Creator and The Destroyer, creates and destroys the universe within seconds.50 The universe was destroyed and created many times.51 It was created by many ways many times. He himself remains aloof without showing any of His attributes52 The Creator, Preserver and Destroyer are not different. He alone is the Creator or Destroyer.53 Everything originates from Him and assimilates into Him.54

    He established and contemplates worldly sphere.55 He creates and recreates, shattering and breaking apart, creating, He shatters again. He builds up what He has demolished and demolishes what He has built.56 Nothing is created without Him and there is nothing without Him.57

    Before creation of the universe there was nothing around; whatever is observable in the universe did not exist earlier.58 There was utter darkness all-around.59 He Himself was in deep meditation.60 For thirty six yugas61 He had remained in darkness.62 He emerged from this darkness shoonya Himself and gave Himself a name.63 With His emergence spread the Light around64. The Light of the Lord spread everywhere.65 When in light, the Lord probably felt lonely and thought of creating the universe as a play for Himself.66

    He created the universe and millions of rivers with one sound of His order.67 All the segments and continents in the universe were created one sound of His order alone.68 The light energy being at the base and the sound energy being the activating force, the creation of universe was initiated.69 He uttered sound to create the universe70. This sound is considered to be His Name or Sabd.71 From the True God came the air and from air came the water. From water He created the universe and in every element of the universe He entered in the form of light.72 He created the universe in many different methods in such a way that everything originates from the God and merges into it.73 He created billions of stars, suns and planets.74 He created billions of countries and earths75 and on them He created water, land and mountains.76 He mixed water, fire and air to create the living beings on earth.77 The entire universe is made of water and water exists everywhere.78 There are billions of universes, skies and Netherlands.79 There are billions of places of worship.80 The word is the place of residence of the God and He stays in it. 81 He creates and cares Himself.82

    All the creation is His play.83 This play is all His maya an illusion. Paradise, the earth, the nether regions of the underworld and the globe of the world-all are engrossed in maya.84 The maya has been considered as natural and unnatural. Natural maya is true85 while unnatural maya is not. The universe is like a dream; it will vanish in no time.86 The sky, the nether world and the entire creation are all due to His nature. All winds, waters, fires, earths and dust are all God’s nature. The God provided various sensory perception of seeing, hearing etc., to the beings so that they could feel and see the impact of fear and happiness of Lord’s nature. The knowledge of Vedas, Puranas and Quran and all thinking are the powers of His Nature. Eating, drinking and dressing and loving the humanity are all set by the nature. All species, kinds and colors and all living beings are created by the power of His Nature. All virtues and vices, honor and dis-honor are the natural laws.87 The creation of nature cannot be stated by mere thinking.88 Giving Himself a Name, He created the nature in various colors and types 89 and settled in it happily to enjoy it.90 Everything originated from God’s semen.91 One is amazed at the God who has created the universe and the beings.92.

    The God Himself directed the evolution of the world of five elements; He created relationship among water, air, fire and sky.93 He created water air, and fire as the creator developer and destroyer.94 He Himself infused the five senses into it.95 Nights, days, weeks and seasons; air, water, fire and nether regions- in the midst of these, He established the earth as a home of Dharma. Upon it; He placed various species of beings; of unlimited and endless names and types.96 There are form upon form of beings and creatures in the water, on the land, in the worlds and the universes.97 He created the bodies by binding the air, water and fire98.

    Creation of five elements
    The creation process started with creation of five elements of the matter. The energy waves emerged from the light after dispersion by the sound and expanded cyclically. 99 The cyclic expansion and contraction of this energy created the five elements. 100 The five elements are air,fire, water, earth and ether which all were formed as a result of light energy expansion and contraction. The Lord remains in every element in the form of light energy. 101, 102 His existence is in continuity.103 The sequence of creation was air, fire, water, earth, fire and ether104. Every action of creation was smooth and systematic.105 The theory of big bang is negated here. The theory of space is also negated stating that the light energy is in existence everywhere in continuity hence the question of space does not arise.

    Creation of galaxies, stars, planetary systems and earth
    According to modern science theories, combination and recombination of nuclei, blackbody radiation and local contraction caused cluster formation. Re-ionization, violent relaxation and varialization resulted in galaxy formation. Formation of particles and antiparticles and thereafter particle-anti-particle annihilation caused creation of Gases (deuterium, helium). Fragmentation, contraction, ionization and compression of gases caused opaque hydrogen and massive star formation. Deuterium ignition effected creation of Fire. Hydrogen fusion and then depletion caused core contraction and envelop expansion. Helium fusion further led to carbon, oxygen and silicon fusion (Air formation). The lord created air and water from shoonya106

    Production of matter of earth e.g., Iron production started through Implosion. Supernova explosions caused stars, planets and satellite formation.107 Their condensation, explosion or fragmentation caused Earth formation by planetesimal accretion, planetary differentiation, crust solidification and volatile gas expulsion. This in turn caused water condensation and water dissociation. Earth environment occurred through creation and settlement of ozone production process and ultraviolet absorption. The seven seas were created in the process108.

    Creation of Life
    On the earth the life started thereafter.109Water, air, fire and earth helped in creation of life110 in the new environment in which the life started in the order of plants, reptiles, animals and then man. The life was created in many ways.111 The four sources of creation were from eggs, from the womb, from the earth and from the sweat. 112, 113 . Eggs, wombs, sweat and earth - these are God's workshops of creation.114 The God thus created the universe as He so willed.115

    If we compare the thought process embodied in Sri Guru Granth Sahib with other religions and scientific processes, we find following basic distinctions:


    1. According to Sri Guru Granth Sahib (SGGS) the universe originated from a single entity and will get assimilated into the same entity; the entity that is the God. No one else created the universe. Science does not ascribe to this while other major religions except Buddhism ascribe to this.
    2. According to SGGS, the Lord Himself directs the evolution of the world of five elements; He Himself infuses the five senses into it. Shattering and breaking apart, He creates and recreates; creating, He shatters again. He builds up what He has demolished and demolishes what He has built. Nights, days, weeks and seasons; air, water, fire and nether regions- in the midst of these, He established the earth as a home of Dharma, upon it; He placed various species of beings; their names are unlimited and endless. This theory clarifies the point as to who created the big bang or who created the universe. The major religions ascribe to the theory of God as the Creator.
    3. According to SGGS the world which we see is actually the maya. SGGS states that Maya is an illusion. It is the creation and not the creator. It is the effect and not the cause. Until we find out the cause we cannot reach the right conclusion. The scientists study ‘maya’ as it is observable and do not study the real cause. Science thus is unable to find out the real cause.
    4. The illusion of maya according to SGGS can be removed only through sabd. Sabd can be given only by a true Guru who can help reach the ultimate reality, The God. True Guru only can help understand, identify and assimilate with the God; the ultimate destination of the entire universe. This is advocated in Hinduism but not in any other religion. Scientists too do not follow this concept.
    5. There was utter darkness before the God appeared and started the creation process as per SGGS. Science and other religions except Hinduism do not ascribe to it
    6. SGGS describes the cause of creation of the universe as loneliness of the Lord. To avoid loneliness He created a play for Himself. Thus the effect was the emergence of play in the form of universe. Other religions and scientists do not ascribe to this.
    7. as per sggs the entire universe is ever-changing energy. Scientists and other religious thoughts differ on this.
    8. as per sggs energy creation is a one time effort. The energy neither increases nor decreases. This is in consonance with science. Other religions do not ascribe to it.
    9. The ever changing energy keeps on taking various forms e.g. liquid, gas or solid. Basic element of all energies remains light. This again is in consonance with science but not ascribed by other religions.
    10. The universe was created from light energy which remains the chief controller of entire change process of the universe in the form of soul. God controls the universe in the form of light/soul. Science and other religions except Hinduism do not ascribe to it.
    11. The sound created by the God was a triggering force for expansion of the light in the form of photons. Hinduism and Islam ascribes to it. No other religion and science ascribe to it.
    12. The universe was created in smooth, gradual process. It negates the big bang theory.
    13. The sequence of creation of elements was light-sound-air (gas)-ether- earth- water-fire. This is different from others
    14. Life too was created by the God. The life was created in many ways; important ones being from eggs, earth, womb and sweat. Science does not entirely agree with it.
    15. Everything in the universe can be considered alive because of its continuous change and taking any form or shape at any time. The man dies, his body is either burnt, buried or eaten by fish/eagles. It changes into further life thereafter. Science does not agree with it.
    16. as per SGGS there is continuous system. Life comes after death and death after life which is a natural and continuing process. This is in consonance with religions of the east but not with that of West and the science.
    17. shoonya or sunn is not ‘nothing’. It can be called the centre of concentrated energy. Numerals emerge out of it both ways; positive to one side and negative to other. This is also in consonance with latest scientific theories.
    18. All the universal elements have negatives and positives. The negatives do change into positives and vice versa. This is in consonance with modern theories.
    19. According to SGGS the earth is spherical. Unlike most other religions and some scientists which say that the earth is flat.


    Bibliography

    1. G.S. Bachan, Creation of the Cos-Universe, Amritsar, Guru Nanak Dev University
    2. Guy Murchie: The Seven Mysteries of Life, Boston: The Houghton Mifflin Company, 1978
    3. Holy Bible, ‘Genesis’, Gideons International, USA, 1961
    4. Ian M. Campbell, Energy and the Atmosphere, London: Wiley, 1977
    5. J. S. Lewis, American Geologist, F. Press, R. Siever, Earth, New York: W. H. Freeman, 1986,
    6. John Ray: The Wisdom of God Manifested in the Word of Creation, 1701;
    7. K.L. Gomber & K.I. Gogia, Fundamental Physics New Delhi, 1999,
    8. Michael Denton, Nature's Destiny
    9. Paul Davies, Superforce, New York: Simon and Schuster, 1984
    10. Panjabi Vishaw Kosh, Vol. IV, Bhasha Vibhag, Patiala.
    11. Rich Milne: The Origin of the Universe
    12. Stephen Hawking: A Brief History Of Time, Bantam Press, London: 1988
    13. Superforce: The Search for a Grand Unified Theory of Nature, 1984.
    14. Sri Guru Granth Sahib, Shiromani Gurudwara Parbandhak Committee, Sri Amrirtsar
     
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