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In The Footprints Of Guru Nanak-Fourth Itinerary

Discussion in 'Sikh Sikhi Sikhism' started by dalvindersingh grewal, Dec 18, 2016.

  1. dalvindersingh grewal

    dalvindersingh grewal Malaysia
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    In the Footprints of Guru Nanak-Fourth Itinerary
    Dr Dalvinder Singh Grewal
    Dalvinder45@rediffmail.com 919815366726
    Guru Nanak proceeded for his fourth Journey towards Middle East. His visit included Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Palestine, Egypt, Uganda, Sudan, Abyssinia, Israel, Syria, Turkey, Italy, Rome, Azerbaijan, Iran, Turkestan, Afghanistan, and North West Frontier Province of Pakistan (NWFP). Reliable evidence is available about his visit to Muslim countries like Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Iran and Afghanistan while evidence to other countries including the centers of Christianity, Africa, Turkey and Russia needs further investigation. Purpose of the visit was to deliver to one and all the message of eternal truth as revealed to him in a manner that touched the heart and kindled the dormant spark of devotion in souls ready to receive it. He showed the true way out of the dark of superstition and formalism and the path of integration. He propagated love amongst all since God prefers those who love His beings. He came to lift the humble and the downtrodden and to endow the weak and faltering with power of faith. He came to remove the divisions of caste, creed, colour, religion and boundaries and to propagate One God of all and to practice Divine Name and path of truth while forbidding from the meaningless ritual practices. He delivered the message through dialogue, discussions and practical examples accompanied with melodious music.
    Sources
    Various sources for the ‘Travels of Guru Nanak’ in Udasi to the West include Varan Bhai Gurdas Vaar 1, [1] Puratan Janamsakhi edited by Bhai Veer Singh [2] Puratan Janamsakhi edited by Shamsher Singh Ashok [3] Janamsakhi Bhai Bala edited by Dr Surinder Singh Kohli [4] Janamsakhi Meharban in Janam Sakhi Prampra edited by Dr Kirpal Singh [5] Janamsakhi Bhai Mani Singh in Janam Sakhi Prampra [5] Janamsakhi Sri Guru Nanak Devji, (B-40) edited by Piar Singh [6], Twareekh Guru Khalsa, Part 1, Guru 1 by Giani Gian Singh, [7] Sri Guru Panth Parkash by Giani Gian Singh, [8] Giani Gian Singh, Gurdham Sangreh, [9] Bhai Kahn Singh Nabha, Gurdham Deedar, [10] ‘Mahankosh’ by Kahn Singh Nabha [11] Guru Khalsa Twareekh by Giani Lal Singh Sangrur [12], Vir Singh (Bhai), 1955, Shri Guru Nanak Chamatkar, [13] Sahib Singh (Prof), Jeevan Birtant Guru Nanak Devji, [14] Tarlochan Singh (Dr.), 1970, Jeevan Charitar: Guru Nanak Dev, [15] Teja Singh Sodhi, 1972, Vachitar Jeewan Shri Guru Nanak Devji, [16] Teja Singh, Ganda Singh, 1985, Sikh Itihas, [17] Kohli Surinder Singh, 1970, Travels of Guru Nanak, [18] Major Gurmukh Singh, Historical Sikh Shrines, [19] Grewal J.S., 1969, Guru Nanak in History, Chandigarh [20] Kalra, Balwant Singh, 'Guru Nanak's Visit to Uch Sharif, Sikh Review 18 (188) [21] Kalra, Mohan Singh : 'Guru Nanak's Mission to the Muslims in Punjab Past and Present, 3 (1-2) [22] Sewa Ram Singh, 'Guru Nanak at Baghdad', Punjab Past and Present, 3 (1-2) 1969[23] Kartar Singh, 1984, Life Story of Guru Nanak [24] and Pandit Arjan Muni Kaviraj 1923, Gurduara Darpan [25] Prof. Himmat Singh [26] mentions three new manuscripts about Guru Nanak’s visit to Saudi Arabia. These are: ‘Syahto Baba Nanak Fakir’ (1509 AD) written by Taj-u-deen Naqshbandi, [27] Twareekh-i-Arab’ (1505-06 AD) written by Khwaja Zain ul Abideen [8]and Gunitusalehin (1506-07) written by Abdul Rahman. [29] Details of some Gurdwaras in Pakistan are available in Historical Sikh Shrines in Pakistan by Iqbal Qaiser. [30]
    Lot of other material still needs to be assessed, but due to the limit of time this could not be done.
    Period of journey
    Dates of Guru Nanak’s visit to the West are not found in any of the Janamsakhis and also in Janamsakhi Prampara edited by Dr Kirpal Singh. Period of Journey given by various researchers is as 1519 to 1521 AD by Giani Gian Singh, 1518 to 1521 AD by Giani Lal Sangrur and Bhai Kahn Singh Nabha, 1517 to 1521 AD by Dr. Surinder Singh Kohli and Dr Sukhdial Singh and 1521 to 1523 AD by Dr Tarlochan Singh. Drs Teja Singh and Ganda Singh give only the date or return as 1521 AD. Dates of visits to other places during Udasi to the West are given only by Giani Gian Singh and Dr Surinder Singh Kohli

    Giani Gian Singh gives the dates of Guru Nanak’s travels to West Asia in Twareekh Khalsa Guru 1 Part 1: 1. Talwandi Chetra 1576 Bikrami (March 1519 AD), (pp.232-233). Katas Teerath, Baisakhi Fair, 1576 Bikrami, (April, 1519 AD) (p. 233), 3. Baghdad, Fagan 1577 Bikrami (February, 1520 AD) (p. 283) 4. Hasan Abdal Baisakh 1578 Bikrami (1521 AD), (p.286), 5. Emnabad 4 Katak 1578 Bikrami (October 1521 AD) and 6. Return to Kartarpur 7 Maghar 1578 Bikrami (November 1921 AD) (p.488-93)
    In Travels of Guru Nanak, Dr Surinder Singh Kohli mentions Guru Nanaks’s visit to Aden in 1517 A.D. (p.138), Baghdad in 1518 AD (p.143), Inscription in Baghdad on a stone mentions his visit to Baghdad in 917 Hijri which corresponds to 1511-12 A.D. (p.146), and Turkey (Room Desh) in 1519 AD (p. 152). Since these two sets of dates also do not tally these cannot be taken at their face value. All the sources however agree that on his return journey Guru Nanak visited Saidpur (Emnabad) at the time when Babar attacked the city. Bhai Kahn Singh Nabha in Mahankosh (Emnabad, p.132) gives the year of Babar’s attack on Saidpur as Bikrami 1578 i.e., 1521 AD which has been generally agreed by most of the researchers.
    [​IMG] upload_2016-12-18_7-1-0.png
    Areas Visited
    Starting from Punjab, Guru Nanak visited Sind and Baluchistan on foot and possibly on boat via Sind River. He travelled by sea to Jeddah and Aden and went to Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Palestine, Egypt, Uganda, Sudan, Abyssinia, Syria, Turkey, Italy, Rome, Azerbaijan, Iran, Turkestan, Afghanistan, North West Frontier Province of Pakistan (NWFP) primarily on foot before he finally returned to Punjab and settled at Kartarpur on the bank of river Ravi and breathed his last declaring Guru Angad his successor.

    In Saudi Arabia he visited Jeddah and Aden before walking on to Mecca and Medina. From Medina his probable route is via Egypt then known as Kaikei. He is also stated to have visited the land of the black Habash, Abyssinia and a few islands in the Indian Ocean including Sudan, Ethiopia and Uganda. [31] He is also said to have visited Palestine and Israel and then to Turkey visiting Istanbul. Some evidence is also produced about Guru Nanak’s visit to Italy and Rome. He is also stated to have visited Baku and Astarkhan wherefrom he returned to Iran, visiting Tehran, Isfahan and Mashhad. He then visited Turkistan’s Uzbekistan. From Uzbekistan he returned to Afghanistan where he visited Mazhar Sharif, Kabul, Qandahar, Ghazni, Chitral and Jalalabad and entered India through Khyber Pass. Evidence beyond Mecca however needs final testing and detailed analysis for confirmation.

    Route

    According to Dr Surinder Singh Kohli (1969) route of Guru Nanak in 4th Udasi: Punjab includes Kartarpur, Talwandi, Pakpattan, Multan, Uch, Sukkur, Hyderabad, Udyare Lal, Hinglaj, Karachi, Sonmiani, Aden, Jeddah, Mecca, Amara, Medina, Ajara, Mashhad, Ali, Karbala, Kaikei, Sudan, Ethiopia, Uganda, Syria, Turkey, Greece, Rome, Europe, Baghdad, Iran, Baku, Russia, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Afghanistan and Punjab. From Sultanpur he went to Pakpattan (Ajodhan) to renew his old contacts with Sheikh Ibrahim Farid II. From there he proceeded to Multan to meet Baha-ud-Din, a descendant and successor of famous Sheikh Baha-ud-Din Zakria, founder of Suhrawardi Sufi Silsila in India. From Multan, Guru Nanak proceeded to Uch (Deogarh). Here Guru Nanak had a meeting with Sheikh Haji Abdulla Bukhari (d.1526 CE), a successor of Kalal-ud-Din Bukhari.

    From Uch he went to Sukkur and then to Lakhpat (Basta Bander) probably by boat (in river Sind?). There is an old Gurdwara in Lakhpat in the memory of Guru Nanak's visit. From here he proceeded to the sea shore where at Kuriani, he visited old temples of Koteshwar and Narayna Swami. From there he proceeded further to Sonmiani (or simply Miani). Before boarding a boat to Mecca he visited a Hindu temple in Hinglaj. There is a Nanak Dharamsala (inn) in this town.

    According to Fauja Singh and Kirpal Singh, Guru Nanak boarded a boat which sailed from Sonmiani through Gulf of Eden and Red Sea to Jeddah (Al Aswad), a port near Mecca. They say that after visiting Mecca and Medina, Guru Nanak travelled directly to Baghdad in Iraq then to Tehran and Kabul and finally back to (Talwandi) Kartarpur. They argued that Guru Nanak followed direct and shortest route to Baghdad than that of long route through Palestine, Syria, and Turkey as mentioned in some Janam Sakhis.

    According to Fauja Singh and Kirpal Singh, Guru Nanak boarded a boat which sailed from Sonmiani through Gulf of Eden and Red Sea to Jeddah (Al Aswad), a port near Mecca. They say that after visiting Mecca and Medina, Guru Nanak travelled directly to Baghdad in Iraq then to Tehran and Kabul and finally back to (Talwandi) Kartarpur. They argued that Guru Nanak followed direct and shortest route to Baghdad than that of long route through Palestine, Syria, and Turkey as mentioned in some Janam Sakhis.

    However, Giani Gian Singh and Dr Trilochan Singh have reported of Guru Nanak’s visit to Cairo (Egypt) where during the war Sikh soldiers were shown a place on the out skirts of the town where there was a stone memorial (Captain Bhag Singh, Founding Managing Editor of the Sikh Review, was told about the existence of this monument when he was at Cairo during World War II. Unfortunately he could not go there and see. Dr Trilochan Singh has also reported from the work of Sydney Nettleton Fisher that in Egypt or in Istanbul (Turkey) Guru Nanak had met the Emperor of Rum Salem-I (1511-1520 AD). Dr Trilochan Singh further says that Guru Nanak might have visited Jerusalem.

    According to Giani Lal Singh Guru Nanak visited Turkey and Rome as well. This point has been further elaborated by Harpal Singh Kasoor and Sohan Lal Chauhan. Dr Chahal mentions the details of Guru Nanak’s visit to Istanbul and Baku.

    Because of lack of any solid evidence, Fauja Singh and Kirpal Singh further strengthened their views that the shortest route from Baghdad to Mecca was first marked and prepared for Caliph Haran Rashid's wife, Subside Begum, for Hajj (the pilgrimage) to Mecca. And then during 14th century Ibn Batuta adopted the same route for his journey from Baghdad to Mecca. They have ignored the fact that the passage to Palestine, Syria, and Turkey and then to Baghdad might be easier than that of direct route proposed by them.

    They have also ignored another fact that while in Mecca, Guru Nanak was very close to the center of ancient civilization in Cairo (Egypt) and the center of the Jews, Jerusalem (Israel), and a Sufi center established by Hazrat Moulana Jallaluddin Rumi in Konya (Turkey), whose philosophy was very prevalent not only in the Middle East but also in India and in the West.

    Since Guru Nanak has not left any place connected with Sufism, and religious centers, therefore, there is every possibility that Guru Nanak might have visited the ancient civilization in Cairo (Egypt); Wailing Wall of Herod's Temple in Jerusalem, Sufi center started by Sufi Rumi in Konya (Turkey) and might have met the Emperor of Rum, Salim, in Istanbul (Turkey). If the inscription on the newly discovered monument confirms that it is a memorial to Guru Nanak then it will confirm that Guru Nanak did not proceed from Mecca directly to Baghdad but went to Cairo, Jerusalem, Syria, and Konya and Istanbul in Turkey and then to Baghdad. [32]

    In his paper ‘Centuries of Travels and Tale’, A.D.Moddie, writes: One of Bharat’s greatest travelers in the spiritual tradition was Guru Nanak, the founder of Sikhism. He spent twenty three years on the road of his unique mission, visiting Assam in the east, Sri Lanka in the south, Mt. Kailas beyond the Himalaya and Mecca in Arabia. To that extent he was a far wider pilgrim travel of holy place than even Shankracharya. Nanak passed through historical places in India’s history; Kurukshetra, from the days of Mahabharata wars, and Panipat, the thrice decisive battleground of Indian History. Then on Bharat’s oldest Grand Trunk Road of the spirit, Hardwar, Joshimath, Badrinath, Kedarnath, Ayodhya, Varanasi spreading his new inclusive mission of a simple faith embracing all God’s creatures. None other than Nanak, among the great religious leaders of India from Shankracharya to Vivekananda, ever made the Hajj to the holy place of Islam, to Mecca, Medina and Baghdad over vast, wild, desert lands via Baluchistan. No subsidized Hajj flights then! For him Ram and Rahim were one, the true God had been forgotten. A Hindu monk, Ananda Acharya of the 20th century wrote of Nanak’s meeting with a Muslim Pir Bahlol in Baghdad:

    What peace from Himalaya’ lonely caves and forests thou didst carry; to the vine groves and rose gardens of Baghdad! What light from Badrinath’s snowy peak than didst bear to illuminate the heart of Bahlol, the saintly Persian disciple.’ .. Between Buddha’s disciples and the Jesuits, religion has been a great spur to travel and exploration into new lands to find the soul of men. Guru Nanak was one outstanding example. [34]

    Contemporaries of Guru Nanak

    Guru Angad (Bhai Lehna); Born at Naage di Serai, succeeded Guru Nanak June 14, 1539, joined light eternal at Khadur Sahib on March 29, 1552

    Guru Amar Das: Born At Basarke, May 5, 1479 and joined light eternal at Goindwal September 1, 1574

    Contemporary Rulers of India

    Bahlol Khan Lodhi: Crowned 1450 A.D died 1488 A.D.

    Sikandar Lodhi, Son of Bahlol Lodhi, Crowned 1488 A.D, died 1517 A.D.

    Ibrahim Lodhi, Son of Sikandar Lodhi, Crowned 1517 A.D, died Rajjab 7, 932 Hijri, April 19, 1526

    Babur, Zahir Ud-Din Muhammad Badshah: born 1483 A.D, became Emperor of India 1526 A.D. April, died 1530 A.D.

    Humayun, Nasir-Ud-Din Muhammad Badshah: born Kabul, Zi-Qada 24, 913 Hijri March 26, 1508 A.D. Crowned 1530 A.D. died 1556 A.D.

    Governors of Lahore:

    Daulat Khan 1500/04-1524 A.D. Mir Abdul Aziz (Dipalpur), Muhammad Ali Tajik (Kalanaur) 1524 - 25 A.D. Dilawar Khan Son of Daulat Khan (Sultanpur) Mir Yunis Ali 1527-30 A.D. Mirza Kamran 1530-1540 A.D.

    Governors of Multan:

    Hussain Khan Langah 1469-1498 AD, Sultan Mahmud (Grandson Of Hussain Khan) 1498-1525 AD

    Sultan Hussain Langah (Younger Son Of Mahmud Langah) 1525-1527 AD

    Langah Khan (On Behalf of Mirza Askari Son of Emperor Babur) 1528-1530 AD

    Contemporary Muslim Rulers in Middle East, Egypt and Russia

    1. Abbasid Dynasty (Egypt)

    (a) al-Mustasmik (Ist reign) A.H. 903-914 /A.D. 1497-1508,

    (b) al-MutaWakkil III (Ist reign) A.H. 914-922/ A.D 1508-1517,

    (c) al- Mustasmik (2nd reign) A.H. 922-923./A.D. 1516-1517,

    (d) al-MutaWakkil III (2nd reign) A.H. 923/ A.D 1517

    2. Mamluk Dynasty (Circassia (Burji))

    3. Janbalat A.H. 905-906/ AD 1500-1501

    (a) al -‘Adil Tuman Bay A.H. 906/A.D. 1501

    (b) Qanush al-Ghawri A.H.906-922/A.D. 1501-1517

    (c) Al-Ashraf Tuman Bay A.H. 922/A.D. 1517

    4. Tahirid Dynasty (Yemen) A.D. 850-923/ A.D. 1446-1517

    5. Dhu-I-Qadrid Dynasty A.H. 738-914/A.D. 1337-1508

    6. Aq Quyunly Dynasty A.H. 780-914/A.D. 1378-1508

    7. Ottoman Dynasty

    (a) Bayezid II A.H. 886-918 /A.D. 1481-1512

    (b) Selim I Yavuz A.H. 918-926/ A.D. 1512-1520

    (c) Suleiman I Kanuni (18.70.8) A.H. 926-974/A.D. 1520-1566

    8. Great Mongol A.H. 603-1043/ A.D. 1206-1634

    9. Khans of Kazan A. H.841-959/1438-1552

    10. Khans of Kasimof A.H. 854-1089/A.D. 1450-1678

    10. Khans of Khiva A.H. 921-1290/A.D. 1515-1872

    11. Khans of Crimea A.H. 823-1197/A.D. 1420-1783

    Iran after the Mangols

    12. Safavid Dynasty A.H. 907–1145 / A.D. 1501–1732

    13. Timurid dynasty A.H. 771-912/ A.D. 1370-1507: Mahmud ibn Sa’id A.H. 899-906/A.D. 1494-1500

    14. Shaybanid dynasty A.H. 905-1007/A.D. 1500-1598

    Peers of Multan

    Sheikh Shahar Allah Son of Sheikh Muhammad Yusuf Qureshi, died 23 Zil-Hajj 920 A.H. February 8, 1515 A.D.

    Makhdum Baha-Ud-Din Sani (Second) S/O Sheikh Shahar Allah became Sajjada 23 Zil-Hajj, 920 A.H., and February 8, 1515 A.D.

    Sajjada-Nashins of Pak Pattan: (Khanqah of Baba Farid)

    8th Sajjada Nashin Sheikh Mohammad (Hazrat Yunis): Died 856-877 Hijri, (1452-1472/73 A.D.)

    9th Sheikh Ahmad, 877-895 Hijri , (1472/73-1489/90 A.D.)

    10th Sheikh Ata-Ulla: 895-917 Hijri, (1489/90-1511/12 A.D.)

    11th Sheikh Muhammad, 917- Hijri- (1511-12/ A.D.)

    12th Sheikh Ibrahim (Farid Sani Ii) Also Known As Shah Braham or Sheikh Braham.

    Some Important Travelers, Reformists, Saints and Scholars

    Travelers: Columbus (discovered America in 1942 AD) and Vasco-Da-Gama (discovered sea route to India in 1498),

    Eminent reformists, sages and saints : Guru Nanak (1469-1538AD) Kabir (1440-1518 AD) Namdev (1217-1351 AD), Sankardev (1490-1637 AD) Mira Bai (1499-1570 AD), Eknath (1528-1595/1609 AD), Dadoo (1544-1603 AD), Tuka Ram (1608-1648 AD), Isasmus (1466-1536 AD), Zawang (1484-1531 AD) Calvin (1564-1605 AD) and Saint Francis Xavier (1506-52 AD), Kabir: 1456-1575 Bk. (1399-1518 A.D.) Disciple of Ramanand, According; to Duncan Greenlees, His Dates are 1440-1518 A.D.

    Chaitanya, (1486-1533 A.D.), Rup Brothers, Vaishnava Monks, Sanatan Disciples of Chaitanya, both died 1554 , Jiv Goswami, Nephew of Rup and Sanatan, 1511-1596 AD. Vallabhacharya, Pushti-Marga Vaishnava, 1479-1530 AD. Shankardev (Bengal, Tirhut, Orissa and Assam), 1490-1569 AD

    Ravi (Rayee) Das, Contemporary of Saint Kabir, born Varanasi, disciple of Ramanand

    Dhani Dharm Das, 1490-1600 Bk. (1433-1543 A.D.) disciple of Kabir

    Sain Das, Born Baddo-Ki Gosain, near Gujranwala-West Pakistan, 1525 Bk. (1468 A.D.)

    Ratan Chandra Upadhyaya (Received The Title of Upadhyaya), 1515-1521 Bikrami, 1458-1464 A.D. [ 33 ]

    Jin Chandra Suri, died 1530 Bk., 1473 A.D., Jin Samundra Suri, died 1555 Bk., 1498 A.D.,

    Jin Hans Suri, died 1572 Bk.. 1515 A.D., Jin Manikya Suri, died 1612 Bk., 1555 A.D.

    Tulsi Das: 1511-1637 A.D., Sur Dass: 1479-1585 A.D., Vidyapati: 1400-1507 A.D.

    Christians

    Martin Luther: (1483-1546 AD), Nicholas, Copernicus (1473-1543 AD)

    Catholic Pope (Leo-X) Leo-x, (1475-1521 AD) (Pope from 1513-1521)

    The Roman Emperor Charles-V (1500-1558 AD), Jean Calvin, born at Noyon 1509, died May 27, 15

    Some names from Puratan Janam Sakhi: Bala Sandhu, Ajita Randhawa, Burha Randhawa, and Firna Khehra; Saido and Gheho Jatt; Siho the calico printer (chhimba); Hassu the blacksmith (lohar); Mardana; the bard (mirasi);

    Some names in Vars of Bhai Gurdas: Taru Popat, Mula Kirh, Pirtha, Soiri, Kheda Soiri, Pirthi Mal, Saihgal, Rama Didi, Bhagta, Ohri, Shihan, & Gajan Uppal (9 Khatris), Gujar (lohar) blacksmith, Dhinga barber (nai).

    Mode of Travel;
    Guru Nanak travelled by boat in Sind River and by ship to Jeddah. Thereafter he travelled either on foot, horse cart or boat as the situation allowed.
    References

    [1] Gurdas Bhai: Varan, Amritsar, S.G.P.C.

    [2] Bhai Vir Singh (ed.), August 1926 , Puratan Janamsakhi, New Delhi, Sahit Sadan, Jan 2006, 15th edition

    [3] Ashok, Shamsher Singh (Ed.), 1969, 'Puratan Janamsakhi: Sri Guru Nanak Devji, Amritsar SGPC.

    [4] Kohli, Surinder Singh, Dr, (ed.) Janamsakhi Bhai Bala, Punjab University, Chandigarh, 1990, (2nd edn),

    [5] Kirpal Singh (Dr.), 1969, Janamsakhi Prampra, Patiala, Punjabi University.

    [6] Piar Singh (ed), 1974, Janamsakhi Sri Guru Nanak Devji, (B-40) Amritsar, Guru Nanak Dev University.

    [7] Giani Gian Singh, Twareekh Guru Khalsa, first published in Samwat 1936 (1880 AD) by Mutzadi press Delhi; 2nd edition published by Guru Gobind Singh Press, Sialkot, on 189-1891 (Part 2 in 1892).

    [8] Giani Gian Singh, 1970, Sri Guru Panth Parkash, Patiala, Bhasha Vibhag, Punjab.

    [9] Giani Gian Singh, Gurdham Sangreh, SGPC Amritsar

    [10] Kahn Singh Nabha, March 2005, Gurdham Deedar, Dharam Parchar Committee, SGPC, Sri Amritsar,

    [11] Kahn Singh, Nabha 1981,® Gurshabad Ratnakar, Mahan Kosh. Patiala.

    [12] Giani Lal Singh Sangrur, 1995, Guru khalsa Twareekh, Ludhiana, Lahore Book Shop.

    [13] Vir Singh (Bhai), 1955, Shri Guru Nanak Chamatkar, Amritsar, Khalsa Samachar

    [14] Sahib Singh (Prof), Jeevan Birtant Guru Nanak Devji, Amritsar, Singh Bros, 1984.

    [15] Tarlochan Singh (Dr.), 1970, Jeevan Charitar: Guru Nanak Dev, Delhi Sikh Gurdwara Board.

    [16] Teja Singh Sodhi, 1972, Vachitar Jeewan Guru Nanak Devji, Amritsar, Bhai Chatter Singh Jeewan Singh.

    [17] Teja Singh and Ganda Singh, 1985, Sikh Itihas, Patiala, Punjabi University.

    [18] Kohli Surinder Singh, 1970, Travels of Guru Nanak, Chandigarh, Punjab University, vii, 200 p.

    [19] Gurmukh Singh (Major), Sept 1995, Historical Sikh Shrines, Sri Amritsar, Singh Bros. 1st Edition

    [20] Grewal J.S., 1969, Guru Nanak in History, Chandigarh, Punjabi University, R 1979, 348. p.

    [21] Kalra, Balwant Singh, 'Guru Nanak's Visit to Uch Sharif, Sikh Review 18 (188) March 1969: 11-12.

    [22] Kalra, Mohan Singh, ‘Guru Nanak's Mission to the Muslims', Punjab Past and Present, 3 (1-2) 1969

    [23] Sewa Ram Singh, 'Guru Nanak at Baghdad', Punjab Past and present, 3 (1-2) 1969, 340 : 343.

    [24] Kartar Singh, 1984, Life Story of Guru Nanak. New Delhi: Hemkunt Press. p. 18. ISBN978-8170101628

    [25] Pandit Arjan Muni Kaviraj 1923, Gurduara Darpan, Partap Hari Press, Lahore, 20 June, reproduced in The Punjab Past and Present, Vol III, 1969 at pp. 91-96, edited by Dr Ganda Singh.

    [26] Himmat Singh (Prof) (2011), Guru Nanak Viaktitav: Ati Parmaneek Punravlokan, (Tatkaleen Arbi-Farsi srotan anusaar),paper published in seminar proceedings: Guru Kaal de Sarotan vich Guru Nanak Sahib: Jiwan te Shakhshiat, 22-23 November, 2011, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, pp. 135-140

    [27] Taj-u-deen Naqshbandi (1509 AD, unpublished) ‘Syahto Baba Nanak Fakir’, original in Mecca State Library, translated into Punjabi by Sayyad Prithipal Singh in 1927-30, presently with Prof Himmat Singh (Reference 4)

    [28] Khwaja Zain ul Abideen (1505-06 AD, unpublished) Twareekh-i-Arab, translated by Mohammed Iqbal, manuscript presently with Prof Himmat Singh (Reference 4)

    [29] Abdul Rahman (1506-07), Gunitusalehin, manuscript presently with Prof Himmat Singh (Reference 4)

    [30] Iqbal Qaiser, Gurdwaras in Pakistan are available in Historical Sikh Shrines in Pakistan.
    [31]Guru Nanak Jayanti

    [32] Gursikhi Jivan: Guru Nanak in Turkey Part 2

    [33] Ganda Singh, edited, 1969, Guru Nanak Commemorative Volume, The Punjab Past and Present Vol III, pp. 353-356.

    [34] Based on the first Sarat Chandra Das memorial lecture, delivered at the Himalayan Club, (Kolkata Section) in 2004.
     
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  3. Tejwant Singh

    Tejwant Singh United States
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    Dalvindersingh Grewal ji,

    Guru Fateh.

    Thanks for giving us the details about Guru Nanak's udasis, some of the destinations mentioned may be true or not but the most important part of Sikhi is that our Gurus did not bother to write about themselves nor about the history of Sikhi. The reason being is that the core message of Sikhi to whomever and to where ever was more important than their personal history or lives. If they wanted to give importance to themselves, then they had all the resources to do so but purposefully they chose not to, not One Nanak, but All Nanaks. One should delve into why of these to understand Sikhi rather than imagining things which may or may not have happened.

    This may be the reason, they did not even allow any portrait painters to paint their portraits, nor any historians to write their history, in this case about the Udasis, martydom of 5th and 9th Guru among many other things. Both these talents and many more were readily available which the Mughals used to propagate themselves along with their violent history.

    I would like to know if any Gurdwara was built by our first four Gurus or by any other Guru after the placement and parkash of Adi Granth at Darbar Sahib by our 5th Guru Arjan Dev?

    If yes, then was the parkash of Adi Granth used in all the Gurdwaras?

    Where did Guru Gobind Singh do parkash of the SGGS after he added his dad, Guru Teg Bahadur's Gurbani?

    Having said that, I am grateful to your input here which enriches us all.

    Thanks & regards

    Tejwant Singh
     
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    #2 Tejwant Singh, Dec 19, 2016
    Last edited: Dec 19, 2016
  4. dalvindersingh grewal

    dalvindersingh grewal Malaysia
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    Thanks Tejwant Singh ji for appreciating the effort. Gurdwaras are a much later terminology after the Gurus. These were called Dharamsals in their earlier version. Sri Guru Granth Sahib as seen in the present context came into existence after Sri Guru Gobind Singh anointed it with Gurgadi at Nanded Sahib just before his Jyoti Jyot. Regular parkash of SGGS started thereafter only. The early version was Adi Granth which Sri Guru Arjan Dev Ji installed at Sri Harimandir Sahib. Though may call Sri Harmandir sahib as the first Gurdwara Sahib of Sikhs in its present context but it was not so termed then. Celebration of Gurpurbs and Vaisakhi started with Guru Amardass ji. The currency of terminology of Gurdwaras is of the period of Misls. Gurdwaras were constructed by the Sikhs to commemorate the events related to the Gurus. Sri Harimandir Sahib was constructed after each destruction/desecration by the invaders. Delhi Gurdwaras were constructed by Sardar Baghel Singh. Maharaja Ranjit Singh and prominent Sikhs of his times created many Gurdwaras and the maxim grand designs pertain to that period. The Gurdwaras were given landed property by various Emperors,and Kings. Emperor Akbar was the first to donate lands for Sikh placesof worship.There is history of Gurdwaras which has been well described by various authors and available on it. If interested I request you to read these sources as mine is not the original or detailed account.
     
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  5. Tejwant Singh

    Tejwant Singh United States
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    Dalivindersingh Grewal ji,

    Guru Fateh.

    Firstly, please accept my apologies for misspelling your name which has been corrected.

    I have read several books about the history of Gurdwaras which I have found quite questionable and that is understandable because there was no tradition of Gurdwaras during our Gurus' times.

    I agree with you that they were called Dharamsals with one exception from the Hindus who also had Dharamsals. Our Dharamsals were defined by the Nishaan Sahib which used one Khanda and nothing more, not the kind of khanda that is used now a days which is the concoction of the Brits. This is the reason, I insist on changing the diamond crusted khanda used by many around their necks and also on the Nishaan Sahibs to our only symbol, ੴ.

    The other interesting part of Nishaan Sahib is that it was the tallest flag pole that could be seen from distance by the weary travelers of all hues,creeds, faiths and/or no faith. I call Nishaan Sahib the reverse Lighthouse. Rather than warning people to stay away from the jagged edges of the ocean which may create destruction, the Lighthouse called Nishaan Sahib was the invitation to the travelers to come, rest and share a meal or two and lastly have time to smoothen their own jagged edges of travels and life..

    Sorry to pick your valuable brain for my selfish learning process.

    Do you mean there was no Prakash of Adi Granth at Anandpur Sahib during the Vaisakhi day of 1699 when Khalsa was created by Guru Gobind Singh ji?

    One wonders why!
     
    #4 Tejwant Singh, Dec 19, 2016
    Last edited: Dec 19, 2016
  6. dalvindersingh grewal

    dalvindersingh grewal Malaysia
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    Bani existed in one form or the other from the first Guru onwards '. The shabad noted down before or after the recitation were recorded in the notebook carried by Guru Nanak; 'kitab kutchh'. More such note books were prepared by the later gurus which were obtained by Guru Arjan Dev from Guru Amardass's son Mohan while compiling ' Adi Granth'. Adi Granth continued to be venerated in dharamsals thereafter even at Anandpur Sahib but not displayed in public as are displayed in public divans these days. On the Vaisakhi days no evidence exists to show that Adi Granth was displayed in the Divan.
     
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