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Sakhis In The Footprints Of Guru Nanak... Redeeming Noorshah-the Magical Woman Of Kamroop

Discussion in 'History of Sikhism' started by dalvindersingh grewal, Mar 18, 2015.

  1. dalvindersingh grewal

    dalvindersingh grewal India
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    Excerpt: Guru Nanak came in ecstasy. Noorshah tried every magic; nothing happened. Guru Nanak asked: “Have you agreed to the crime?” She kept her head down. All the drums stopped and started dancing on the hymn. Guru Nanak said: “Mardana! Play the rebec,” and sang in Aasa Rag.

    In the Footprints of Guru Nanak

    Redeeming Noorshah-The Magical Woman of Kamroop
    Dr Dalvinder Singh Grewal

    guru-nanak-sakhis.jpg


    Episode in Puratan Janamskhi

    The episode of redeeming Noor Shah and other magical women in Kamroop is recorded by Bhai Vir Singh as ‘Noor Shah Nistara’ in Puratan Janamsakhi.[1]

    “They (Guru Nanak and his companions) came to Kauru (Kamrup) state. One day Mardana (Guru Nanak’s companion) felt hungry. Mardana said: “ Respected Lord! If you permit I shall go to the city.” Guru Nanak said, “Mardana! This is Kavroo (Kamroop). This is ruled by women. If you wish, you can go (at your own risk).” Mardana went and stood before the house of a woman. The woman called him and asked the reason of his standing. He asked for food. The woman called him in. As he entered her house, the woman put a thread around his neck and tied him like a lamb. She went to bring water from outside source. Baba (Guru Nanak) had an insight and found Mardana tied like a sheep. Baba came to the place. Seeing Baba Mardana started bleating. By then woman returned after bringing pitcher of water. Guru Nanak asked,” has our man come here?” She said: “No! No one came here, Check yourself.”

    Baba uttered: “The trader women of barren land, ask fragrance for free. Without good deeds, how can they get their husbands?”

    At this the pitcher got stuck on woman’s head, it could not be brought down. She carried it on her head due to her falsehood. Noorshah (their leader of the area) was informed: An expert magician has come. The pitcher from the head (of the woman) has got stuck; it cannot be brought down. Noorshah ordered: “Whosoever is expert magician in the city must not stay back’. Where ever expert magicians were in the city, they all came with their magical powers. Some came on a tree; some came on lion’s skin; some came on moon; some came on wall; some brought a garden along and some came beating the drum. Everyone tried to mesmerize in her own way by tying threads around. Baba saw Mardana tied. Mardana also bleated. Baba laughed and said: “O Mardana! Bow down saying Lord’s Name (Wahiguru).” The thread broke. Guru Nanak gave rebec to Mardana and asked him to play the rebec. Mardana played the rebec. Guru Nanak sang Wadhans M:1

    The virtuous bride ravishes and enjoys her Husband Lord; why does the unworthy one cry out? If she were to become virtuous, then she too could enjoy her Husband Lord. My Husband Lord is loving and playful; why should the soul-bride enjoy any other? If the soul-bride does good deeds, and makes her mind the thread, she obtains the jewel, which cannot be purchased for any price, strung upon the thread of her consciousness. I ask, but I do not follow the way shown to me; still, I claim to have reached my destination. I do not speak with You, O my Husband Lord; how then can I come to have a place in Your home? O Nanak, without the One, there is no other at all. If the soul-bride remains attached to You then she shall enjoy her Husband Lord.

    There was no answer (from the magic women). Noorshah was accordingly informed that no magic works. Noorshah was the leader of all the magicians. Number of her followers came along with riding on papers. They started their magic tricks. Guru Nanak then sang the hymn in Rag Soohi Kuchajji.

    I am ungraceful and ill-mannered, full of endless faults. How can I go to enjoy my Husband Lord? Each of His soul-brides is better than the rest — who even knows my name? Those brides who enjoy their Husband Lord are very blessed, resting in the shade of the mango tree. I do not have their virtue — who can I blame for this? Which of Your Virtues, O Lord, should I speak of? Which of Your Names should I chant? I cannot even reach one of Your Virtues. I am forever a sacrifice to You. Gold, silver, pearls and rubies are pleasing. My Husband Lord has blessed me with these things, and I have focused my thoughts on them. Palaces of brick and mud are built and decorated with stones; I have been fooled by these decorations, and I do not sit near my Husband Lord. The cranes shriek overhead in the sky, and the herons have come to rest. The bride has gone to her father-in-law’s house; in the world hereafter, what face will she show? She kept sleeping as the day dawned; she forgot all about her journey. She separated herself from her Husband Lord, and now she suffers in pain. Virtue is in You, O Lord; I am totally without virtue. This is Nanak’s only prayer: You give all Your nights to the virtuous soul-brides. I know I am unworthy, but isn’t there a night for me as well? (SGGS, p.762)

    Guru Nanak came in ecstasy. Noorshah tried every magic; nothing happened. Guru Nanak asked: “Have you agreed to the crime?” She kept her head down. All the drums stopped and started dancing on the hymn. Guru Nanak said: “Mardana! Play the rebec,” and sang in Aasa Rag.

    The urges of the heart are like cymbals and ankle-bells; the drum of the world resounds with the beat. Narad dances to the tune of the Dark Age of Kali Yuga; where can the celibates and the men of truth place their feet? Nanak is a sacrifice to the Nam, the Name of the Lord. The world is blind; our Lord and Master is All-seeing. The disciple feeds on the Guru; out of love for bread, he comes to dwell in his home. If one were to live and eat for hundreds of years, that day alone would be auspicious, when he recognizes his Lord and Master. Beholding the sight of the petitioner, compassion is not aroused. No one lives without give and take. The king administers justice only if his palm is greased. No one is moved by the Name of God. O Nanak, they are human beings in form and name only; by their deeds they are dogs — this is the Command of the Lord’s Court. By Guru’s Grace, if one sees himself as a guest in this world, then he gains honor in the Court of the Lord. (SGGS, p.349). Thereafter Guru Baba uttered a Shlok.

    We are good at talking, but our actions are bad. Mentally, we are impure and black, but outwardly, we appear white. We imitate those who stand and serve at the Lord’s Door. They are attuned to the Love of their Husband Lord, and they experience the pleasure of His Love. They remain powerless, even while they have power; they remain humble and meek. O Nanak, our lives become profitable if we associate with them. (SGGS, p.85)

    On hearing the Shalok, Noorshah said: “You could be lured with wealth” and brought numerous types of valuables like diamonds, gems, gold, rupees, cents, cloth etc whatever was valuable was brought before the Guru and prayed: “Please something out of it.” Guru Baba said: “Mardana play the rebec”. He sang hymn in Rag Tilang.

    O foolish and ignorant soul-bride, why are you so proud? Within the home of your own self, why do you not enjoy the Love of your Lord? Your Husband Lord is so very near, O foolish bride; why do you search for Him outside? Apply the Fear of God to adorn your eyes, and make the Love of the Lord your ornament. Then, you shall be known as a devoted and committed soul-bride, when you enshrine love for your Husband Lord. What can the silly young bride do, if she is not pleasing to her Husband Lord? She may plead and implore so many times, but still, such a bride shall not obtain the Mansion of the Lord’s Presence. Without the karma of good deeds, nothing is obtained, although she may run around frantically. She is intoxicated with greed, pride and egotism, and engrossed in Maya. She cannot obtain her Husband Lord in these ways; the young bride is so foolish! Go and ask the happy, pure soul-brides, how did they obtain their Husband Lord? Whatever the Lord does, accept that as good; do away with your own cleverness and self-will. By His Love, true wealth is obtained; link your consciousness to His lotus feet. As your Husband Lord directs, so you must act; surrender your body and mind to Him, and apply this perfume to yourself. So speaks the happy soul-bride, O sister; in this way, the Husband Lord is obtained. Give up your selfhood, and so obtain your Husband Lord; what other clever tricks are of any use? When the Husband Lord looks upon the soul-bride with His Gracious Glance, that day is historic — the bride obtains the nine treasures. She who is loved by her Husband Lord, is the true soul-bride; O Nanak, she is the queen of all. Thus she is imbued with His Love, intoxicated with delight; day and night, she is absorbed in His Love. She is beautiful, glorious and brilliant; she is known as truly wise. (SGGS, p. 722)

    Hearing this hymn they fell at Guru Nanak’s feet and stood putting cloth around their necks and said: “How can we be redeemed? How can this pitcher removed from the head?” Guru Baba said: “Calling God’s name (Wahiguru) you should remove the pitcher from her head. You will also be redeemed. Go on praying on God’s Name.” They all fell on Guru’s feet and became the True God seeker Sikhs.

    Sources for the evidence of the visit

    The evidence to the travels to Kamroop by Guru Nanak is available in secondary sources as under:
    1. Janamsakhis: The life stories recorded by later compilers in 16th to 18th century
    2. Legends recorded by visitors to and from Assam
    3. Research by various scholars
    4. Landmarks and other circumstantial evidence connected with Guru Nanak and his
    Companions

    Janamsakhis as a source


    Janamsakhis are considered the closest records of the life events of Guru Nanak.
    Manuscript versions of Puratan Janmsakhi: The earliest versions in manuscript are of (a) 1701 AD available in Moti Bagh, Rajbhavan Pustaklya, Patiala whose copy is available in (b) Sikh Reference Library, Sri Amritsar (Ms 5462). Other versions are a copy of (c) 1734 AD with Shamsher Singh Ashok, (d) a copy of 1757 AD with Baba Kuldip Singh Bedi of Batala and (e) a copy of 1772 AD (Ms No. 2310) in Khalsa College Amritsar and in Bhasha Vibhag Punjab, Patiala, Ms 164. Printed versions of Puratan Janamsakhi of Survey of India Press, Dehradun (1885 AD), MA McAuliffe (1885) Gulshan Punjab Press, Rawalpindi, Khalsa Samachar Press, Amritsar (1959) Other Janamsakhis include (a) Janam Sakhi Sodhi Meharban (2 Vols), Khalsa College, Amritsar, 1963-69 AD, Janam Sakhi Padia Mokha also called of Bhai Bala Ms with Shamsher Singh Ashok. These Janamsakhis are found in print edited by Dr Kirpal Singh, Dr Surinder Singh Kohli, Shamsher Singh Ashok, Bhai Vir Singh, Dr. Piar Singh etc.

    Kirpal Singh (Dr.) (ed.) Janamsakhis in Janamsakhi Prampara published by Punjabi University, Patiala containing edited versions of Puratan Janamsakhi (Janamsakhi Walaitwali), Janam Sakhi Bhai Bala, Janam Sakhi Meharban (Sach Khand Pothi and Pothi Har Ji), Janamsakhi Bhai Mani Singh (Gian Ratnawali) is the most read. Puratan Janamsakhi edited by Bhai Vir Singh and later by Shamsher Singh Ashok however remain to be the most reliable and have been referred in addition to the other Janamsakhi versions contained in Dr Kirpal Singh Janasakhi Prampara for comparison purposes wherever required.

    As regards visit of Guru Nanak to Kamroop these Janamsakhis are unanimous in Guru Nanak’s visit to Kamroop though they are vague about date and time, places, events and persons visited buy Guru Nanak. They being the oldest source of Guru Nanak’s life and travels help us with some information about events and their possible location and individuals involved. The most discussed episode from these Jansakhis is of magic women of Kamroop.

    There are two different views about the legend of Mardana's conversion to a lamb by magic by these women. Giani Lal Singh [2] attributes this to a place named Dhanpur (near Dacca) now Bangladesh while Dr. Tarlocahn Singh [3] relates this incidence to Guwahati. According to him Mardana was made a lamb by Noor Shah at Guwahti. Mardana, eager to see the town, proceeded alone after taking permission from Guru Nanak. At that time Guwahti was said to under the administration of a queen. Sequence of events is generally the same in all these Janamsakhis with a few differentiating frills here and there.

    In Janamsakhi Bhai Bala (edited by Surinder Singh Kohli) the episode is nearly the same with a slight difference here and there: It starts “Age Karu des jai pae. Tan Mardana akhia ji, ih sahar tan hachha nazar anwda hai. Ithon kuchh khai aavan. …….oh dovain sikh hoi Guru Nanak de una de pichhe sangat hoi…” Later the story is generally on the similar lines though the name Noorshah has not appeared in this Janamsakhi. [4]
    Janam Sakhi B-40 ed by Piar Singh (2nd edn 1989) [5] published by Guru Nanak Dev University Amritsar, pp. 85-86 has also got the story of Magic women on similar lines without naming the place as Kamroop and the name of the leader as Noorshah.


    Magic in Kamprup

    Almost all the Janamsakhis and other sources of the period mention of magic in Kamrup. Magic was rampant in Kamrup then. The magical conduct of these women has been recorded in various chronicles. Mohammad Kazim [7] gave Description of Assam in Asiatic Researches I, p. 181: “All the people in remaining India consider men and women of Kamroop as magicians. They have the view that whosoever steps in to Kamroop, is targeted by their magic.”

    Sujan Rai Bhandari writes in Khulastut Twareekh (pp. 54-55) originally written in 1696 (p. ix) [8] records the culture of Kamrup as under:

    “Beauty of women of this place (Kamrup) is beyond appreciation as it puts the world on fire. They are experts in magic, mantra and trickery and fix men in their houses in place of pillars, roof or planks. Though these men are alive but do not dare to move. If these women wish, with the help of their magical powers make men animals or birds and create tails and ear like animals. They win over the men with attracting mantras. They also predict the increasing or decreasing rates of grains and whether the man is good or bad. They give birth to the children through cesarean operations and give details about various star positions. [8]
    Sujan Rai Bhandari mentions the prevalence of magic in Kamrup as follows," The women of this place are extremely beautiful. They are expert in magic. They make roofs and pillars of the houses with the human bodies. These men can breathe but cannot move due to the spell of magic. These women turn men to sheep, tigers or animals or birds. Tail and ear appear on human bodies like animals. These women can win anyone's heart with magic.4"[6]

    SK Bhuyan [9] mentions in his ‘The Background of Assamese culture' as follows:
    “As Mardana entered the town, the local women converted Mardana into a lamb and tied him up under a roof. After the long wait for return of Mardana, Guru Nanak himself left for the city to search for him. The magic women among whom Noor Shah was the chief, were pleased to find Guru Nanak also in their net. They tried all tricks of magic on the Guru but failed. They realised that the Guru was a great saint and no ordinary person. Meanwhile Guru Nanak went to Mardana and broke the thread from his neck. The magic spell broke and Mardana turned into original shape of a man. Noor Shah and the other women soon recognised their folly and fell at Guru's feet and requested for forgiveness which he gave without reservation. [9]

    Kamrup emerged into present day Assam when Ahom captured it and on the name of Ahoms it was called Assam. [10]

    Period of the Travel

    Guru Nanak (1469-1539), the founder of Sikhism visited Kamrup in the beginning of 16th Century. Shamsher Singh Ashok give the year of Guru Nanak’s visit to Kamrup as 1508 [11] but if the version of Dr Surinder Singh Kohli is adopted, Guru Nanak came to Kamroop and Assam in his third itinerary. It thus turned out to be the period of 1515-1517 AD. The Koch king Bishwa Singha (1515-1540) was the king of the then Kamroop kingdom and its extent included Dhubri, Goalpara, Kokrajhar, Barpeta, Nalabari and Kamrup district of modern Assam, portions of Northern Bengal and Hymen Singh of Bangla Desh [12][13]. According to D. Nath, 1989, [14] Bishwa Singh ruled over from 1509-1540. Bishwa Singha also subjugated Bhuyans. Since this is generally the period of Guru Nanak’s visit to Kamroop, Koch King Bishwa Singh can be considered as the ruler of Kamroop.

    Location of Guru Nanak’s visit to Kamroop

    There are two different views about place of the legend of Mardana's conversion to a lamb. While some writers attribute this to a place named Dhanpur (near Dacca) now Bangladesh, Dr. Tarlocahn Singh relates this incidence to Guwahati. According to him Mardana was made a lamb by Noor Shah at Guwahti. Mardana, eager to see the town, proceeded alone after taking permission from Guru Nanak. At that time Guwahti was said to be ruled by a queen. An indication to this is available in "The Background of Assamese culture' by S.K., Bhuyan as follows.

    "A state is stated to have existed in a certain part of the country inhabited only by women, governed by a woman ruler with help of women ministers and soldiers and any male stranger unknowingly stepping into it was sapped to death."

    As Mardana entered the town, the local women converted Mardana into a lamb and tied him up under a roof. After the long wait for return of Mardana, Guru Nanak himself left for the city to search for him. The magic women among whom Noor Shah was the chief, were pleased to find Guru Nanak also in their net.[7]6
    They tried all tricks of magic on the Guru but failed. They realised that the Guru was a great saint and no ordinary person. Meanwhile Guru Nanak went to Mardana and broke the thread from his neck. The magic spell broke and Mardana turned into original shape of a man.

    Noor Shah and the other women, soon recognised their folly and fell at Guru's feet and requested for forgiveness which he gave without reservation. He established a place for religious meetings and prayer (Dharamsal) at Guwahati and proceeded towards Hajo, another Hindu religious centre. He visited Matsayadhavaj, where a temple exists in honour of Lord Vishnu. Mardana Kund and Bala Kund commemorate Guru's visit to this place.7

    Bhai Vir Singh mentions in Guru Nanak Chamtkar[6] p.232: The real name of Noor Shah was Padma. Her father’s name was Narinder Nath. A Muslim Sufi Noor Shah was an expert in magic. Narinder Nath and daughter were so impressed by him that they became his followers. When Noor Shah died, his seat was taken over by Padma. As a result people started calling Padma as Noor Shah.

    Redemption of magical women (Noorshah): Gyani Lal Singh Sangrur [15] considers this event to have happened at Dhanpur. Dr Tarlochan Singh [16] also follows the same line and states that this event occurred at Dhanpur. He also quoted Bhai Vir Singh and Gyani Gyan Singh to confirm his view point. (p.169) Gyani Gian Singh[17] mentions the location of Barchha Sahib at Dhanpur and a grave of Noor Shah to a village Kalar near Dacca. He also mentions Guwahati, Gwalpada and Damdama Sahib as the places connected with the visit of Ninth Guru (p.120) in Kamroop. Dr Surinder Singh Kohli also mentions the place of this event as Dhanpur (p.42)[18] but according to SK Bhuyan “Guru Nanak, the father of the valiant community, had the bitter anguish of finding the brave Punjabi servant Mardana converted in to lamb before his very eyes by a woman of this country (Kamroop), who could as well reconvert the young man to his natural anatomical shape according to her personal and private needs.[19] All the Janamsakhis and other sources agree that this event occurred in Kamroop. Dhanpur is not in Kamroop; hence cannot be accepted at the face value since only Gyani Gian Singh has mentioned this originally which appears to have been copied by others. Neither Gyani Lal Singh had visited the area. Even Bhai Vir Singh and Dr Surinder Singh Kohli have not visited the area to verify.
    guru-nanak-sakhis-1.jpg

    Almost all the Janamsakhis mention of magic in Kamrup. Bhai Bala Janamsakhi edited by Surinder Singh Kohli though starts differently “Age Karu des jai pae. Tan Mardana akhia ji, ih sahar tan hachha nazar anwda hai. Ithon kuchh khai aavan. …….oh dovain sikh hoi Guru Nanak de una de pichhe sangat hoi…” [20] Later the story is generally on the similar lines though the name Noorshah has not appeared in this Janamsakhi.

    In Guru Nanak Chamtkar, [21] p.232, Bhai Vir Singh mentions: The real name of Noor Shah was Padma. Her father’s name was Narinder Nath. A Muslim Sufi Noor Shah was an expert in magic. Narinder Nath and daughter were so impressed by him that they became his followers. When Noor Shah died, his seat was taken over by Padma. As a result people started calling Padma as Noor Shah.

    Janam Sakhi B-40 ed by Piar Singh (2nd edn 1989) [22] published by Guru Nanak Dev University Amritsar, pp. 85-86 has also got the story of Magic women on similar lines without naming the place as Kamroop and the name of the leader as Noorshah.

    Both Giani Lal Singh [23] and Dr Surinder Singh Kohli accept the existence of Gurdwara Damdama Sahib constructed at the place where the Guru rested at Dhubri [24] This researcher has visited the Gurdwara at Dhubri twice first in 1971 and later in 1988 and found gurdwara Damdama Sahib commemorating Guru Nanak’s visit to the area near Gurdwara Guru Tegh Bahadur. The Gurdwara Damdama Sahib indicates Guru Nanak’s visit to Dhubri.

    Janamsakhis mention Noorshah as the leader of the community. Garo tribe living in Dhubri and the adjoining Garo Hill Districts of Meghalaya has the matrilineal system. This Garo area starts from the other bank of Brahmaputra and can be reached by boat. Meghalaya has one of the world's largest surviving matrilineal system. Since this is the only place where the matrilineal system existed at the time in India, and this being a part of Kamroop state, the event of Noorshah and other women most likely relates to Garo area.

    The Garo Kingdom of Meghalaya originated from Tibet, from where they went to the present Cooch Behar and then to Dhubri. Then they moved on to Jogighopa, present Kamakhya Hills, along the Brahmaputra valley and finally spread in Goalpara or the Habraghat Pargana. The Garos prospered in the Habraghat Pargana neighborhood.

    guru-nanak-sakhis-2.jpg
    guru-nanak-sakhis-3.jpg

    Garo Hills within Meghalaya

    The Garos and also the Khasis and Jaintias of Meghalaya are purely matrilineal society and as such the descent of an individual either men or women is always reckoned and traced from the mother alone and through her genealogical tree traces its origin back to the common ancestress. The matrilineal system gave the woman, the wife and the mother, a social rather than a personal standing.
    In this matrilineal society, the blood relations on the mother's side are known as the "Cognates" and "Agnates" refer to the paternal side. The cognates trace their origin from a common ancestress and their lineal descent is from mother to daughter, just the opposite from other societies. Marriage is also strictly exogamous, i.e., outside the cognates. Marriage with agnates is permissible subject to certain restrictions. Marriage with near cousins is forbidden. The inheritance in the society is strictly determined by the principle of Unigeniture.
    In the Garo lineage system, the youngest daughter inherits the family property by default, unless another daughter is so named by the parents. She then becomes designated as nokna meaning 'for the house or home'. If there are no daughters, a chosen daughter-in-law (bohari) or an adopted child (deragata) comes to stay in the house and inherit the property. The Khasi and Jaintia (also called Syntengs) have the custom of ia rap iing, where the family adopts a girl from another family, perform religious ceremonies with the community, and she then becomes ka trai iing (head of the house).[25]

    Thus Noorshah being the leader of community indicates that she belonged to Garo tribe. Noorshah is a Muslim name. The Dhubri district is one among the many Muslim Majority districts of Assam. The largest religious group in the district are the Muslims with 1,216,455 (74.29%) followers, while Hindus/Sikhs and Christians constitute 405,065 and 12,477 inhabitants respectively. [26]

    Mayong or Mayang, also known as the Land of Black magic, is a village in Marigaon district in assam. It lies on the bank of the river Brahmputra, approximately 40 km (25 mi) from the city of Guwahat. Once considered the cradle of black magic in India, Mayong is a tourist attraction because of its history.[27]

    Dr Kohli mentions that Guru Nanak also visited Khasi Hills (Travels of Guru Nanak. [28] as the tribesmen there too follow the traditional matrilineal norm, wherein the Khun Khaddu (or the youngest daughter) inherits all the property and responsibilities for the family. Having visited Dhubri, this researcher visited Guwahati and Shillong to trace the origin of the event but could not relate this event to any other place than Dhubri and adjoining areas. Thus the location of this event should be attributed to Dhubri or adjoining Garo Hill Districts. Dhubri is on national highway Guwahati-Sliguri-Patna. To reach by air nearest airports are Guwahati and Bagdogra. From Guwahati and Siliguri close to Bagdogra, intercity trains are available direct to Dhubri. 44 trains are available on new Jalpaiguri-Guwahati route each day. New Delhi-Dibrugarh Rajdhani also gets you closer at New Cooch Behar wherefrom train or local/hired transport can take one to Dhubri. Gurdwara Sahib has good arrangements for stay.

    Reference
    [1] Puratan Janamsakhi edited by Bhai Vir Singh: 2006, pp.74-79
    [2] Gyani Lal Singh Gyani Lal Singh Sangrur; (Guru Khalsa Twareekh, 1955 (3rd edn), p. 68
    [3] Tarlochan Singh (Dr) Jeevan Charit Guru Nanak Devji, p. 172.
    [4] Surinder Singh Kohli (Dr.) (ed.) 1990, Janamsakhi Bhai Bala, Punjab University Publication Bureau, Chandigarh, Second edn , pp. 152-153.
    [5] Piar Singh Dr Piar Singh, 1989, B-40 Janamsakhi Sri Guru Nanak Dev Ji, Guru Nanak Dev University, Sri Amritsar, p.12
    [6] Bhai Vir Singh, Guru Nanak Chamtkar, second edn, p.232
    [7] Mohammad Kazim wrote in Description of Assam, wrote in Asiatic Researches I, p. 181 as quoted by
    Tarlochan Singh (Dr) Jeevan Charit Guru Nanak Devji, p. 172.
    [8] Sujan Rai Bhandari, 1972, Khulastut Twareekh, (Punjabi version), Punjabi University Patiala (pp. 54-55)
    originally written in 1696 (ix).
    [9] Bhuyan SK Dr., 1968, Tunkhungia Buranji or A History of Assam (1681–1826), p. 199
    [10] Sarkar, J N., 1990, "Koch Bihar, Kamrup and the Mughals, 1576–1613", in Barpujari, H K, The Comprehensive History of Assam: Medieval Period, Political II, Guwahati: Publication Board, Assam, pp. 92–103; Sircar, D C., 1990, "Pragjyotisha-Kamarupa", in Barpujari, H K, The Comprehensive History of Assam I, Guwahati: Publication Board, Assam, pp. 59–171
    [11] Shamsher Singh Ashok (ed.) 1969, Puratan Janamsakhi, Shiromani Gurdwara Committee, Amritsar, p. 200
    quotes 1508 AD as the year of visit of guru Nanak to Kachhar then a part of Kamrup
    [12] Sircar J.N. 19 90 and Sircar D.C1990 as cited in 10
    [13] Nath D, 1989, History of Koch Kingdom, 1515-1615, Delhi, pp. 27-28).
    [14] Gyani Lal Singh Sangrur; (Guru Khalsa Twareekh, 1955 (3rd edn), p. 68
    [15] Dr Tarlochan Singh p.69
    [16] ibid p.169
    [17] Giani Gian Singh, 2002 (reprint), Gurdham Sangreh, Dharam Parchar Committee Sri Amritsar, p.40, p.120.
    [18] ] Dr Surinder Singh Kohli, Travels of Guru Nanak p.42
    [19] Bhuyan SK Dr., 1968, Tunkhungia Buranji or A History of Assam (1681–1826), p. 199
    [20] Surinder Singh Kohli (Dr.) (ed.) 1990, Janamsakhi Bhai Bala, Punjab University Publication Bureau,
    Chandigarh, Second edn , pp. 152-153.
    [21] Bhai Vir Singh, Guru Nanak Chamtkar, second edn, p.232
    [22] Piar Singh, 1989, B-40 Janamsakhi Sri Guru Nanak Dev Ji, Guru Nanak Dev University, Sri Amritsar, p.12
    [23] Gyani Lal Singh Sangrur; (Guru Khalsa Twareekh, 1955 (3rd edn), p. 68
    [24] Surinder Singh Kohli, Travels of Guru Nanak, p. 47.
    [25] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Garo_people
    [26] “District Census 2011. Census2011.co.in. 2011. Retrieved 2011-09-30.
    [27] Rahman, Daulat (2009-05-14), “new light on land of black magic-huge swords unearthed at Mayong in Assam point to human sacrifice’, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mayong_(Assam).Retrieved 2009-08-23.
    [28] Surinder Singh Kohli, Travels of Guru Nanak, p. 49.
     
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  3. Harry Haller

    Harry Haller United Kingdom
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    what if you don't believe in magic?
     
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  4. dalvindersingh grewal

    dalvindersingh grewal India
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    Magical feats have been found recorded in history. Please find the details of magic feats shown to Emperor Jehangir during his visit to Bengal in Sujan Rai Bhandari's book. A full chapter has been devoted to the magical events performed in front of the Emperor where he was a witness to the events.
    With regards
    Dr Dalvinder Singh Grewal
    Punjab
     
  5. Harry Haller

    Harry Haller United Kingdom
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    I do not believe that magic exists, I believe people can create an illusion which looks like magic, and I find it hard to believe any of our Gurus had anything other than deep perception and wisdom
     
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  6. dalvindersingh grewal

    dalvindersingh grewal India
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    You are very right. Magic is creating illusion only. Only thing is that it is created in such a way that one starts believing into it. There is nothing real about it.
     
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