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Chands of Jaap Saaheb

Discussion in 'Gurmat Vichaar' started by Arvind, Mar 28, 2006.

  1. Arvind

    Arvind
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    Found elsewhere on internet. Author Amardeep Singh has detailed the chands of the powerful Jaap Sahib
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    Gurbani

    Chands of Jaap Saaheb
    Amardeep Singh Sat Jan 19

    This paper is written with an objective to initiate a discussion to gain better understanding on recitation methods of Jaap Saaheb.

    All Gurbani in Guru Granth Saaheb is written in Poetic Metres and the same applies to Jaap Saaheb.

    In order to understand Metre we need to first understand the meaning of Syllables.

    A Syllable is a Word or Part of a Word uttered by a single effort of the voice.

    Metre of Poetry is the uttering of certain groups of syllables of a Poetic line in regulated successions (long & short, stressed & unstressed). This uttering of syllables in regulated successions results in the generation of rhythm. Poetry and Metre are inseparable. All along a recitation, they exist together. On account of different rhythms produced by different Metres, they acquire different names.

    During Bhakti movement, devotional poetry in India was mostly composed in Padas, Dohra, Chaupai, Svaeeyay, Kabit, Pauri, Chand, etc. Gurbani also uses these forms of Metres.

    Jaap Saaheb is written in Chands and they follow the rule of Beat and Word. There are 10 types of Chands used in Jaap Saaheb. With exception of one, which has 6 lines (Padas or Charans), the rest 9 of them have 4 lines (Padas or Charans). Charans/Pads are the no. of lines that combine to form a single Chand. These lines (Charans) are like the legs of a Dining Table on which it stands. Each line (LEG – Pad/Charan) follows a specific rhythm rule, which combine together to form a Chand.

    In Indian classical prosody the time required to pronounce syllables, according to their phonetic make-up, is designed into two forms: Short (Laghu) and Long (Guru) known by notations I and S, respectively.

    Laghu I denotes a Matra (time-division), which is the smallest division of time taken to utter a syllable. This is the smallest rhythm unit of Poetry.

    Guru S is made up of 2 Laghus. At a place where Guru (notation S) falls, the uttered syllable will be stretched to twice the time taken in uttering a similar Laghu syllable.

    In mathematical form, the timing equation will be

    S = 2 * I

    Usually, the Guru (S) falls on syllables that have a Kanna, Bihari, Dulonkar, Lan, Hora, Kanora, Tippi, Bindi, Dulaaiyaan. However, this does not imply that all syllables with these characters will necessarily be a Guru (S). This is a general rule but not a must.

    Using the principles of Laghu and Guru we can attempt to understand the recitation method of Jaap Saaheb.






    1. Chachri Chand : This Chand appears 32 times in Jaap Saaheb. Each Chand has 4 lines (Charans). Each Charan is to be recited with 4 syllables in the manner I S I, S

    For example, Chand 30 of Jaap Saaheb will be recited as follows :

    I S I S
    Alekh Hai A le kh Hai
    Abekh Hai A be kh Hai
    Anam Hai A na m Hai
    Akam Hai A ka m Hai


    2. Rasaaval Chand : This Chand appears 8 times in Jaap Saaheb. Each Chand has 4 lines (Charans). Each Charan is to be recited with 6 syllables in the manner I S S, I S S

    For example, Chand 148 of Jaap Saaheb will be recited as follows:

    I S S , I S S

    Na Potrey, Na Putrey Na Po trey Na Pu trey
    Na Strey, Na Mitrey Na S trey Na Mi trey
    Na Tatey, Na Matey Na Ta tey Na Ma tey
    Na Jatey, Na Patey Na Ja tey Na Pa tey


    3. Bhujang Paryat Chand : This Chand appears 62 times in Jaap Saaheb. Each Chand has 4 lines (Charans). Each Charan is to be recited with 8 syllables in the manner I S S, I S S, I S S, I S S

    However, in Jaap Saaheb it is used in a variance form of Ardh-Bhujang (Half Bhujang), which is similar to Rasaval Chand. Each Charan is to be recited with 6 syllables in the manner I S S, I S S

    For example, Chand 28 of Jaap Saaheb will be recited as follows :

    I S S , I S S

    Namo Jog Jogey Na mo Jo g Jo gey
    Namo Bhog Bhogey Na mo Bho g Bho gey
    Namo Sarb Dyaley Na mo Sar b Dya ley
    Namo Sarb Paaley Na mo Sar b Paa ley

    Bujang means the smooth and "back and forth" pattern of the snake, this is also related to gatka. Puratan Siksh in battle recited Jaap Sahib while engaged in battle.

    4. Charpat Chand : This Chand appears 27 times in Jaap Saaheb. Each Chand has 4 lines (Charans). It has 2 forms of recitation. In the first form each Charan is to be recited with 5 syllables in the manner S I I, S S

    For example, Chand 74 of Jaap Saaheb will be recited as follows:

    S I I , S S
    Amrit Karmey Am ri t Kar mey
    Amrit Dharmey Am ri t Dhar mey
    Akhal Jogey Akh a l Jo gey
    Achal Bhogey Ach a l Jo gey

    In the second form each Charan is also to be recited with 5 syllables in the manner I I S, S S

    For example the Chand 78 of Jaap Saaheb will be recited as follows :

    I I S , S S
    Sarban Devan Sa r ban De van
    Sarban Bhevan Sa r ban Bhe van
    Sarban Kaaley Sa r ban kaa ley
    Sarban Paaley Sa r ban Paa ley


    5. Madhubar Chand :This Chand appears 17 times in Jaap Saaheb. Each Chand has 4 lines (Charans). Each Charan is to be recited with 7 syllables in the manner I I I I, I S I

    For example, Chand 87 of Jaap Saaheb will be recited as follows:

    I I I I, I S I
    Gun Gan Udhar Gu n Ga n U dha r
    Mahima Apar Ma hi m a A pa r
    Aasan Abhang A a sa n A bha ng
    Upma Anang U p m a A na ng

    Madhubar Chand could mean "madh" (half) "bhaar" (weight) in that it is a chhand that you read not very slow and not very fast

    Must be read with emphasis on the middle sound
    eg
    Gun Gan Udaar --> emphasis on Gan
    MehMa Apaar --> emphasis on Ma

    6. Bhagvati Chand : This Chand appears 41 times in Jaap Saaheb. Each Chand has 4 lines (Charans). It has 2 forms of recitation. In the first form each Charan is to be recited with 8 syllables in the manner I S I, I I S, I S

    For example, Chand 150 of Jaap Saaheb will be recited as follows:

    I S I , I I S , I , S
    Ki Jaahar Jahoor Hai Ki Jaa ha r Ja hoo r Hai
    Ki Haazar Hazoor Hai Ki Haa za r Ha zoo r Hai
    Hameshul Salam Hai Ha me shu l Sa la m Hai
    Samastul Klam Hai Sa ma stu l K la m Hai

    In the second form each Charan is to be recited with 6 syllables in the manner I S S, I S S

    For example the Chand 103 of Jaap Saaheb will be recited as follows:

    I S S , I S S
    Ki Aachij Desey Ki Aa chi j De sey
    Ki Aabhij Bhesey Ki Aa bhi j Bhe sey
    Ki Aaganj Karmey Ki Aa gan j Kar mey
    Ki Aabhanj Bharmey Ki Aa bhan j Bhar mey



    7. Harbolmana Chand : This Chand appears 14 times in Jaap Saaheb. Each Chand has 4 lines (Charans). Each Charan is to be recited with 6 syllables in the manner I I S, I I S

    For example, Chand 171 of Jaap Saaheb will be recited as follows:

    I I S, I I S
    Karunalay Hai Ka ru na la y Hai
    Ar Ghaley Hai A r Gha le y Hai
    Khal Khandan Hai Kh al Khan da n Hai
    Meh Mandan Hai Me h Man da n Hai


    8. Ek Achari Chand : This Chand appears 8 times in Jaap Saaheb. Each Chand has 4 lines (Charans). Each Charan is to be recited with 2 syllables in the manner I S

    For example, Chand 189 of Jaap Saaheb will be recited as follows:

    I S
    Ajey A jey
    Aley A ley
    Abhey A bhey
    Abey A bey


    Ek Achari Chand means "one letter" because there is a main letter in each word – it is said that all of the other "chhands" were in existence before, but Ek Achari Chand was invented by Guru Gobind Singh Jee.


    9. Rual Chand : This Chand appears 8 times in Jaap Saaheb. Each Chand has 4 lines (Charans). Each Charan is to be recited with 17 syllables in the manner S I S, I I S, I S I, I S I, S I I, S, I

    For example, Chand 79 of Jaap Saaheb will be recited as follows:

    S I S, I I S, I S I, I S I, S I I, S, I

    Aad Roop Anad Moort Ajon Purkh Apar Aa d Roo p A na d Moo rt A jo n Pu rkh A pa r
    Sarb Mann Triman Dev Abhev Aad Udar Sar b Maa n Tri ma n De v A bhe v Aa d U da r
    Sarb Palk Sarb Ghalk Sarb Ko Pun Kal Sar b Pa l k Sar b Gha l k Sar b Ko Pu n Ka l
    Jatr Tatr Bihajhi Avdhoot Roop Rsal Ja tr Ta tr Bi ha j hi A v dhoo t Roo p R sa l


    10. Chapey Chand : This Chand appears 1 time in Jaap Saaheb. Each Chand has 6 lines (Charans). This Chand is a combination of two different Chands, namely Rola Chand and Ulal Chand. First 4 Charans belong to Rola Chand and the last 2 Charans belong to Ulal Chand. Each Charan of Rola Chand has 24 Laghu Matras (I), whereas each Charan of Ulal Chand has 28 Matras (I). Therefore Chapey Chand has a total of 152 Laghu Matras. These are derived as

    24 * 4 Lines of Rola Chand + 28 * 2 Lines of Ulal Chand = 152 Total Laghu Matras in Chapey Chand.

    Chand 1 of Jaap Saaheb is a Chapey Chand with 6 lines. The first 4 Charans of this Chand are Rola Chand and the last 2 are Ulal Chand.
     
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  3. Singh13

    Singh13
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    [​IMG] [​IMG]
    [SIZE=+2]
    Urgent Action Requested: Save Satnam Singh’s Hair From Forcibly Being Cut
    [​IMG][/SIZE]​
    [​IMG][​IMG](New York, New York) April 1, 2006 - The Sikh Coalition is requesting urgent action to ensure a Sikh prisoner does not have his hair forcibly cut.
    [​IMG]
    I have never cut my hair in my life. For me, as a Sikh, the possibility of having my hair cut is like facing the death penalty"
    WHAT YOU CAN DO
    Please Take 1 Minute to Sign Our Online Petition and Ask Other People to Do So – Every time 100 people sign it, the Governor receives a notification that another 100 people have signed the petition;
    Please E-mail Your Own Personal Message to the Governor and Department of Corrections – Personal messages make a difference! ​
    Please copy satnamsingh@sikhcoalition.org on the e-mail so that we have a record of how many personal messages Florida officials receive.
    Timeline of Events
    • <LI class=bodytext1>Friday, March 24 - The Sikh Coalition receives a 35 page packet of information from Satnam Singh explaining that he will be transferred to a Florida state prison and that he is fearful his hair will be forcibly cut. The Coalition’s Legal Director reviews the packet and determines that Satnam Singh legitimately is in danger of having his hair forcibly cut. <LI class=bodytext1>Monday, March 27 - The Coalition writes to the Secretary of the Department of Corrections and his General Counsel arguing that cutting Satnam Singh’s hair would violate the law. <LI class=bodytext1>Monday, March 27 - The Coalition engages local Florida attorney and Treasurer of the Sikh Society of Florida, Arvind Singh, to rally local community support behind Satnam Singh and attempt to find him pro bono legal assistance. <LI class=bodytext1>Tuesday, March 28 - Arvind Singh contacts local civil rights organizations, such as the ACLU, Aleph Institute, Council on American Islamic Relations, and Florida Sikh activists to support Satnam Singh <LI class=bodytext1>Tuesday, March 28 - Coalition faxes a formal letter to Governor Jeb Bush, requesting he intervene in this matter <LI class=bodytext1>Wednesday, March 29 - The Coalition’s Legal Director speaks to attorneys from the Aleph Institute and the ACLU of Florida to request their assistance. <LI class=bodytext1>Wednesday, March 29 - The Coalition puts together an online petition that will e-mail the Governor and the Department of Corrections every 100 times it is signed. Coalition requests Sikh organizations all over the world to join effort <LI class=bodytext1>Thursday, March 30 - Over 100 Sikh and non-Sikh organizations around the world respond to Coalition’s request to sign petition to Governor Bush of Florida.
    • Thursday, March 30 - The Aleph Institute agrees to formally provide assistance on this matter. </SPAN>
    The prisoner, Satnam Singh, is presently incarcerated at a federal prison in Ohio. He will be transferred to a Florida state prison on or after April 9, 2006. Florida prison regulations require male prisoners to cut their hair to a “medium length” and allow prison officials to forcibly cut their hair if they refuse to comply. Urgent action is therefore needed to stop Florida prison officials from forcibly cutting his hair.
    Background
    Satnam Singh was convicted in federal court and Florida state court of criminal use of personal identification information, a non-violent offense. He was sentenced to five years imprisonment in Florida and a three year federal sentence. As a result of good behavior, his federal sentence has been reduced by 216 days.
    At present, Satnam is housed in a low security federal prison in Youngstown, Ohio. Throughout his stay in federal prison, he has been allowed to maintain his unshorn hair neatly in his turban. He does not have a negative disciplinary record. His Federal Bureau of Prisons Progress Report states that he “approaches staff in a polite and respectful manner” and “has maintained clear conduct since his incarceration.”
    Satnam is scheduled to be released to a Florida state prison on or after April 9, 2006 where he will have to be submitted to having his hair cut forcibly if he refuses to voluntarily submit to having his hair cut and beard shaved completely off.
    Florida’s Prison Regulations and Federal Court Decision Allow Prisons to Forcibly Cut an Inmate’s Hair
    Florida state prison regulations, unlike the regulations of other states, requires prisoners to cut their hair and allows prison officials to forcibly cut their hair if they refuse to do so. Chapter 33-602.101(4) of the Florida Administrative Code states that “[m]ale inmates shall have their hair cut short to medium uniform length at all times….” The section also states that “[a]ll inmates shall be clean shaven, provided, however that an exemption from this requirement shall be granted on the basis of a medial diagnosis….” If an inmate refuses to adhere to these grooming standards, even for faith-based reasons, the officer in charge “shall direct staff to shave the inmate or cut the inmate’s hair” according the Chapter 602.101(5).
    In addition, in Brunskill v. Boyd, a case decided in May 2005, the federal court of appeals for the 11 th Circuit, held that a Florida prison could forcibly cut a Native American’s hair even if he refused to do so for religious reasons. The court held that his hair could be cut despite the protections granted by the federal Religious Land Use and Institutionalized Persons Act (RLUIPA) which provides the highest legal standard or protection for the religious rights of prison inmates.
    Time is of the Essence
    In less than ten days from now Satnam’s beard could be forcibly shaved and his hair cut. We need your help now! Please take action immediately by signing our online petition and writing to the Governor of Florida and the Secretary of the Department of Corrections. Please be sure to copy satnamsingh@sikhcoalition.org on any correspondence.
    ----------------
    We urge all Sikhs to practice their faith fearlessly. If someone tells you to remove your articles of faith, please report the incident online at www.sikhcoalition.org/ListReports.asp.
    Waheguru ji ka Khalsa, Waheguru ji ki Fateh!
     
  4. gobind singh vienna

    gobind singh vienna
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    dear arvind!
    dear amardeep!

    thank you so much for providing us with these great instructions. they are so helpful for people not understanding indian languages to still get the right sound current of this powerful bani.

    sat nam!

    gobind
     
  5. vaapaaraa

    vaapaaraa
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    Great article, I find there is a definite way Jaap Sahib bani is to be recited, to get the bir raas...
     

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