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Sects Sects in Sikhism (in Punjabi from www.sikhsundesh.net)

Discussion in 'History of Sikhism' started by spnadmin, Sep 3, 2010.

  1. spnadmin

    spnadmin United States
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    It is typically very hard to find web-based information on this topic. Apologies. It is in Punjabi only without an English translation, from SikhSundesh

    nwmDwrI, rwDwswmI, inrMkwrI, nwnksr, sMpRdwvW
    crnjIq isMG bl
    Note:- To read this article please download gurbaniwt fonts from www.sikhsundesh.net
    nwmDwrI sMpRdw
    ies sMprdwie dy Awid Aqy gur-g`dI dI gwQw gur iblwsW, jnm swKIAW, gur prqwp sUrj, sRI gurU pMQ prkwS, dsm gRMQ, Awid dIAW imiQhwsk gwQwvW nwl imldI juldI hY[ ies hwso-hIxI gwQw Anuswr dsmyS gurU goibMd isMG jI sMn 1708 joqI joq smwaux dI bjwey bldI icqw qoN pRpMc duAwrw Alop ho ky 47 swl lu`k-Cup ky Aqy 57 swl bwbw Ajwpwl isMG dy rUp ivc ivcry[
    ptvwrI qoN ilKwrI bxy ‘BweI krm isMG jI ptvwrI’ny AwpxI pusqk ‘gur-ieiqhws jwxkwrI’, jo ik nwmDwrIAW dy ‘sRI siqgurU jgjIq isMG’ny nwmDwrI drbwr dy Krcy qy 1996 ivc CpweI sI, ivc iliKAw hY ik, "Awp (dsmyS jI) 1708 ivc ndyV hzUr swihb joqI joq smwaux dw kOqk kr AigAwqvws (Alop) ho gey[ AigAwqvws hox qoN auprMq Awp Ajwpwl isMG jI dy nwm qy 104 rhy[ meI 1812 nUM Awp jI ny sRI gurU bwlk isMG jI nUM gur g`dI id`qI[ g`dI dyx smyN Awp ny bcn kIqw ik mYN CyqI hI BYxI (rweIAW) gRwm ivc j`sw isMG rwmgVIey dy Gr jnm lY, Awpxw nwm rwm isMG rKWgw, Awp jI pwsoN ieh g`dI vwps lvWgw[ ies qrHW dy bcn kr vwps fyry nwBy Aw gey[ 14 jUn 1812 nUM (aumr 146 swl) Awp fyry nwBy joqI joq smw gey[ fyry dy mhMq srUp isMG Qwpy gey[" krm isMG ptvwrI, gur-ieiqhws jwxkwrI,
    QoVI ijnIN vI qrkSIl ivcwr vwlw mnu`K kqeI nhIN mMn skdw ik, ijs smyN is`K pMQ mugl swmrwj dw Bog pwauNdw, Aihmd Swh durwnI dy GlU-GwirAW ivcoN ivcrdw, 12 is`^ imslW AsQwpq krky, is`K rwj dI AsQwpnw kr irhw sI, srbMs dwnI, Kwlsw pMQ dy isrjxhwr, AiqAwcwrI mugl swmrwj dIAW jVHW hlwaux vwly sUrvIr joDy dsmyS gurU goibMd isMG swihb 104 swl, lu`k-Cup ky jW fyrydwr mhMq dy rUp ivc ivcr skdy sn[ auprokq ilKq nUM kyvl imiQhwsvwdI mnu`K hI s`c m`n skdw hY[ ies hwso hIxI mnOq nUM pRcwrnw gurU jI dI sjIvxI nUM klMkq krn Aqy is`K pMQ nwl Dro Aqy vyr ivroD krn smwn hY[
    dsmyS jI dy AMqm sMskwr bwry Ak`t ieiqhwisk q`Q
    1) ‘sRI gurU goibMd isMG jI dy ie`k drbwrI kvI sYnwpqI ny ‘sRI gurU soBw’ gRMQ gurU swihb dy joqI joiq smwaux dy iqMn swlW AMdr sMn 1911 eIsvI (sMn 1768) ivc smwpq kIqw[ aus ny ies gRMQ dy ATwrvyN AiDAwey ivc sp`St iliKAw hy ik k`qk sudI pMcmI sMmq 1765 nUM nMdyV ivc gurU goibMd isMG jI joqI joiq smw gey Aqy isMGW ny imL ky aunHW dw sskwr Agly idn krn dw mqw bxwieAw[’
    BujMg pRXwq CMd
    dIau drs AYsy khw kY aucwry[ ibdw hoie lInw sbI qY inhwry[
    ikqy idvs bIqy smY AMq AwXo[ kro byg pRswid Aysy bqwXo]32]797]
    kCU Bojn Kwie kY nIr pInw[ Brosw sBI ko BlI BWiq dInw[
    geI ArD rwqM GrI (GVI) cwr Aaury[ Bey Sbd rUpI krI bwq Aaury]33]798]
    dohrw
    tyr krI qwhI smy jwgy isMG Apwr[ vwihgurU jI kI Fqy khI AMq kI bwr]34]798]
    suin sMdys ibsmy gey Aiq BieAwn mn hoie[ mn kI mn my rhI pUCI bwq n koie]35]800]
    svXw
    ibsmy sB hoie rhy mn mY kCu kI kCu hoie geI Ab hI[
    imil kY sB isMGnu qwih smY ieh ibcwr kIau qb hI]
    sskwr kro ins (idn) hI ky smY inksy nhIN Bwn kihE sb hI[
    iem kwrn kwrj ko krhI imil joiq so joiq geI qb hI]36]101]
    dohrw
    sMmq sqRw sY Bey pYNsT brK (sMn 1708) pRmwn[
    kwqk sudI BeI pMcmI (7 Agsq) ins kwrn kir jwn]37]802]
    2) ‘imrzw muhMmd hwirsI ny AwpxI pusqk ‘iebRq-nwmw-svwinh’ (sMn 1718) ivc iliKAw hY ik d`Kx ivc idhWq qoN bwAd gurU swihb nUM Agn Bytw kr id`qw igAw[’
    3) sX`d muhMmd kwism ny ‘iebRq-nwmw’ sMn 1722 Aqy ‘iebRq-mkwl’ (sMn 1731 eIsvI) ivc iliKAw hoieAw hY ik gurU swihb dy is`^W ny aunHW nUM cMdn dI icKw ivc AgnI spurd kr id`qw[ gurU swihb dy joqI joiq smwaux bwry ieh shI q`Q hn, bwkI sB mnoklipq khwxIAW hn[’ is`^ PulvwVI, jnvrI 1995
    bwbw Ajwpwl isMG jI
    "mhWpurK bwbw Ajwpwl isMG swihb kOn sn, iks vMS Aqy ngr ivc pRgty, ies dw iksy nUM pqw nhIN[ ieh mhWpRqwpI SsqR ivdXw dy AwcwrXw, nwm dy rsIey, qp dI mUrqI hoey hn[ sMmq 1812 (sMn 1755) ivc rwjpUqwny dy Bwdrw ngr ivc iksy rwjpUq reIs dI shwXqw krnI Aqy jINd, pitAwly pws jMgl ivc invws krnw suixAw igAw hY[ bwbw jI ny sMmq 1830 (sMn 1773) ivc nwBy kol iek iJVI ivc invws kIqw, ijQy auh prlok gmn (sMmq 1869, sMn 1812) qIk rhy[ ieQy rih ky Awp ny is`K Drm Aqy SsqR ivdXw dw pUrn pRcwr kIqw[ ienHW dy prm Bgq bwbw srUp isMG jI jo ik myry (BweI kwnH isMG jI nwBw dy) dy bzurg hoey hn, bwbw jI dy prlok gmn ip`CoN gurdvwry dy mhMq Qwpy gey"[ BweI kwnH isMG jI nwBw, gurmq mwrqMf pMnw 47
    bwbw bwlk isMG jI
    hzro invwsI bwbw bwlk isMG jI, dw jnm sMmq 1856 (sMn 1799) ivc ipMf srvwlw, izlw kYNblpur ivc BweI idAwl isMG dy Gr mwqw Bwg BrI qoN, sRI dsmyS jI qoN 91 swl, bwAd hoieAw Aqy idhWq 6 dsMbr 1862 nUM hoiAw[ kUky ilKwrIAW inDwn isMG Awlm qy ieMdr isMG ckRvrqI Anuswr aunHW dw jnm sMmq 1841 (sMn 1784) ivc hoieAw[ bwbw jI ipMf CoeI izlw kYNblpur ivc dukwn krdy sn[
    bwbw jI ny aus ielwky dy iek sihjDwrI gurmuK is`^ Bgq jvwhr ml qoN aupdyS ilAw qy Bjn bMdgI krky pRisD hoey[ Awp dsW gurUAw nUM ieSt dyv mMndy sn[ gurbwxI dI ivcwr, Sbd kIrqn dy bVy pRymI sn[ lokIN aunHW nUM BweI swihb kih ky bulWdy qy siqkwr krdy sn[ bwbw jI ny kdI nhIN sI ikhw ik auh anHW nUM sRI gurU goibMd isMG jI ny Ajwpwl isMG dy rUp ivc gurqw idqI hY[ auh qW Awpxy Awp nUM dsW siqgurUAW dy is`^ mMndy sn[ gurbwxI dI tyk rKdy sn[ vyKo Sbd gurU Aqy dyhDwrI gurU fm, pMnw 53
    nwm isMG bwlk pY pwlk pYgMbro ky, AMbr ky mwlk AfMbroN ky iqAwgI hYN[ ig: igAwn isMG, pMQ pRkwS
    bwbw rwm isMG jI
    bwbw rwm isMG jI, (ijs nUM nwmDwrI 11vW gurU mMndy hn), dw jnm mwG sMmq 1872 (sMn 1815/16) nUM ipMf BYyxI rweAW, izlw luiDAwxw ivc BweI j`sw isMG qrKwx dy Gr mwqw sdw kOr qoN hoieAw[ Awp dy ipqw gurmuK qy ikrqI sn, ies leI Awp bcpn qoN hI Dwrimk rucI dy sn[ bweI swl dI aumry, sMn 1837 ivc Awp mhwrwjw rMxjIq isMG dy poqry kMvr nOinhwl isMG dI POj ivc BrqI hoey[ sMn 1843 qk is`K POj dI nOkrI kIqI Aqy ies smY hI sMn 1841 ivc bwbw bwlk isMG nUM hzro ivc imly, ijnHW dI sMgq krky vDyry Bjn bMdgI ivc juV gey] bwbw bwlk isMG isAwsI rucI dy nhIN sn ies leI aunHW ny bwbw rwm isMG jI nUM Bjn bMdgI dI hI pRyrnw kIqI[ Awp ny ausy mwrg nUM hI ApnwieAw ies leI Awp dy siqsMgIAW dw nwm nwmDwrI pRclq ho igAw[
    bwbw rwm isMG ny POj ivc BrqI hox smyyN BweI mhwrwj isMG, jo ik bVy ienklwbI sn Aqy ijnHW ny ivdySI rwj ivruD Aqut sMgrwm kIqw, qoN AMimRq CikAw sI[ mhwrwjw rxjIq isMG dy idhWq qoN mgroN AMgryzW, fogirAW, Aqy sMDWvwiAW dIAW swzSW kwrn lwhOr drbwr KwnwjMgI dw AKwVw bx igAw[ bwbw rwm isMG jI, jo ik dyS Bgq vI sn, drbwr dI durgqI vyK ky is`K POj dI nOkrI Cf ky Awpxy ipMf ByYxI (rweIAW), jo ik AMgryzW dy ielwky ivc sI, cly gey[ BweI ieMdr isMG (ckRvrqI?) bwbw jI dI jIvnI ‘mwlvyNdr’ivc ilKdy hn:-
    rPl sutI dirAw ivc bYTy hoey AtMk[ ikhw ieh vI sI ipAw swfy gly klMk[ pMnw 39
    AsIN qy hux hW cldy, siq sRI Akwl[ Awvo iksy clxw rl ky swfy nwl[ pMnw 41
    mhwrwj, buD isMG dy hQ imSwl PVw[ kihMdy lwau AsW nUM lihxw isMG buJw[
    lihxw isMG jI AwiKAw ieayN nw swVo kys[ AWhdy ieh nw rKxI isKI AsW mlyS[
    Coty Coty rih gey bwvrIAW ijauyN kys[ pMnw 47
    lY ky bIV drbwr dI aupr bwlx pwie[ sPw PUVIAW ivc Dr qIlI dqI lwie[pMnw 27 (vyKo Sbd gurU Aqy dyhDwrI gurU fm, pMnw 53, 54
    auprokq ilKq mMnxXog nhIN hY[ bwbw rwm isMG jI (inhMgW vwly) nIly bsqr pihndy sn[ bwbw jI dIAW qsvIrW qoN is`D huMdw hY ik auh dsqwr ivc KMfw sjWdy sn[ Aqy aunHW ny Bw: rwie isMG, ipMf mdIhr, izlw iProzpur nUM aupdyS id`qw sI;
    "gurU gRMQ mih jo kuJ iliKAw, soeI Dwro mn mih isiKAw[ pWc k`kw vw nwm Snwn[
    dwn ikRAw siqgur suKdwn[ dsm gurU kI rIq sMBwro, lok doien ko jo rKvwro["
    BweI ieMdr isMG jI ny bMdUk su`t ky n`Tx, kys Aqy gurU gRMQ swihb dI bIV nUM swVn dy doSW nwl dUSq krky bwbw jI dw Apmwn kIqw Aqy nwmDwrI sMprdw nUM gurU Sbd Aqy is`K pMQ nwloN qoVn dw koJw jqn kIqw sI[ (Sbd gurU Aqy dyhDwrI gurUfm pMnw 55, 56, gurmiq pRkwS pMnw 92)
    AMgryz srkwr nUM is`^W dw bwbw jI duAwly iek`qR hoxw Kqry dI GMtI jwpdI sI[ aunHW ny ‘pwVo qy rwj kro’dI koitl nIqI duAwrw bwbw jI nwl Aijhy bMdy joV id`qy jo aunHW nUM nwmDwrIAW dw gurU pRcwrn Aqy nwmDwrI sMprdw nUM Sbd gurU Aqy is`^ pMQ nwloN judw krn dw pRcwr krn lg pey[
    nwmDwrIAW qoN kUky
    "ies mq dy is`K sPyd vsqR Aqy ic`tI au`n dI mwlw rKdy hn[ vwhgurU mMqR dw aupdyS kMn ivc id`qw jWdw hY[ AMimRq iek pRwq ivc iek`Tw nhIN CkwauNdy, judw judw CkwauNdy hn[ hvn dy v`fy pRymI hn[ AwnMd ivAwh gurU gRMQ swihb jI dI pirkRmw dI QW vyid (vydI) g`fky Aign ivc hom krky lwvW pVHdy hn[ bhuq pRymI hwl ivc (Sbd kIrqn smyN) msq ho cIkW (kUkW) mwr au`Tdy hn Aqy dsqwr auqwrky n`cx lg jWd hny, ijs qoN kUkw sMgXw ho geI hY[ vwsqv ivc pMQ dI sMgXw nwmDwrI hY[ bwbw jI dw idhWq sMn 1885 ivc brmw ivc hoieAw[ nwmDwrIAW dy inscy Anuswr bwbw jI dw idhWq nhIN hoieAw[ bwbw jI dI sMqwn do puqRIAW sn ies leI aunHW dI g`dI Coty BweI buD isMG (hrI isMG) jI ny sWBI [" BweI kwnH isMG jI nwBw, mhwn koS, pMnw 1034
    shI nwmDwrI Awih iqnko aucwrI, kUkw mwrny qy kUky jgq bKwn[ igAwnI igAwn isMG jI
    gurbwxI Anuswr ncx tpx dw pRmwqmw dI isPq swlwh jW AidAwqimkqw nwl koeI sMbMD nhIN[
    Bgiq kryih mUrK Awpu jxwvih] nic nic tpih bhuqu duKu pwvih]
    nicAY tipAY Bgiq n hoie] sbid mrY Bgiq pwey soie]3] rwgu gauVI, mhlw 3, pMnw 158-59
    ncxu kudxu mn kw cwau] nwnk ijnH min Bau iqnHw min Bwau]2] Awsw dI vwr, mhlw 1, pMnw 465
    bucVW dw vFWgw, mlOd qy mlyr kotly ivc gV bV
    14-15 jUn 1871 nUM nwmDrIAW ny AMimRqsr ivc bucVW dw vFWgw kIqw[ 4 kUikAW nUM AMimRqsr rwm bwg dy boVH nwl PwsI id`qI geI[ 14-15 jnvrI 1872 nUM kUikAW vloN mlOd Aqy mlyr kotly ivc gV bV krn kwrn luiDAwxy dy ifptI kimSnr kwvn ny 50 kUky qopW nwl aufw id`qy[ bwbw rwm isMG jI nUM swQIAW smyq 17-18 jnvrI 1872 dI rwq nUM luiDAwxy qoN PV ky brmw jlwvqn kr id`qw igAw[ kUikAW ny inhMgW vwly bsqr iqAwg id`qy, cMfI dI vwr qy SsqR nwm mwLw pVdy hoey ikRpwn lwh sutI, ipqL dy gVvy PV leY Aqy au`n dI mwLw pw leI[ Sbd gurU Aqy dyhDwrI gurU fm, pMnw 56
    bwbw rwm isMG jI dIAW jo icTIAW BweI hrnwm isMG jI (gVdIvwlw) nUM AweIAW auh BweI sMqoK isMG jI ipMf mod igl, izlw gurdwspur pws iek poQI dy rUp ivc sn[ sMn 1927-28 ivc auh poQI aus smyN nwmDwrI g`dI dy vwrs bwbw pRqwp isMG jI kol AweI[ aunHW ny poQI sMq tihl isMG jI inhMg nUM auqwrw krn nUM id`qI[ auqwry qoN pihloN swrIAW icTIAW suxIAW[ ijs QW sRI gurU gRMQ swihb dI gurqw dw izkr AwieAw jW iliKAw sI ik bwbw (rwm isMG jI) gurU nhIN hn, bwbw pRqwp isMG jI ny aunHW au`qy lwl lkIr Pyr id`qI[ inhMg tihl isMG jI ny poQI dy do auqwry kr ley[ iek bwbw pRqwp isMG jI nUM suxw id`qw, dUjw Awpxy kol rK ilAw[ bwbw jI ny auh poQI (rwmsr) BYxI dy KUh lwgy iGau ivc iBauN ky kVwhI ivc pw ky sVvw id`qI [
    "1930 qoN fw: gMfw isMG ienHW icTIAW nUM Cpvwaux leI jqnSIL sn[ 24 Agsq 1931 nUM pRis`D AkwlI nyqw igAwnI Syr isMG jI ny auprokq icTIAW ivcoN keI tUkW Awpxy lyK swihq pMjwb ivc CwpIAW[ tihl isMG jI syvk, gurdvwrw rwmGVH Awhlw, izlw gujrwq ny ienHW nUM Cwpx dw bIVw cuikAw[ nwmDwrIAW ny zor pw ky CwpyKwny qoN ienHW dI CpvweI rukvw d`qI[ AMq igAwnI Syr isMG ny ieh kMm Awpxy h`Q ilAw[ auh ilKdy hn, ‘ik nwmDwrIAW ny myry pr vI zor pwieAw ik mYN ienHW dy Cvwaux ivc sMq (tihl isMG) jI dI mdd nw krW[ mYN aunHW nUM ikhw ik jy ieh hukmnwmy (icTIAW) glq hn qd shI d`s idau[’ AwKr igAwnI jI dw Asr kbUlx vwly imqr prYs ny ienHW ic`TAW nUM 1938 ivc Cwp id`qw[" (s: gurqyj isMG, gurmiq pRkwS, PrvrI 2003, pMnw 95)
    bwbw jI dIAW rMgUn qoN iliKAW icTIAW, ijnHW vcoN 52 ic`iTIAW pRis`D is`K ivdvwn fw: gMfw isMG jI ny AwpxI pusqk ‘kUikAW dI iviQAw’, ijhVI ik pihlI vwr sMn 1944 ivc CpI sI Aqy hux pMjwbI XUnIvrstI pitAwlw ny CwpI hY, ivcoN kuJ tUkW:-
    1) bwxI kMT krnI gurU gRMQ swihb dw Bog pwauxw[ nMbr 1, 7, 20
    2) mYN kI AwKxw hY, swry gurU gRMQ swihb my ieho bwq ilKI hY[ nMbr 2
    3) mYN qW gurU nhIN mYN vI nwm dw mMgqw hW[ nMbr 6 (A)
    4) jy myry ivc ikCu klw hovy qW mYN Awp kYd ikauN ho jWdw[ gurU gRMQ swihb gurU hY, so Sbd gurU hY[ 8
    5) myry mih qW guirAweI dw kMm bwl (vwL) smwn vI nhIN[ nMbr 10
    6) mYnUM qW nw gurU bxn dI loV hY, nw gurU hW, myry nwl qW jhwn ny byArQ dwAvw bMinHAw hY[ nM: 11
    7) mYN qW gurU nhIN, rptIey kI mwPk hW[ pr ieh hukm gurU dw hY, ds pwqSwHIAW dw[ hy gurU jI Awpxw hukm mnweIN jo qYN gurU gRMQ jI my ilKw hY[ nMbr 13
    8) mYnU qW nw gurU bxn dI loV hY nw brmw (bRhmw) bxn dI loV hY, mYnUM qW gurU is`KI dI loV hY[ ieh qW AYvyN BONkdy hY, brl gey ey qW[ nMbr 33
    9) dyhW dw mylw qW Ainq hY[ jo Sbd sy imlygw, auh sdw hI imilAw rhygw[ iek gurU gRMQ swihb hI gurU hY, ‘gurU gRMQ mwnIey pRgt gurW kI idh[ jo pRB ko imlbo chy Koj ienhI myN lyhu[’ hor gurU jI ny ilKw hY, bwxI gurU, gurU hY bwxI, ivc bwxI AMimRq swry[ nMbr 36, 46
    10) hor BweI dsW pwqSwhIAW qy ipCy gurU qW mhwrwj jI gurU gRMQ swihb nUM iesQwpq kr gey hn jo sdw hI siQr hY, hor koeI nhIN[ nMbr 40
    11) qusIN gurU gRMQ jI dw iDAwn Drnw[ gurU gRMQ swihb gurU jI dI dyh pRq`K hY[ nMbr 47 (gurmiq pRkwS PrvrI, pMnw 53-4, Sbd gurU Aqy dyhDwrI gurU fm pMnw 56)
    bwbw Ajwpwl isMG jI Aqy bwbw bwlk isMG jI dy smkwlI ieiqhwskwr BweI rqn isMG BMgU, BweI sMqoK isMG jW igAwnI igAwn isMG Awid iksy ny nwmDwrI gur-g`dI dI gl nhIN ilKI[ dsmyS jI dy joqI-joq smwaux qoN 208 swl mgroN Ajwpwl isMG dy fyry dy pihly vwrs mhMq srUp isMG dy pooqry Aqy mhMq nrwiex isMG dy puuqr BweI kwnH isMG jI nwBw dw iek lyK ‘isK ieiqhws dw Ax-iliKAw pqrw’ pMjwbI Byx(sMn 1916) ivc Aqy iek lyK ‘bwbw Ajwpwl isMG’PulvwVI (sMn 1927) ivc CipAw[ ienHW dovW lyKW dy auGrvyN q`Q ieh sn:-
    1) bwbw Ajwpwl isMG jI, jo nwBy dy iek fyry dy mhMq sn, dy inktvrqI syvkW dw inscw sI ik klgIDr dKx (sMmq 1765, sMn 1708) ivc joqI joq nhIN smwey[
    2) bwbw Ajwpwl isMG jI ny AwpxI kQw kdy iksy nUM nhIN suxweI, pr aunHW dy inktvrqI syvkW dw inscw sI ik gurU swihb gupq rIqI nwl pMjwb ivc bwbw Ajwpwl isMG nwm qoN rhy[
    3) mYN ies mwmly qy AwpxI koeI p`kI rwie kwiem nhIN kIqI[
    4) bwbw Ajwpwl isMG dw idhWq sMmq 1868 (sMn 1811) nUM hoieAw[
    BweI kwnH isMG jI nwBw dy lyKW Aqy iek nwmDwrI ilKwrI dy bwbw Ajwpwl isMG dw nwm bwbw bwlk isMG Aqy bwbw rwm isMG nwl joVn dy jqn kwrn is`^ pMQ ivc crcw hoeI[ isMG sBw lwielpur vloN bwbw Ajwpwl isMG dI AslIAq bwry BweI kwnH isMG qoN pu`C dy juAwb ivc aunHW ny ieh ilKqI ibAwn id`qw,
    "PulvwVI ivc bwbw Ajwpwl isMG sbMDI Cpy lyK ivc kyvl aunHW dy inkt-vrqIAW dy iek i^Awl dw izkr kIqw igAw sI, pr aus swry lyK qoN swP pRgt huMdw hY ik bwbw Ajwpwl isMG sRI gurU mhwrwj gurU goibMd isMG jI nUM Awpxw gurU mMndy sn, ijhw ik myry ies Put not qoN, ik bwbw jI hr iek kMm ivc ‘gurU (goibMd) isMG jI dw izkr iqRiqXw purK vwsqy kIqw krdy sn, zwhr hY[ bwbw jI bwbq jo kuJ mYN gurmq suDwkr gRMQ dI pihlI AYfISn ivc iliKAw sI, ArQwq bwbw jI ny sRI gurU goibMd isMG jI pwsoN AMimRq CikAw sI, iblkul TIk hY[ dUjIAW AYfISnW ivc suBwvk rih igAw hY, AglI AYfISn ivc drj kr ilAw jwvygw["
    "myrw pUrn ivSvws hY ik swihb klgIDr jI ny joqI joqI joq smwaux qoN iphlW gurU gRMQ swihb jI nUM gurg`dI dy ky sdw leI jgq-gurU Qwp idqw[ iksy hor purS nUM gurg`dI dy ky islslw guirAweI nhIN qoirAw, jysw ik Agy mYN Awpxy gRMQW ivc ilKdw irhw hW[" pMQ syvk, shI kwnH isMG, gurmq iPlwsPI, pMnw 134-7
    BweI kwnH isMG jI ny gurmq suDwkr dI dUjI AYfISn (sMn 1912) dy pMnw 217 dy Put not ivc iliKAw sI, "bwbw Ajwpwl isMG swihb, ijnHW ny klgIDr svwmI qoN AMimRq CikAw Aqy aumr dw vfw ihsw Drm ipqw nwl rih ky ibqwieAw, auh hr mhIny cwnxI dsmI nUM purb mnwieAw krdy sy[" (gurmq iPlwsPI, pMnw 135)
    kUky sMn 1872 ivc hI ic`tI au`n dI mwLw, ip`ql dw gVvw Aqy goL p`g vwly ByK dy DwrnI ho gey sn[ BweI kwnH isMG jI dy auprokq Put not, sp`StIkrn Aqy aunHW dI pUrn is`^I srUp vwlI mhwn koS ivc CpI qsvIr, jo ik sMn 1930 dy krIb dI hY, qoN sp`St hY ik auh nwmDwrI gurU fm dy aupwSk nhIN sn[ aunHW dI ilKq pRqI is`K pMQ dy bhuq swry Brm BulyKy dUr ho gey pr sMq inDwn isMG Awlm ny bwbw Ajwpwl isMG jI nUM bwbw bwlk isMG jI nUM Aqy aunHW qoN bwbw rwm isMG jI nUM gur-g`dI dyx vwlI imiQhwsk swKI sMn 1932 ivc pihlI vyr pRkwSq kr id`qI[ dyhDwrI gurU-fm dy aupwSk kUikAW ny BweI kwnH sMG jI nwBw dI ilKq qoN jwxy/Axjwxy pey/pwey BulyiKAW dy AwDwr qy ies imiQhwsk swKI nUM pRcwrnw SurU kr id`qw[ ieh swKI aUt-ptWg hI nhIN, hwso hIxI vI hY ikauNik,
    (1) sMn 1916 qoN pihlW iek vI ihMdU, is`K, muslmwn jW AMgryz ieiqhwskwr ny nhIN sI iliKAw ik dsmyS gurU jI ny gRMQ swihb qoN Cu`t iksy hor nUM gur-g`dI id`qI sI[ is`KI ivroDI gumnwm, SrwrqI Ais`^ jW imiQhwsvwdI is`^ ilKwrIAW dIAW gur iblws, d`sm gRMQ, pMQ pRkwS, sUrj pRkwS, bMswvlI nwmw Awid rcnwvW ivc vI dsmyS jI vloN gur gRMQ swihb qoN ibnW iksy hor nUM gur g`dI dyx bwry nhIN iliKAw hY[
    (2) nwmDwrIAW dI dsmyS gurU goibMd isMG jI dy joqI joq smwaux smyN prpMc dI mnOq Aqy gurbwxI dy jnm-mrn dy sMklp Aqy isDWq ivc DrqI-AwkwS dw AMiqr hY[
    (3) BweI kwnH isMG jI nwBw ilKdy hn, "mhWpurK bwbw Ajwpwl isMG swihb kOx sn, iks vMS Aqy ngr ivc pRgty, ies dw iksy nUM pqw nhIN["
    (4) bwbw Ajwpwl isMG jI vloN fyry dI g`dI bwbw srUp isMG jI nUM Aqy nwmDwrI gurU-fm dI gur-g`dI bwbw bwlk isMG jI nUM dy ky do g`dIAW dw islslw SurU krn dIAW swKIAW mnxXog nhIN hn[
    (5) ieh mnOq ik bwbw bwlk isMG jI ny Awpxy idhWq qoN 21 swl pihlW bwbw rwm isMG jI nUM gur g`dI id`qI, sMprdweI prMprw dy auuult hY[ iksy sMprdweI gurU ny mrn qoN keI swl pihlW kdI vI iksy hor nUM g`dI dw vwrs nhIN bxwieAw[
    (6) bwbw rwm isMG jI dIAW qsvIrw Aqy icTIAW qoN sp`St hY ik auh Awpxy Awp nUM gurU nhIN sn mMndy[
    (7) bwbw Ajwpwl isMG jI dy fyry bwbw bwlk isMG jI jW bwbw rwm isMG jI ny crn nhIN pwey sn[
    sMn 1934 ivc nwmDwrI gurU bwbw pRqwp isMG jI ny ByYxI rweAW ivKy srb is`^ iek`qRqw s`dI, ijs ivc mwstr qwrw isMG jI, igAwnI Syr isMG jI, sR: joigMdr isMG jI, Awid pRis`D is`^ nyqw Swiml hoey Aqy ‘kyvl dsW is^ gurUAW dI hI Ardws kIqI geI[’is`^W dI mUlDwrw ny soicAw ik nwmDwrI sMprdw ny AwpxI v`KrI hoNd iqAwg ky is^ pMQ ivc punr-prvyS kr ilAw hY[ pr kUikAW dI nIq kuC hor hI sI[ kUikAW ny qrn isMG ivhmI koloN ‘nwdyV qoN bwAd dsm gurU-drSn’nwmIN pusqk ilKvweI, ijs ivc dsmyS jI vloN bwbw bwlk isMG jI nUM Aqy auhnW vloN bwbw rwm isMG jI nUM gur g`dI dxy dI imiQhwsk swKI duhrw id`qI geI[
    bwbw bwlk isMG jI dI AMgryzW vloN kurk kIqI hoeI qsvIr pRkwSk kIqI geI[ AMgryzI nUM mlyS BwSw kihx vwLy kUikAW ny nwmDwrI gurU-fm nUM pRcwrn leI sMn 1971 ivc AwrIAw smwjI mhwSw iSv lwl nUM BwVy qy krky aus qoN ‘ieMfIAn pRogrYs’nwm dw prcw id`lI qoN jwrI krvwieAw, ijs ivc kUky ilKwrIAW dIAW imiQhwsk ilKqW dw AMgryzI ivc lVI vwr aul`Qw ‘nwdyV tU (qoN) nwBw’, Cpvwaux dw auprwlw kIqw[ ieh prcw iSv lwl nUM BwVw nw imlx kwrn dsMbr 1971 ivc Cpxw bMd ho igAw[ iSv lwl dy lyKW dw is`^ rIvIaU dy AYfItr kYptn Bwg isMG, swbkw Akwl q^q jQydwr, ig: pRqwp isMG, fw: gMfw isMG, fw: qrlocn isMG, Awid ny KMfn kIqw[
    AslI inrMkwrI lihr Aqy sMpRdw
    inrMkwrI sMsQw iek is`^ suDwrk lihr vjoN 19vIN sdI dy SurU ivc hoNd ivc AweI sI[ ies dw AwrMB iek s`cy su`cy guris`^ bwbw idAwl jI ny kIqw[ mhwrwjw rxjIq isMG dy is`^ rwj smyN is`^I gurmiq Aqy gurmrXwdw dI QW bRwhmxvwdI, AvqwrvwdI, pujwrIvwdI Dwrimkqw hI pRDwn sI[ is`^ gurDwmW ivc vI prwcIn ihMdU krmkWf, AnMd kwrj, imRqI sMskwr, mUrqI pUjw, Awid hI kIqy krvwey jWdy sn[
    "inrMkwrI iek is`^ suDwrk lihr sI jo aunHIvIN sdI dy pihly swlW ivc AwrMb hoeI[ rwj qW BwvyN is`^W dw sI pr is`^ rhu-rIqI ivc ieqny p`ky nhIN sn rhy Aqy purwxy snwqn Drm dI mrXwdw, dyvI dyviqAW dI ArwDnw, Ast BujI dyvI, durgw Aqy BgwauqI dIAW mUrqIAW dI pUjw sRI drbwr swihb AMimRqsr, qrn qwrn ijhy mhwn Drm AsQwnW dIAW pirkrmW ivc Aw geIAW sI[ gurbwxI dw pwT bhuqw sMsikRq dy mMqrW vWg hI ho igAw sI["
    "jMmx mrn, ivAwh SwdI smyN pMfq pRDwn ho gey sn[ Aijhy smyN gurbwxI dw cwnx pRkwS kr ky AigAwn dw hnyrw dUr krn leI bwbw idAwl jI ny gurU nwnk, gurU goibMd isMG jI dI is`i^Aw Anuswr gurmiq dw pRcwr krnw SurU kIqw[ BwvyN gRMQIAW, BweIAW, gurU-AMS swihbzwidAW, bydIAW, soFIAW Aqy bRwhmxw v`loN Awp dw bhuq ivroD kIqw igAw, pr AwpxI Dun ivc p`ky rhy Aqy infr ho ky pRcwr krdy rhy[ AMq Awp dI lgn qy syvw vr AweI Aqy inrol is`^I dI lihr cl peI[" fw: gMfw isMG[
    bwbw idAwl jI
    bwbw jI dy ipqw purKI dwdky, nwnky pirvwr pUrn is`^ gurmrXwdw dy DwrnI sn[ bwbw jI dw jnm ivswK 1840 sMmq (meI, sMn 1783) ivc rwm shwie jI dy Gr mwqw lifkI jI dI ku`KoN ipSOr ivc hoieAw[ idAwl Ajy CotI aumr dy sn jdoN aunHW dI ipqw dw dyhWq ho igAw Aqy mwqw jI vI 17 swlW dy pu`qr nUM sdIvI ivCoVw dy ky akwl clwxw kr gey[
    idAwl jI kuJ icr ipSOr ivc ipqw purKI DMdw, dukwndwrI krdy rhy[ auQy auh gurU nwnk dI inrol igAwn ADwrq is`^I dw pRcwr Aqy AMDivSvwsI krmkWfW, ibpRnI sMskwrW dw KMfn krdy sn[ lokW nUM vihmW BrmW ivc pw ky gumrwh krn vwilAW ny idAwl jI dw ivroD kIqw[
    idAwl jI Awpxy mwmw jI imlKw isMG dI pRyrnw qy sMn 1818 ivc aunHW nwl rwvlipMfI Aw gey[ ieQy vI idAwl jI dukwndwrI dy nwl is`^I dw pRcwr krn l`g pey[ aunHW dy pRcwr dw sdkw bhuq lok gurmiq Aqy gurmrXwdw dy DwrnI ho gey[ ‘DMn inrMkwr’ ‘DMn inrMkwr’ dw ismrn Aqy pRcwr smyN siqsMgIAW nUM aupdyS ‘ipAwirE jpo DMn inrMkwr, jo dyhDwrI sB KuAwr’ kr ky bwbw jI dw siqsMg inrMkwrI vjoN pRis`D ho igAw[
    ipSOr vWgUM ieQy vI bRwhmxvwdI k`tV pMQIAW ny bwbw jI dw f`t ky ivroD kIqw Aqy Awp nUM gurdvwry pRcwr krn qoN bMd kr/krvw id`qw[ idAwl jI ny rwvlipMfI dy nyVy hI QoVI zmIn lY ky sMmq 1891/2 (sMn 1834/35) ivc inrMkwrI siqsMg SurU kr id`qw[ bwbw jI dI clweI inrMkwrI lihr bwry eIsweI mq dI itpxI, "ienHW dw ieSt koeI mUrqI jW dyhDwrI nhIN[ ieh r`b nUM inrwkwr rUp ivc mMndy hn[ ienHW dI lihr dw sB qoN v`fw AkIdw ieh hY ik mukqI dw drvwzw isrP inrMkwr dy nwm ismrn qy iDAwn krn nwl hI imldw hY[ ieh gurU nwnk nUM hI Awpxw Bv-swgr qoN pwr krn vwlw rihbr mMndy hn[ ieh inscw r`Kdy hn ik aunHW ny mukqI dw drvwzw d`isAw hY["
    mhwrwjw rxjIq isMG sMn 1821 ivc bwbw jI dy drSn krn Awey Aqy aunHW dy pRccwr qoN pRBwvq ho ky jgIr gurdvwry dy nwm lw gey[ bwbw idAwl jI dw ivAwh sMmq 1866 sMn 1809 ivc crn dws jI Byry vwly dI spu`qrI mUlw dyeI nwl hoieAw, Aqy aunHW dy Gr iqMn spu`qr drbwrw isMG jI, Bwg ml Aqy rqn cMd hoey[ bwbw jI 11 mwG 1911 (30 jnvrI 1855) nUM surgvws ho gey[
    bwbw drbwrw isMG
    bwbw idAwl jI dy v`fy spu`qr bwbw drbwrw isMG, ijnHW dw jnm 1 ivswK 1871 (11 AprYl 1814 sMn) nUM hoieAw, Awpxy ipqw dy surgvws hox qy inrMkwrI lihr dy muKI vjoN is`^I dw pRcwr krn ivc jut gey[ ienHW ny cyq 1911 (mwrc 1855) ivc ihMdU ivAwh sMskwr dI QW gurmrXwdw Anuswr AnMd kwrj dI rsm SurU kr id`qI, Aqy jdoN nwmDwrI bwbw rwm isMG jI Awp nUM imly aunHW nUM vI AnMd kwrj dI rsm Apnwaux leI pRyirAw[ bwbw rwm isMG ny vI nwmDwrIAW ivc vI iehI rms clweI[
    bwbw r`qw jI, gurid`q isMG jI Aqy hrw isMG jI
    bwbw drbwrw isMG jI ip`CoN aunHW dy Brw rqn cMd jI, jo ik bwbw r`qw jI dy nwm nwl pRis`D sn inrMkwrI lihr dI dy muKI bxy Aqy ipqw purKI s`cI su`cI rIq Anuswr is`KI dw pRcwr kIqw [ aunHW dy auqrwiDkwrIAW bwbw gurid`q isMG jI Aqy bwbw hrw isMG jI vI vfyirAW vWgUM is`^I pRcwr Aqy syvw lgn sihq krdy rhy[
    iek durwcwrI nklI inrMkwrI bUtw isMG, ijs bwry A`gy cl ky jwnkwrI id`qI geI hY, dy bwbw r`qw jI nUM ieh kihx qy, "mYnUM Awqm igAwn Aqy nwm idau" bwbw jI ny au`qr id`qw, "swfy ivc gurbwxI sB qoN au`qm igAwn dyx vwlI mMnI geI hY[ ies ivc hI nwm hY[ dUjIAW keI sMpRdwvW vWg kMnW ivc PUk mwr ky koeI gupq mMqr jW nwm dyx dI rsm nhIN hY[ inrwkwr sRI vwihgurU dy iDAwn ismrn Aqy ivSvws nwl hI mnu`K nUM Awqimk SwqI iml skdI hY["
    1947 dI dys vMf kwrn ieh pirvwr rwvlipMfI qoN pUrbI pMjwb Aw igAw[ bwbw hrw isMG jI ny Awpxy v`fy spu`qr bwbw gurbKS isMG jI nUM inrMkwrI lihr dw muKI bxwieAw[ ies smyN ienHW dw invws 21 sI sYktr ivc hY pRis`D fw: mwn isMG inrMkwrI ienHW dy Coty BweI swihb hn[
    nklI inrMkwrI sMprdw
    bUtw isMG
    nklI inrMkwrI sMprdw rwvlipMfI dy bUtw isMG Aqy ipSOr dy Avqwr isMG dy SrwbI kbwbI T`g joVy dI AslI inrMkwrI is`^ suDwrk lihr dy nwm dI pRis`DI dI durvrqoN krky clweI hoeI hY[ bUtw isMG dw pirvwr is`^ jIvn dw DwrnI Aqy AslI inrMkwrI lihr dw siqsMgI sI[ bUtw isMG dy Brw Bw: bcn isMG Anuswr aunHW dy Gr bwbw r`qw jI AwauNdy huMdy sn[
    bUtw isMG dw jnm sMn 1873 ivc izlHw kYNbl pur dy ipMf AQvwl ivc hoieAw[ aus ny sMn 1902 qoN 1911 qk POj dI nOkrI kIqI Aqy sMn 1921-1923 ivc Srwb Aqy sMn 1924-25 ivc APIm dw Tykw lY ky DMdw kIqw[ auh inrMkwrI siqsMg ivc kQw kIqn vI krdw sI[ sMn 1929 ivc dIvwn ivc Srwb pI ky kIrqn krn kwrn aus nUM bwbw gurid`q isMG jI ny inrMkwrI dIvwn ivcoN bwhr k`F id`qw[ bUtw isMG rwvlipMfI qoN ipSOr clw igAw[ auQy aus dw myl Avqwr isMG, jo ik Srwb pIx dw pRymI sI, nwl ho igAw[ bUtw isMG, ijs nUM nklI inrMkwrIAW dy rswly ‘sMq inrMkwrI’ Agsq 1933 dy AMk, pMnw 20 au`qy BweI lwB isMG pRDwn inrMkwrI mMfl, id`lI, ny ‘siqgur bUtw isMG jI’ iliKAw hY, bwry aus dy ipMf AQvwl dy vsnIk guAWFI dI itpxI[
    "BweI bUtw isG swfy ipMf dw sI Aqy myrw guAWFI sI[ SrwbI kbwbI hox krky aus nUM Awpxy ipMf jW ielwkw sUAW, ipSOr jW rwvlipMfI dy iksy ipMf koeI is`^ mUMh nhIN sI lwauNdw[ lokIN iksy QW vI aus dw kIrqn jW lYkcr nhIN suxdy sn[ ies leI keI vyr auh AwpxI Aorq nUM mwrdw kutdw qy kihMdw, ‘myrw hukm mMn kpVy lwh ky nMgI ho ky bwzwr ivc jwh, auQoN sOdw ilAw qy lokW nUM khu ik myrw pqI gurU pRgt hoieAw hY’[ bUtw isMG AwpxI mW nUM rotI nhIN sI idMdw auh ivcwrI glI muh`ly qy swfy GrW ivcoN rotI mMg ky KWdI sI[ iek idn aus ny myry swhmxy ibrD mweI nUM bhuq kuitAw[ mweI ny duKI ho ky ikhw, ‘mYnUM mwrn vwilAw bUitAw qUM kohVI ho ky mryNgw’[ bUtw isMG pwiksqwn bxn qoN cwr swl pihlW sMn 1943 ivc suzwk dI ibmwrI nwl kohmrI ivc mr igAw[" fw: hrnwm isMG, bMbeI
    Avqwr isMG
    Avqwr isMG dw jnm sMn 1900 (sMmq 1957) ivc izlHw jyhlm dy ipMf lqIvwl ivc s: mu`Kw isMG dy Gr mwqw nrYx dyvI dI ku`KoN hoieAw[ aus dw muFlw jIvn A`qgrIbI Aqy AOkVW BirAw sI[ aus dI CotI 5/6 swl dI aumr ivc ipqw dy kwl clwxy kwrn Avqwr isMG nUM lokW dy Gr kMm Aqy rylvy ivc cpVwsI dI nOkrI kr ky guzwrw krnw ipAw[ AwrQk qMgI kwrn pVHweI nw ho skI[ kuJ v`fI aumry Avqwr isMG ny iek swvx ml fblrotI, kulcy bxwaux vwly koL nOkrI kr leI[ aus dw ivAwh buDvMqI (bu`DW) nwl hoieAw[
    bUtw isMG Aqy Avqwr isMG ny pKMfbwzI duAwrw vKrI inrMkwrI sMpRdw bxwauix dI AsPl koiSS kIqI[ sMn 1943 ivc bUtw isMG dw dyhWq ho igAw[ iek BweI Twkr dws ny aus dI ArQI qoN hwr cu`k ky Avqwr isMG dy gL pw id`qw Aqy kihw ik auh bUtw isMG dI QW lvygw[ pr rwvlipMfI Aqy ipSOr dy ielwky ivc isMG sBw Aqy AslI inrMkwrI is`^I suDwrk lihrW dy pRBwv kwrn bUtw isMG Aqy Avqwr isMG nUM dMBI kwrj ivc sPlqw nw imlI[
    iksmq dy gyV nwl sMn 1947 dI dyS dI vMf Aqy nslI auQl pQl, KUn-Krwby Aqy lu`t-Ks`ut smyN keI au`cy GrwixAW dy suKI vsdy lok kMgwl ho gey Aqy pMjwbI dI khwvq "ku`by nUM mwrI l`q, aus dw ku`b inkl igAw" vWgUM keI kMgwl lokW nUM ieh auQl pQl, lu`t-mwr vr Aw geI[
    Avqwr isMG dI ivdvqw BwvYN kyvl gurbwxI dw pwT krn jogI pMjwbI bolI qk sImq sI, pr muFly jIvn dIAW AwrQk AOkVW Aqy bUtw isMG dI sMgq ny aus nUM T`gI TorI Aqy lokW nUM gumrwh krn ivc mwhr bxw id`qw sI[ Avqwr isMG 7 AkqUbr 1947 nUM id`lI Aw igAw Aqy aus ny iek vwr Pyr lweI-l`g lokW nUM inrMkwr dy drSn krwaux dw c`kr clw ky nklI inrMkwrI sMpRdw bxwaux dw auprwlw kIqw[ sMn 1948/9 ivc Awpxy puqr, pqnI, DIAW, juAweI, sj`xW imqRW Aqy ipCl`g cyly/cylIAW nUM iek`Ty kr ky sMq inrMkwrI mMfl bxw ilAw[ mMfl dy muFly pRDwn Bw: lwB isMG, aup pRDwn fw: dys rwj, sk`qr rwm nrYx, mIq sk`qr mhWdyv isMG, KzwncI jugl ikSor, mShUrI pRbMDk sMqoK isMG Aqy lMgr pRbMDk rwm cMd sn[ JUTI inrMkwrI sMpRdw dI mShUrI leI BMf kvI/ilKwrI BwVy qy kr ky ‘sMq inrMkwrI’ nwm dw rswlw k`Fxw SurU kr id`qw[
    dunIAW ivc prmwqmw nUM inrwkwr mMxn vwilAW nwloN aus nUM swkwr rUp ivc vyKx vwilAW dI igxqI keI guxW vD hY[ Avqwr isMG dy inrMkwr dy drSn krn vwilAW dI igxqI suBwivk hI idnoN idn vDx l`g peI[ aus igxqI ivc kyNdrI kWgrs srkwr dy BrvwvSwlI rwjnIqk Aqy au`c AiDkwrI, jo ik is`KW dy eIrKwlU sn, vI Swml sn[ aunHW nUM is`^W dI rwjnIqk s`qw nUM Fwh lwaux leI hor iPrkU is`^ sMpRdwvW vWgUM AKOqI inrMkwrIAW nUM vI Pu`lIAW pw ky mUlDwrw nwloN qoVn dw Avsr iml igAw[
    id`lI ivc rwvlipMfI Aqy ipSOr vWgUM isMG sBw jW s`cI inrMkwrI lihr dw koeI pRBwv nhIN sI[ Avqwr isMG dI pUjw hox l`g peI, cVHwvy cVHn l`g pey[ auh rwsDwrIAW vWgUM mukt smyq s`j ky g`dI qy bihx l`g ipAw[ pUjw dy DMn dw sdkw mulqwnI FWfy dy iek mkwn qoN SurU hoieAw jwAlI inrMkwrI mMfl inrMkwrI kwlonI bx igAw, ijs ivc Avqwr ‘pirMitg prYs’ l`g geI[
    Avqwr isMG ny kvIAW/ilKwrIAW koloN nklI inrMkwrI mq dIAW ‘Avqwr bwxI’ Aqy ‘Xug purS’ pusqkW ilKvw leIAW[ aunHW msKirAW ny kUVI ausqiq kr ky Avqwr isMG nUM A`lwh, gwf; buDWvMqI nUM jgq mwqw, anHW dy pu`qr gurbcn isMG nUM jgq gurU, jg dw pwlxhwr Aqy (gubcn isMG dI pqnI) kulvMq kOr nUM rwj mwqw bxw id`qw Aqy nklI inrMkwrI sMpRdw dw pVu`l bMnH id`qw[
    A`lwh Awpy muV AwieAw jy[ gwf vI nwl ilAwieAw jy[
    rwm vI ies dI bu`kl Kyly[ ieh r`b Awpy hY AwieAw[ sMq inrMkwrI, meI 1964
    dunIAW vwilE d`sW mYN g`l ieko, ieh bYTw jy dunIAW bxwaux vwlw[
    sdw ies ny kwiem qy dwiem rihxw, bwkI jg hY Awaux qy jwx vwlw[
    AYs: AYs: AwnMd, sMq inrMkwrI PrvrI 1966
    "BweI Avqwr isMG au`qy Xuvw (jvwnI) AvsQw ivc k`tV is`KI dw BUq svwr hoieAw[ pMj ipAwirAW ivc igxy gey[ rwvlipMfI sRI gurU isMG sBw dy auGy pRcwrk bxy[ lokW nUM AMimRq vI CkwauNdy rhy qy k`tV is`^I dy bMDnw ivc b`Jy rhy[ sMn 1919 nUM ivswKI dy idn jilHAW vwly bwg dw swkw hoeAw[ Avqwr isMG BI jilHAW vwly bwg ivc mOjUd sI, pRMqU ivDwqw nUM kuJ hor hI mnzUr sI, golI mwr nw skI, auQoN bc gey[ jYqo dy morcy ivc jQydwr bx ky gey qy do swl kYd k`tI[ szw FweI swl dI hoeI[" Bw: gurbcn isMG BwtIAw, sMq inrMkwrI, AkqUbr sMn 1969 pMnw 20
    ieh ilKq mMxnXog nhIN hY ikauNik isMG sBw Aqy inrMkwrI suDwrk lihrW sn, jo ik is`^I ivroDI k`tV pujwrIvwdI mhMqW, dyhDwrI gurUAW, fyrwvwdI pKMfI swDW, sMqW, Awid vloN is`^ Dwrimkqw ivc pwey ibpRnI AMDivSvwsI krmkWfW Aqy sMskwrW qoN is`K jgq nUM mukq krwaux ihq inrol gurmiq Aqy gurmrXwdw Anuswr gurbwxI dw pRcwr krdIAW sn[ aus ivc bUtw isMG Aqy Avqwr isMG vrgy dyhDwrI, mwXwDwrI Aqy pujwvwdI gurUW vwsqy koeI QW nhIN sI[
    "AsIN Awp rwvlipMfI izlHy dy hW[ AsIN Awp isMG sBw ivc jw ky keI vyr kQw Aqy pRcwr kIqw hY qy poTohwr dy swry AkwlIAW nUM jwxdy hW[ auQy Avqwr isMG nwm dw koeI pRcwrk nw hI suixAW, nw hI pMjW ipAwirAW ivc AMimRq CkwauNdw vyiKAw[" ig: pRqwp isMG, swbkw jQydwr Akwl qKq
    Avqwr isMG dI AwpxI d`sI vwrqw qoN sp`St hY ik aus ivc koeI dyvI gux nhIN sn[ pr dMBI guxw rwhIN lweI-l`g lokW nUM gumrwh krnw jwxdw sI[ "swD sMgq jI iek vwr AsIN iek jgHw gey[ ieh jgHw rwvlipMfI qoN 40 mIl hY[ auQy nwKW dyKIAW[ jd AsIN nwKW lY ky Gr Awey qW auh Awpxy irSqydwrW dosqW nUM vMf id`qIAW[ jo BI auh nwK k`tx aus ivc kIVy inklx[ swry cuk cuk ky vwps kr gey[ soicAw AsW ieh kI vwpwr kIqw, nwly SrimMdy hoey nwly pYsy puty qy nwly Bwr cuikAw["
    Avqwr isMG jW qy gurbwxI igAwn qoN korw sI jW iPr dMB leI gurbwxI dy AnrQ krdw sI[
    jip mn rwmnwmu pVHu swr[ rwmnwm ibnu iQru nhI koeI horu inhPl sBu ibsQwru]1]rhwau]
    rwgu swrg m: 4, pM: 1200
    ArQ- hy (myry) mn rwm dw au`qm nwm jp[ rwm dy nwm qoN ibnw koeI sdIvI nhIN hY[ hor sB iKlwrw ivArQ hY[ sRI gurU gRMQ swihb drpn, poQI 8, pMnw 668
    pr Avqwr isMG kwrj-is`DI leI ienHW qukW dy AnrQ krdw hoieAw rwm dy ArQ gurU krdw hY, "ies dw mqlb hY ik hy mn! qUM jo swr vsqU hY, aus nUM jwx[ ieQy rwm nwm ikhw hY[ ‘rwm’ gurU nUM kihMdy hn Aqy ‘nwm’ inrMkwr nUM[ swD sMgq jI ijnHW lokW ny gurU dy zrIey inrMkwr nUM jwx ilAw, auhnW Awpxw kMm kr ilAw["
    "gurU Aqy inrMkwr do hI cIzW iQr rihMdIAW hn[ lokIN kihMdy hn gurU mrdw hY[ swD sMgq gurU nhIN mrdw[ lokIN srIr nUM guru smJdy hn qy BulyKy ivc Aw jWdy hn[ iphlw gurU clw igAw iPr dUjw gurU AwieAw[ swD sMgq jI gurU AWdw jWdw nhIN hY, gurU iQr rihMdw hY" sMq inrMkwrI rswlw, AMk jUn 1964, pMnw 5
    Avqwr isMG gurU dI pirBwSw ienHW aUt-ptWg SbdW ivc krdw hY[ "gurU kOx hY? swD sMgq jI jo r`b dw igAwn idMdw hY, jo inrMkwr idKWdw hY[ keIAW nUM mugwlqw (BulyKw) lgdw hY ik ijs mhW-purS ny mYnUM igAwn id`qw hY auh myrw gurU hY[ swD sMgq G`to G`t 40-50 mhW purS igAwn vMfx vwly hn[ keI BulyKy ivc pY jWdy hn ik swfw igAwn dwqw qW Plwxw hY[ aus ny qW gurU dw igAwn id`qw hY; jo igAwn dyNdw hY auh ieh BI qW d`sdw hY ik qyrw gurU kOx hY[ aus ny iks dw igAwn id`qw hY? auh ieh qW nhIN kihMdw ik mYN igAwn id`qw hY, ies leI mYN gurU hW[ jo ieh kihMdw hY, mYnUM Plwxy ny igAwn id`qw hY auh myrw gurU hY[" sMq inrMkwrI, Agsq 1964 AMk
    Avqwr isMG, ijhVw AYs: AYs: AwnMd Anuswr dunIAW bxwaux vwlw Aqy sdw kwiem qy dwiem rihx vwlw sI, 17 sqMbr 1969 nUM kYNsr dI ibmwrI nwl gL sV ky mr igAw[ mrn qoN pihloN Avqwr isMG ny Awpxy pu`qr gurbcn isMG nUM Awpxw auqrwiDkwrI d`sidAW AwiKAw,
    "swD sMgq jI jo gurU gurbcn isMG dw iDAwn Drygw aus dy nzdIk duK qklIP nhIN Awvygw[ quhwnUM koeI duK jW qklIP hovy bwbw gurbcn isMG dw iDAwn kro[" sMq inrMkwrI, AkqUbr 1966
    gurbcn isMG
    Avqwr isMG dy pu`qr gurbcn isMG dw jnm smMq 1987 (dsMbr 1930 ) ivc mwqw buDvMqI dI ku`KoN hoieAw[ aus smyN Avqwr isMG dI ArQk hwlq pqlI hox kr ky gurbcn isMG imfl skUl qk dI ividAw hI pRwpq kr sikAw[ aus ny jlMDr, ijQy aus dy BYx nMdI Aqy BxveIAw goibMd isMG rihMdy sn, iek spyr pwrt dI dukwn ivc nOkrI kr leI[ id`lI ivc sMn 1969 ivc Avqwr isMG dy mrny ip`CoN gurbcn isMG nklI inrMkwrI sMpRdw dw gurU bx igAw[ Awpxy ipqw nwloN hor au`cy p`Dr qy AfMbr dy sMcwlk gurbcn isMG bwry ‘Avqwr bwxI’ nwmk pusqk ivc BwVy dw kvI ilKdw hY,
    Awid m`D qy AMq qk kwiem hY inrMkwr[ qYnUM pUrn siqgurU pRnwm kry Avqwr[
    lK lK lK vwrI bMdnw nmskwr hr vwr[ Awpy sB kuJ kr irhw, nW rK ky Avqwr[
    jgq mwqw (bu`DvMqI ny jgq nUM ikhw pukwr[ gurbcn gurU hY jgq dw Awpy hY Avqwr[
    AwieAw gurU bcn Avqwr, swry jg dw pwlxhwr[ swfw kr igAw byVw pwr, iehdI ho geI jY jY kwr[
    bUty bUtw lwieAw, pwxI dey Avqwr[ mwlI myrw gurbcn iKV iKV khy gulzwr[
    jwAlI inrMkwrIAW dI s`cy inrMkwrIAW nwl lVI gMFx leI koJI ivauNq ADIn ‘sMq inrMkwrI’ rswly ivc ilK id`qw ‘bUtw isMG ny ipMfI qwr id`qI’ Aqy AMgryzI ivc CpdI iel`strytf vIklI (spqwhI) dy 24 AkqUbr 1971 dy AMk ivc blvMq gwrgI dI ieh ilKq Cpvw id`qI, ‘bUtw isMG nUM (s`cy inrMkwrI lihr dy gRMQI) BweI Kym isMG inrMkwrI ny (bwbw r`qw jI qoN AsIs pRwpq kr ky) gurqw id`qI[ A`goN aus ny sn 1929 ivc inrMkwrI imSn kwiem kIqw[ ijs dw dUjw gurU Avqwr isMG Aqy qIjw gurbcn isMG hY[ ieh is`^I au`pr XkIn nhIN rKdy’[
    ies bwry Avqwr bwxI ivc koeI sMkyq nhIN hY[ ies pwj dw KMfn bUtw isMG dy Brw bcn isMG dI iek ilKq jo ik s`cy inrMkwrI lihr dy Bvn 21, sYktr bI ivc d`sI jWdI hY qoN vI huMdw hY[ 21 poh sMmq 1965 ibkRmI (sMn 1908) nUM bwbw r`qw jI smwey[ Bwxw vrqx qoN pihlW Aswfy ipqw BweI ibSn isMG, mwqw mwieAwvMqI Aqy mYN Kud bcn isMG, swihb r`qw jI dy AMqm drSn krn vwsqy inrMkwrI drbwr rwvlipMfI pujy[ bwbw r`qw jI ny bKiSs bwbw gurid`q isMG qy bwbw hrw isMG pr kIqI[
    Avqwr isMG vloN bxwey syvw dl nUM gurbcn isMG ny POjI dl ivc bdl id`qw[ ies dl dy rwm srn dws cyArmYn, blvMq isMG mu`K sMcwlk, Kym rwj c`Fw Aqy gopwl isMG pRymI mIq sMcwlk, pRqwp isMG sYnwpqI, joigMdr isMG Kurwxw mIq sYnwpqI inXukq kIqy gey[ ies dl, ijs ivc iesqRIAW vI Swml sn, nUM POjI isKlweI dy ky h`iQAwrbMd kIqw igAw[ jdoN gurbcn isMG ny kwr ivc bwhr jwxw huMdw dl vwly AMg-riKAk vjoN aus dy ip`Cy motr-sweIklW qy cldy sn[
    is`^ pMQ v`loN krVy ivroD dI sMBwvnw nUM AnBv kridAW gurbcn isMG ny bxwautI inhMgW dw jQw vI bxw ilAw[ sMq inrMkwrI rswly dy dsMbr 1973 pMnw 29 au`qy Aqy PrvrI 1974 dy pMnw 17 au`qy bxwautI inhMgW dIAW qsvIrW Cwp id`qIAW[ jwAlI inrMkwrIAW dy pitAwly jlUs smyN bu`Fy dl dy inhMgW ny bxwautI inhMgW dy h`iQAwr vI Koh lY Aqy dumwly vI[
    inrMkwrI nklIAW dy Awpw-ivroDI Aqy aUt-ptWg kQn[
    "mYN koeI nvW mzhb KVw nhIN krnw[ koeI ihMdU hovy, muslmwn hovy, isK jW eIsweI hovy, aunHW swirAW nUM mYN Kudw nwl joiVAw hY[" Avqwr isMG, sMq inrMkwrI, AprYl 1966
    "swD sMgq jI! kI kIqw jwey, pihly quhwnUM XkIn duAwieAw hY inrMkwr auqy, ies nuM pRgt kr ky d`isAw hY ik ieh inrMkwr hY[ jdoN vyiKAw ik inrMkwr nUM cMgI qrHW mMn gey hn, qW iPr swhmxy gurU (gurbcn isMG) kr id`qw hY ik ieh pUrw gurU hY[ bySk bwbw jI dy l~Cx dyKo[ bwbw gurbcn isMG nUM cMgI qrHW dyKo[ ieh pUrw gurU hY[ mYN qW AmnpVH hW, bwbw jI (gurbcn isMG) qW pVY hoey hn[ koeI SMkw hovy qW aunHW qoN pu`Co[ auh quhwQoN lY ky qyhwnUM juAwb dyxgy[ auh qW gurU gRMQ dI bwxI jwxdy hI nhIN Awpxy idmwg nwl hI juAwb dyxgy[" Avqwr isMG, sMq inrMkwrI, AMk ApYl 1964
    "mYN (gurbcn isMG) kilXugI Avqwr pRgt hoieAw jy[ mYN A`j dunIAW Br dy lokW dy kMnW qk AwpxI Awvwz pucw irhw hW ik, ‘mYN, AY dunIAW vwilau jy qusIN su`K SWqI Aqy AwnMd cwhuMdy ho qW myry kol Awau, mYN qhwfy GVy srIr qoN AigAwnqw dw F`kx htw idAW[ pRBU prmwqmw ivckwr Awey prdy htw ky Bgvwn nwl swiKAwq kr idAW[" myrI Awvwz
    "kiljug dw bohQ (jhwz) myrw pqI (gurbcn isMG) hY[ auh quhwfI kilAwx kr skdw hY[ hor koeI bwxI dw poQw (gurU gRMQ swihb?) quhwfw kuJ nhIN suAwr skdw[" kulvMq kOr
    "mYN koeI sMpRdwiek jW mzHbI ivAkqI nhIN hW myry ivcwrW qy aupdySW nUM iksy ivSyS Drm nwl nhIN joiVAw jwxw cwhIdw[ nw hI mYnUM pIr pYgMbr smJxw cwhIdw hY[" eIvinMg inaUz bMbeI, 11 jnvrI 1972
    "kiljug dy ies mhW Gor AMDkwr ivc inrMkwr pRBU SihnSwh inhklMk Avqwr, bwbw gurbcn isMG dy Bys ivc sMswr dw kilAwx kr irhw hY[ l`KW lokW nUM ies ny Awpxw vYrwt rUp ds ky Bv-swgr qoN pwr kIqw hY[" sMq inrMkwrI, meI 1964 pMnw 24
    "dws ivc koeI ieqnI ilAwkq nhIN[ dws qW korw kwgz hY[ jo kory kwgz auqy ilK idaugy, auhI piVHAw jwvygw[ dws nUM ieh vI pqw nhIN ik kI kihxw hY[" gurbcn isMG, sMq inrMkwrI AkqUbr-nvMbr 1964
    "hzrq Awdm qoN lY ky nUh, rwm, ikRSn, mUsw, eIsw, muhMmd, jOhn, pwl, gurU nwnk, goibMd isMG qy idAwl Swml hn[ ies lVI dw vrqmwn pYgMbr gurbcn id`lI 9 ivc rihMdw hY[" hircrn isMG, 15 bI; sYktr
    "mYN AYktr hW[ Awp jYsy fwierYktr jo pwrt Adw krn leI idMdy hn, auh krdw hW[ AYktr AwpxI glqI leI iksy A`gy auqr-dwiek nhIN huMdw[" gurbcn isMG, sMq inrMkwrI, dsMbr 1972
    "mYN koeI gurU qy Avqwr nhIN, jo mYnUM gurU kihMdy hn, aunHW dI mOj hY[ pMjwb kysrI 1978
    "mYN kyvl gubcn isMG hW[ myrw nwm gubcn isMG hY[ iksy gurU, Avqwr jW pYgMbr dy nwm nUM myry nwl joV ky Kudgrz lok mYnUM Kwh-mKwh bdnwm krdy hn[ mYN isrP gurbcn isMG hW[ ies qoN ielwvw nw mYN kuJ bxdw hW Aqy nw hI kuJ hor bxnw munwsb smJdw hW[ mYN swry gurUAW, pYgMbrW Aqy AvqwrW dw dws hW[ aunHW dI iSkSw Gr Gr pucwauxw Awpxw Frz smJdw hW[" sMq inrMkwrI meI 1978
    "mYN koeI Avqwr nhIN[ ‘Avqwr bwxI myry ipau dI ilKvweI hoeI hY[ aus dw mYnUM kuJ pqw nhIN[ ies bwry auh zumyvwr hY[" AkwlI piqRkw, 1 Agsq 1978
    "‘Avqwr bwxI’ sMq inrMkwrI mMfl dI Drm pusqk hY[ ies ivc auhI drj hY jo sRI gurU gRMQ, gIqw Aqy siqAwrQ pRkwS ivc drj hY[ ‘Avqwr bwxI’ ivc myry nwm aupr ilKI geI rcnw myry SrDwlUAW dI ilKI hoeI sMq bwxI drj hY[" ihMd smwcwr, 17 Agsq 1978
    "mYN sRI gurU gRMQ swihb dw siqkwr krdw hW[ mYN koeI gurU nhIN, nw gurUAW ivcoN hW[ mYN swry gurUAW, AvqwrW, pYgMbrW dw dws hW[ mYnUM AMimRqsr KUnI kWF dw rMj hY[ mYN BrwvW pws ApIl krdw hW ik auh ies iksm dy swikAW nUM rokx ivc mdd krn[" gurbcn isMG, pRqwp, 25 AkqUbr 1978
    kiQq nrkDwrI inrMkwrIAW v`loN AwpxI kUVI v`ifAweI, hor DrmW dI hyTI
    "mhW purSo, sMq jno! A`j mYN Awp nUM iek Byd dI g`l d`sdw hW[ inrMkwrI pRBU ny ipCly jugW ivc ho cuky pIrW qy AvqwrW nUM Awpxy kol bulw ky aunHW ivcoN iek iek nUM ipRQvI ‘qy jw ky rwh idKwaux dI ie`Cw pRgt kIqI[ pr ipRQvI ‘qy jw ky koeI pIr, Avqwr jW gurU iqAwr nw hoieAw[ Bgvwn rwm, sRI ikRSn, hzrq muhMmd, hzrq XsU msIh, sRI gurU nwnk dyv jI Awid swirAW pIrW, AvqwrW ny Awpxy nwl hoey pihly slUk nUM Xwd kr ky DrqI auqy jwx qoN nWh kr id`qI[ aus vkq mYN vI bwkI vlIAW, AvqwrW, qy mhWpuSW vWg srIr nw huMdy hoey vI inrMkwr ivc mOjUd sW[ AMq swry AvqwrW v`loN zor id`qy jwx ‘qy inrMkwr pRBU ny myry v`l idRStI kIqI["
    "pRBU ny myry v`l ho ky ikhw, ‘myrI ie`Cw hY ik ies vwrI qusIN DrqI auqy jw ky mnu`K jwqI dw pRdrSn kro[’ mYN sIs Jukw ky nmskwr krdy hoey bynqI kIqI, ‘pRBU Awp dI AigAw isr m`Qy ‘qy hY[’ pRBU ny ikhw, ‘ieh Avqwr qW bhuq SPlqw pwvygw[ dunIAW Br dy Drm, mzhb Aqy dyS dy lok ies mhwn purS duAwrw jIvn mukqI pRwpq krngy[’" Avqwr isMG, Xug purS, pMnw 231
    pr Avqwr isMG Awp hI KMfn krdw hY, ‘mYN AwKW mYN r`b nUM pwieAw, lokIN g`l mMndy nhIN[’ Avqwr bwxI pMnw 107
    ijqny vI ho guzry Aj qk, Awpxw Awp nw pw sky[ rwm ikRSn qy nwnk vI Kud nw prdw lwh sky[ Avqwr bwxI pMnw 43[
    inrMkwrI gurU SrwbI kbwbI Aqy durwcwrI
    bUtw isMG, ijs nUM inrMkwrI ‘siqgur bUtw isMG jI’ kihMdy hn Aqy aunHW Anuswr ijs ‘bUtw isMG ny ipMfI qwr C`fI’ nyipSOr dy iek hootl dy mwlk mu`Kw isMG nUM ikhw, "qUM jwxdw nhIN mYN kox hW?" mu`Kw isMG ny juuAwb id`qw, "qUM SrwbI kbwbI qy kwPr hYN["
    "iek vyr BweI Avqwr isMG mYnUM kihx l`gw, ‘bwbw bUtw isMG Awey hoey hn[ qusIN aunHW nUM imlo[ Avqwr isMG ny bhuq hT kIqw[ mYnUM DUh GsIt ky iek cubwry ivc lY igAw, ijQy bUtw isMG bYTw hoieAw sI[ mYN vyiKAw ik bUtw isMG dy swhmxy mws dIAW plytW Aqy Srwb dI boql KulHI peI sI[ aus dy lwgy iek AOrq bx Tx ky bYTI hoeI sI[ mYN ieh vyK ky qR`bk igAw[ pu`Ty pYrIN CyqI prq AwieAw[" ipSOr invwsI ig: krqwr isMG srh`dI, AyfItr ‘gurU sMdyS’ jmnw ngr, AMbwlw
    "swfw iek pRymI BweI mMgl isMG, spuqr BweI vsx isMG ipMf hwbVI, izlHw krnwl, nklI inrMkwrI dy eyjMtW dy PMdy ivc Ps igAw[ aus nUM auh drSn krwaux dy bhwny inrMkwrI kwlonI id`lI ivc lY igAw[ pr aus ny murId bxnw pRvwn nw kIqw[ iPr aus nUM jvwn AOrqW nY Gyr ilAw aus nUM kihx l`gIAW ‘swfy vwsqy jyhy Awpxy mrd hn, auho ijhw qUM hYN[ inrMkwrI bx jw[ mws Kwh, Srwb pI qy AYS kr’ pr auh nhIN mMinAw[" sMq Avqwr isMG jI, lKIm pur, KIrI, XU: pI:
    "mYN iek ivDvw mW dI lVkI hW[ rwvlipMfI qoN au`jV ky AweI qy kwnpur skUl ivc pVHwaNudI hW[ mYnUM iek cylI drSn krwaux dy bhwny id`lI lY AweI[ mYnUM iek hotl ivc TihrwieAw igAw[ dUjy idn iek kwr ivc inrMkwrI kwlonI ivc iljwieAw igAw[ mYnUM bwby (Avqwr isMG) dI syvw ivc pyS kIqw igAw[ aus ny Srwb pI ky myry nwl durwcwr kIqw[" ieMfIAn Abzrvr, 22 AkqUbr 1965
    "mogy ivc iek lwlw hukm cMd, Avqwr isMG dy syvk hn[ motrW dy purizAW dI dukwn krdy hn[ swfy iek do tr`k hn, ijs kwrn lwlw hukm cMd nwl vwh pYNdw rihMdw hY[ iek vyr Avqwr isMG mogy AwieAw, lwlw hukm cMd dy Gr TihrAw hoieAw sI[ mYN aus nUM imlx igAw[ mYN aus nUM pu`iCAw quhwfw mq kI hY? aus ny au`qr id`qw, ‘jo gurR nwnk dw mq hY[ mYN iPr pu`iCAw ik gurU nwnk dyv jI ny bwbr dI pyS kIqI Srwb pIx qoN ienkwr kIqw sI[ inrMkwrI sMpRdwie dy bwnI bwbw idAwl jI qy r`qw jI vI Srwb nhIN vrqdy sn[ mYN suixAY ik qusIN mws Srwb Kw pI lYNdy ho[ Avqwr isMG isMG kihx l`gw, ‘AsIN mws Srwb vrqx ivc koeI hrz nhIN smJdy[ Kwxw pIxw qy Bog iblws dw Drm hY, Awqmw dw ies nwl koeI sMbMd nhIN[" s: kyhr isMG imqR, kcihrI rof, mogw
    "swfy tr`k id`lI AwauNdy jWdy hn, ies leI mYnUM keI vyr id`lI Awauxw jwxw pYNdw hY[ auQy iek lwlw ikSn cMd nwrMg hY, jo ip`CoN rwvlipMfI dw hY[ iek idn lwlw ikSn cMd mYnUM kihx l`gw, igAwnI jI, A`j swfy pRSwd CikE[ mYN rwq nUM aus dy Gr clw igAw[ auQy cwlI pMjwh hor AwdmI vI rotI Kwx vwly sn[ cwr pMj iksm dw mws bixAw hoieAw sI[ Srwb dIAW vI A`T boqlW sn[ au`qoN gurbcn isMG vI Aw igAw[ mYN ies iKAwl nwl mws nw KwDw ik nklI inrMkwrI gaU, sUr, Jtky Aqy kuTyy dw Byd nhIN mMndy["
    "rotI Kwx qoN bwAd iek brWfy ivc kusMg SurU ho igAw[ ikSn cMd dI lVkI qy kuJ kuVIAW ny AD-nMgy ilbws ivc gurbcn isMG dy swhmxy fWs SurU kr idqw[ auh gwauNdIAW sn,’qUM hI swfw rwm, qUM hI swfw ikRSn[’ iek kuVI ny hwv-Bwv krdy hoey aus dy mUMh nUM h`Q lwieAw[ ieh SrwbnoSI qy nwc mujrw vyK ky mYnUM bhuq iglwnI hoeI[ ikSn cMd nUM mYN aulWBw id`qw, ‘ieh kI krdy ho? auh kihx l`gw, AsIN ieh kuJ krn nUM mwVw nhIN smJdy[" s: kyhr isMG imqR, kcihrI rof, mogw
    "swfy jo pRx bxwey gey hn, aunHW ivc di`sAw igAw hY ik iksy dy Kwx, pIx, pihnx aupr AsIN pwbMdI nhIN lwauxI[ lyikn ijhVI cIz sBw ivc qy pRcwr ivc rukwvt pYdw krn vwlI hovy, aus nUM bdl dyxw cwhIdw hY[ ies dw ieh ArQ iblkul nhIN ik Kurwk dy mwmly ivc swfw koeI nzrIAw bdl igAw hY[ lyikn jo cIz Pwiedw nhIN krdI, nukswn krdI hY, sMswr ivc Pswd pYdw krdI hY, ijs ‘qy AYvyN vyst AwP mnI’ huMdI hY, ijs dw sp`St rUp ivc koeI lwB nhIN, AYsy pdwrQ (Srwb) dy pRXog qoN swnUM bcxw cwhIdw hY[" gurbcn isMG, 14-16 meI 1973 inrMkwrI kwnPRMs, mu`zUrI
    pKMfI inrMkwrIAW dw is`^W nwl AwFw
    kiQq nrkDwrI inrMkwrI kwrj is`DI leI gurbwxI dI durvrqoN Aqy is`^I Bys Dwr ky vwm mwrg Aqy AGorI iPrikAW vWgUM niSAW qy sMBog-ivlws dw pRXog krdy sn[ pivqR is`^I nUM klMikq huMdw vyK ky suBwivk hI is`^ ienHW dI Alocnw krdy Aqy ienHW nUM ies durivhwr qoN vrjdy sn[ is`^W nwl pihlI t`kr AMimRqsr ivc hoeI[ 1956/57 ivc dMBI inrMkwrIAW ny jlsw kIqw[ aus jlsy ivc vI dMBI Avqwr isMG ny gurbwxI dw AnrQ kIqw[ is`KW dy ros nUM AngOlx kwrn h`Qo-pweI ho geI[ pRBwvSwlI rwjnIqkW dIAW sPwrSW Aqy AkwlIAW nUM Brosw, ik A`gy vwsqy auh is`^I ivruDI koeI kMm nhIN krygw, idvw ky m`kwr Avqwr isMG ny mukdmy ivcoN Cutkwrw pwieAw[
    1978 dI ivswKI vwly idn is`^W dw Gwx
    sMn 1977 dIAW kyNdrI lok sBw Aqy pMjwb ivDwn dIAW coxw ivc nklI inrMkwrIAW ny jMqw dl dI, ijs ivc mhwSy jnsMGI, AkwlI dl, Awid Swml sn, dw plVw Bwrw vyK ky notW Aqy votW nwl f`t ky shwieqw kIqI[ kyNdr ivc jMqw Aqy pMjwb ivc jnsMG-AkwlI srkwrW bx geIAW[ jyqU rwjnIqkW ny gurbcn isMG Aqy aus dy ip`TUAW nUM hor cmlw id`qw[ hux kyNdr Aqy pMjwb ivc au`c rwjnIqkW Aqy AiDkwrIAW qk is`DI pwhuMc kr ky nklI inrMkwrIAW nMU is`KI dy kyNdr AMimRqsr ivc Awpxw is`kw jmwaux dI su`JI[
    sMn 1978 dI ivswKI ‘q pMjwb srkwr Aqy AMimRqsr pRSwsn qoN jlsy Aqy jlUs dI AwigAw lY leI[ jlsy dI igxqI koeI 50,000 dy krIb sI[ jlUs jo ik svyr dy 7 vjy k`iFAw igAw[ jlos, ijs ivc klMkI inrMkwrI gurbcn isMG Aqy aus dI pqnI AKOqI rwj mwqw kulvMq kOr iek pwlkI ‘q svwr sn, nrMkwrI mFIr nwAry lw rhI sI, ‘A`j dw nwnk AwieAw hY’ ‘qwrn vwlw AwieAw hY’[
    tkswl dy muKI sMq jrnYl isMG iBMfrWvwly nUM ies bwry pqw l`gw qW auh jnrl sk`qr SRomxI kmytI Aqy pMjwb mwl mMqrI jIvx isMG aumrwnMgl nUM imly Aqy nklI inrMkwrIAW nUM nwArybwzI qoN vrjx leI ikhw[ aumrwnMgl ny ikhw ky nklI inrMkwrIAW ny pMjwb srkwr Aqy izlHw AiDkwrIAW qoN jlsy Aqy jlUs dI AwigAw leI hY, auh kuJ nhIN kr skdw[
    sMq iBMfrwvwly ny AjIq ngr, ij`Qy AKMf kIrqnI jQy dw smwgm ho rhw sI, v`l snyhW Byj id`qw ik klMkI inrMkwrI is`KI dI hyTI kr rhy hn, aunHW nUM rokxw cwhIdw hY[ AKMf kIrqnI jQy vwly gurU rwm dws srWA ivc sMq iBfrWvwly nUM Aw imly[ tkswl Aqy AKMf kIrqnI jQy dy isMG iek`Ty ho ky nklI inrMkwrIAW dy pMfwl v`l qur pey[ sMq iBfrWvwly ienHW nwl nhIN gey[ puls ny is^W nUM rokx dI koiSS kIqI pr auh ruky nhIN[ A`goN klMkI inrMkwrIAW Aqy ip`CoN puls ny golI clw id`qI[ AKMf kIrqnI jQy dy 11 Aqy tkswl dy 2 isMG ShId ho gey Aqy 70 qoN v`D P`tV hoey[ gurbcn isMG fI: sI: dI kwr qy jlMDr jw viVAw[
    gurU nwnk dyv jI dy joqI koiq smwaux dy gurpurb vwly idn 23 sqMbr nUM m`kwr gurbcn isMG ny jwx bu`J ky inrMkwrI Bvn, kwnpur ivc kQw krn dw progrwm bxw ilAw[ auQoN dy is`^W, ijnHW nUM ies dw pqw l`g igAw sI, ny goibMd ngr dy gurdvwry gurpurb dy Bog dy dIvwn dI smwpqI auprMq b`icAW Aqy AOrqW sxy ros pRgtwvw krn leI inrMkwrI Bvn vl cwly pw id`qy[ KUnI inrMkwrIAW ny auQy vI is`KW dw Gwx kIqw[
    inrMkwrIAW ny 4-6 nvMbr smyN id`lI ivc jlsy Aqy jlUs dI iqAwrI kIqw[ is`K sMgqW ny AMimRqsr Aqy kwnpur ivc is`^W dy hoey Gwx kwrn jlsy Aqy jlUs bMd krn dI mMg kIqI[ murwrjI fysweI srkwr ny jlUs bMd kr id`qw pr jlsy dI mMzUrI dy id`qI Aqy id`lI vc dPw 144 lw id`qI[ is`^W ny ros vjoN jlUs 5 nvMbr nUM k`iFAw[ puls ny aunHW au`qy lwTI vHrweI Aqy AQrU gYs su`tI ijs nwl s: drSn isMG pulsI Aqy 13 swl dy b`cy minMdr isMG dI mOky qy mOq ho geI Aqy byhoS hoey[ jQy: Avqwr isMG kohlI hspqwl iljWidAW rwh ivc dm qoV gey[
    pMjwb srkwr ny aunHW ivruD kwnUnI krvweI SurU kr id`qI[ s: pRkwS isMG bwdl ny AkwlI dl qoN nklI inrMkwrI pusqkW kurk krn dw mqw pws krvw ky fysweI dI jMqw srkwr nUM Byj id`qw[ gurbcn isMG ny ieh d`s ky ik 1977 dI cox smyN AkwlIAW ny aunHW qoN mwiek shwieqw Aqy votW lYx leI ic`iTAW pweIAW sn, AkwlIAW nUM SrimMdw kr id`qw[ aunHW ic`TIAW dIAW nklW vI mwiDAm ivc Cwp id`qIAW[ ieMglYNf ivc is`^W dy murwrjI fysweI ivruD ros pRgtwvw smyN aus ny aurokq shwieqw mMgx vwly AkwlIAW dI sUcI ivKw id`qI[
    is`^I ivroDI kyNdrI Aqy pMjwbI au`c rwjnIqkW Aqy AiDkwrIAW dIAW ASIrvwd Aqy sPwrSW nwl gurbcn isMG swP brI ho igAw[ pMQ ny 17 meI 1978 nUM jlsw kr ky Akwl qKq qoN nklI inrMkwrIAW ivruD hukmnwmw jwrI krn dw mqw pws kIqw[ AKOqI inrMkwrIAW ny hukmnwmy dy mqy dy pRiqkrm ivc ikhw ik jy swfy ivruD hukmnwmw jwrI kIqw AsIN swry Awpxy Awp nUM ihMdU Aqy AwpxI bolI ihMdI ilKvwvWgy[
    "mYN sRI gurU gRMQ swihb dw siqkwr krdw hW[ mYN koeI gurU nhIN, nw gurUAW ivcoN hW[ mYN swry gurUAW, AvqwrW, pYgMbrW dw dws hW[ mYnUM AMimRqsr KUnI kWF dw rMj hY[ mYN BrwvW pws ApIl krdw hW ik auh ies iksm dy swikAW nUM rokx ivc mdd krn[" gurbcn isMG, pRqwp, 25 AkqUbr 1978
    nklI inrMkwrIAW ny mwrc 1979 dIAW SRomxI kmytI dIAW coxw smyN jIvx isMG aumrwnMgl nUM votW pw ky AkwlIAW nwl sulwh kr leI[
    is`^I dI hyTI Aqy is`^W dy Gwx dw bdlw lYx leI id`lI dy vsnIk Bw: rxjIq isMG ny Awpxy swQI kwbl isMG nwl slwh kr ky gurbcn isMG nUM soDn dI ivauNq bxweI[ aus ny h~iQAwrbMd pihrydwrW dI krVI ingrwnI hyT AKOqI inrMkwrI Bvn ivc Awaux jwx dI Ku`lH pRwpq krn leI sMq mMfl dy aup pRDwn Aqy s`q ipAwirAW ivcoN iek fw: dys rwj nwl ibmwrI dy bhwny sMprk joiVAw Aqy s`iqsMgI bx igAw[ gurbcn isMG dw ivSvws pwqr bx ky Bvn ivc imsqrI vjoN kMm SurU kr id`qw[
    "aunHW idnW ivc kudrqI pMjwb AsYNblI dI ielYkSn nyVy Aw geI[ PgvwVy qoN Awey ikWgrsI (Bvn dy) gYst hwaUs ivc Tihry hoey sn[ auh Asl ivc pMjwb AsYNblI dI itkt lYx Awey sn[ itkt ieMdrw gWDI dy h`Q vs sI qy PgvwVy vwly kWgrsI bwbw gurbcn isMG koloN isPwrS pvwauxw cwhuMdy sn[ BweI rxjIq isMG qy kwbl isMG ny gubcn dy Awaux dw bVI bysbrI nwl ieMqzwr kIqw[ PgvwVy vwly aus nUM ieMdrw kol lY gey sn[ gYst hwaUs dy guslKwny nUM pihlW hI jWc ilAw sI[ aus dI bwhly pwsy dI girl (jwLI) dy pyc KolH ky aus nUM auNJ hI AtkwA C`iFAw[ auhnW bc inklx dI jwc pihloN hI iqAwr kr r`KI["
    "ieh Gtnw AprYl 1980 dI hY[ ieMdrw gWDI koloN ho ky kwrW vwps Aw rhIAW sn[ pihlI kwr kudrqI inrMkwrI bwby dI sI[ dovyN isMG gYst hwaUs dI C`q auqy Kloqy sn[ au`qoN hyToN ibjlI dy cwnx ivc sB kuJ sp`St id`sdw sI[ pihloN bwfI gwrf auqirAw[ aus dy nwl hI gurbcn isMG bwhr Aw igAw[ qwk ivc Kloqy isMGW Jt mOkw sWiBAw qy kwrbweIn dIAW golIAW nwl dovyN FyrI kr id`qy[ muV auhnW A`gw ipCw nhIN vyiKAw[ guslKwny ivc vVy, bwrI dI girl pwsy kIqI Aqy bwhr gLI ivc CwlW mwr id`qIAw[ auh glI jmnw dy bMnH nUM jWdI sI[ Sihr nUM jWx dI QW auh bMnHI dI AwV AwV B`j qury["
    "dovW isMGW jmnw dw q`l C`f id`qw, auh KyqW ivcoN B`j qury[ bgVI ipMf lwgy gMdw nwlw pwr kIqw[ pwnIpq nUM jWdI rylvy lweIn pY gey[ iek Coty stySn qoN lokl tryn iml geI[ dovyN cVH ky pwnIpq Aw gey[ kudrqI id`lI vloN AYkspRYs g`fI Aw geI[ AykspRYs auhnW dohW nUM AMimRqsr lY AweI["
    nwnk invws ivKy Bw: rxjIq isMG ny tI: vI: lw leI, ijs kr ky sMq iBMfrW vwly nwl Ax bx ho geI[ "BweI rxjIq isMG AwpxI mrzI nwl sRI drbwr swihb c`f ky 23-9-83 nUM surYNfr kr ky pulIs dy pyS ho igAw[ kql dw clwx pyS kIqw igAw[ sMn 1983 dw SurU hoieAw kys, 26 mwrc 1993 nUM sYSn kort ny BweI swihb nUM dsW swlW bwAd doSI krwr id`qw[ Agly idn 27 mwrc nUM sYSn kort ny iqn vwr dI aumr kYd suxweI[ ies qoN ibnw iqn kYdW s`q s`q swl dIAW hor suxweIAW[ hweI kort ny iek aumr kYd bhwl r`KI qy BweI swihb nUM id`lI jylH ivc Byj id`qw[" s: jsvMq isMG kMvl, ‘Kun ky soihly gwvIAih nwnk’, Bwg dUsrw, pihlw kWf,pMnw 27-32
    rwDw suAwmI
    rwDw suAwmI pd iSv idAwl isMhu, ijs nUM aus dy SrDwlU suAwmI sddy sn, Aqy aus dI pqnI rwDw dy nwm qoN sIqw-rwm, rwDw-ikRSn dI rIsy lweI-lg cwtirAW dI AMnHIN SrDw vDwEx vjoN ies mq dy sMcwlkW v`loN riKAw igAw[
    iSv idAwl isMhu
    iSv idAwl isMhu, ijs dy nwm Aqy Dwrimk ijIvn nwl rwDw suAwmI mq dI auqpqI dw sMbMD hY, dw jnm 4 Agsq 1818 (vdI AstmI, BwdroN, sMmq 1875 ibkrmI) nUM lwlw idvwlI isMhu dy Gr mwqw mhw mwieAw dI kuKoN hoieAw[ lwhOr dy vsnIk KqrI jwqI dy idvwlI isMhu dw pirvwr, pMnI glI, Awgry jw visAw sI, ijQy suAwmI iSv idAwl dw jnm hoieAw[ is`^ rwj dI rwjDwnI lwhOr dy vsnIk hox kwrn idvwlI isMhU dy pirvwr dw jgq-gurU nwnk dI is`^I nwl GUVw sMbMD hI nhIN sgoN auh sihjDwrI is`^ vI sn[ ies pRivwr dy nwnk pMQI hox dI gvwhI iSv idAwl jI dy Brw lwlw pRqwp isMhudI ilKI hoeI pusqk ‘jIvn cirqR suAwmI iSv idAwl isMhu’ ivcoN imldI hY[
    "lwlw idvwlI isMhu Avl gurU nwnk swihb pr tyk rKqy Qy, aunkI bwxI kw pwT bVI pRIq sy krqy Qy[ jpujI swihb, sodru, rihrws, suKmnI swihb kw pwT roz mrw inq nym sy kIAw krqy Qy[ jYsw ik mhwrwj suAwmI jI ky dwdw (nwnk cMd), ijn ky hwQ kI ilKI hUeI poQI ‘suKmnI PwrsI kI’ Ab qk mOjUd hY, vkq sy clw Awqw Qw["
    ies pirvwr qy muglW dI purxI rwjDwnI Aqy bhuigxqI ihMdU vsoN vwly Awgry jw v`sx kwrn muslmwnI Aqy ihMdU mqW dw pRBwv pYxw suBwivk sI[ ho skdw hY ik pRivwr dy mnu`KW dy nwm nwl isMhU lgwieAw jwx dw iehI kwrn hovy[ iSv idAwl dy vfyirAW dI Dwrimk rucI hox krky Aqy Awgry dy jm pl hox kwrn auhnW aupr gurU nwnk dI is`^I dy nwl nwl muslmwnI, jog Aqy vYSnv mqW dw vI pRBwv sI[ iehI kwrn hY ik rwDw suAwmI mq ivc iqRkutI, suMn guPw, dsm duAwr suriq cVHwaux, Anhd Sbd suxn, mnoklpq rwDw suAwmI duAwry pRvyS krn dI mnOq, dyhDwrI gurU dI pUjw Aqy ‘pRswdI’ Bwv gurU dI jUT KwxI Dwrimk krm krvwey jWdy hn[
    Awgry, ijQy ik muglW dI purwxI rwjDwnI hox kwrn skUlW ivc aurdU Aqy PwrsI pVHweI jWdI sI, iSv idAwl ny ienHW bolIAW dI ivdvqw pRwpq kIqI[ ienHW dw ivAwh PrIdwbwd, id`lI dy lwlw iezq rwie dI spuqrI rwDw nwl hoieAw[ lwlw iezq rwie ny Awpxy Asr rsUK nwl b`lBGVH dy rwj ivc iSv idAwl nUM PwrsI pVHwaux dI nOkrI idvw id`qI[
    Awgry ivc gurU qyg bhwdr jI dy ieiqhwsk gurdvwry ‘mweI Qwn’ ivc ipMf ig`l, luiDAwxw dy inrmly sMq dIdwr isMG mhMq sn[ iSv idAwl ienHW koloN gurbwxI dI kQw dI is`iKAw lY ky ausy gurdvwry siqsMg krn l`g pey[ ihMdU rIq Anuswr iSv idAwl dy siqsMgI cyly aus nUM suAwmI AwKdy sn[ aunHW idnW ivc ipMf Gumwx, izlHw gurdwspur dy bwbw jYml isMG smyq is`^ POjI jo ik Awgry rih rhy sn, mweI Qwn dy gurdvwry siqsMg ivc gurbwxI kQw kIrqn srvx krn AwauNdy jWdy sn[ Awgry dy muslmwn Aqy ihMdU smwjW dI rihxI-bihxI, Kwx-pIx dIAW vwdIAW dy hwnIkwrk pRBwv ADIn iSv idAwl hu`kw Aqy pwn bIVI dw pRXog krdy sn[ ies q`Q dI puStI rwDw suAwmI mq dI AwpxI pusqk ‘swr bcn’ Aqy ‘jIvn ciRrqR’ ivcoN huMdI hY[
    hukw Br kr dwsI ilAweI, rwDw suAwmI iFg (kol) bYT iplweI, hukw h`k h`k bolI bolw[
    itpxI- ibAws rwDw suAwmI fyry dI hoNd is`^I dy kyNdr AMimRqsr izlHy ivc Aqy ies dy moFI bwbw jYml isMG Aqy aunHW dy vwrs is`^I srUp dy DwrnI hox krky ‘hu`kw h`k h`k bolI bolw’ dI QW ‘siqgur h`k h`k bolI bolw' pRclq hY[
    btI pRswdI suK BieAw BwrI[ iPr pwxI kI Br leI JwrI (hu`kw)[
    iPr Bojn kr bIVI KweI[ bWtI bIVI knhIAw BweI[ swr bcn, pMnw 779
    "iek vyr suAwmI iSv idAwl jI ny Awpxy cyly rwie swlgrwm nUM ikhw ik CyqI hu`ky au`qy A`g Dr ky ilAwau[ qW rwie swihb ny koTy dI iek dukwn qoN SIgr hI hu`ky dI topI ivc A`g r`K ilAWdI["
    "jd sMn 1878 ivc suAwmI iSv idAwl pRlok gmn kr gey qW fyF mhIny ipCoN aunHW ny AwpxI cylI, ijs dw nwm bukI sI nUM Sbd suriq dw AiBAws kridAW drSn id`qy[ bukI dy pRSn krn au`qy au`qr id`qw ik qMU myrI pihly vWg hI syvw kirAw kr[ auh ipCoN ikMnw icr ibsqrw ivCwauNdI Aqy hu`kw BrdI rhI[" rwDw suAwmI mq dy dUsry gurU swlgrwm, ‘jIvn cirqR’ pMnw 70
    gurdvwry dI is`^ sMgq dy ivroD krky suAwmI iSv idAwl Awpxy Gr hI siqsMg krn lg pey[ aunHW dy siqsMg ivc XU: pI: dy pihly post mwstr jYnrl, rwie bhwdr swlgrwm AwauNydy sn[ bwbw jYml isMG vI suAwmI iSv idAwl dy Gr siqsMg ivc jWdy rhy[
    rwDw suAwmI mq dw krqw
    BwvyN rwDw suAwmI mq dy moFI suAwmI iSv idAwl jI mMny jWdy hn pr ieh mq aunHW dw clwieAw hoieAw mq nhIN hY, sgoN sIqw-rwm, rwDy-Swm (ikRSn) Awid dI rIsy, aunHW dI pqnI rwDw Aqy iSv idAwl dy aupnwm suAwmI nUM joV ky rwDw suAwmI mq rwie bhwdr swlgrwm dw clwieAw hoieAw hY[
    "jd suAwmI jI dw AMqm smW nyVy AwieAw, suAwmI jI ny ikhw, ‘myrw mq qo siqnwm AOr AnwmI kw hY[ rwDw suAwmI mq rwie swlgrwm kw clwieAw hUAw hY[ ies ko BI clny dynw[’" suAwmI jI dy Brw lwlw pRqwp isMhu dI ihMdI ilKq ‘jIvn cirqR suAwmI iSv idAwl isMhu’, pMnw 113
    rwDw suAwmI mq dI aupmw Aqy AMnHIN SrDw vs cyilAW dI igxqI vDwaux leI suAwmI iSv idAwl dy SrDwlUAW ny rwDw suAwmI mq dI pusqk ‘swr bcn’ ivc iliKAw hY, "prm purS, kul mwlk, pUrn DnI rwDw suAwmI jIvoN ko mhw duKI AOr Brm myN dyK kr Awp aun ky auDwr ky lIey sMq siqgur rUp Dwr kr pRgt hUey[ mhInw Agsq sMn 1818["
    iSv idAwl jI nUM sIqw-rwm Aqy rwDy-Swm vWg AvqwrI purK ‘rwDw suAwmI’ pRgtwaux ihq Aqy aus dy mnoklpq ‘rwDw suAwmI’ nwmk mq nUM pRPu`lq krn dI Xojnw ADIn hor sMprdweI mqW vWg aus dy suAwrQI SrDwlUAW Aqy vwrsW ny vI h`Q kMfy vrqy hn[ mq dI pRmu`K pusqk‘swr bcn’ ivc kbIr jI dy muKvwk ivcoN Sbd Dwrw dy AnrQ krky rwDw nUM Sbd svwmI nwl joVn dw koJw jqn kIqw igAw hY[
    kbIr Dwrw AgMm kI, siqgur deI lKwie[ ault qwih sumrn kro, suvwmI sMg imlwie[ Bwv Sbd Dwrw nUM aultw ky rwDw Sbd nUM suAwmI nwl joV ky rwDw suAwmI bxw idau[
    gurU nwnk smyq hor jgq pRis`D DrmW dy moFIAW nwloN rwDw suAwmI nUM v`ifAwauNdy hoey‘swr bcn’ ivc iliKAw hY[
    siqjug qRyqw duAwpr bIqw[ kwhUM nw jwnI Sbd kI rIqw[
    kilXjug myN suAwmI dieAw ibcwrI[ pRgt krky Sbd pukwrI[
    "hzUr rwDw suAwmI idAwl ny AwpxI dXw sy sMswrI jIvoN ko jnm mrn sy bcwny ky lIey AOr iXh dyK kr ik hmwry Byjy hUey jIv mudq sy inhwieq qklIP myN hYN AOr cOrwsI ky ckr myN pVy hUey hYN, Aysw Awswn qrIkw Xog AiBAws kw zwhr kIAw hY ik hryk S^s ijs ko s`cw SOk prmwrQ kw ho, voh AwswnI sy ies qrIky sy AiBAws krky jnm mrn ky ckR sy CUt skqw hY[ Aysw Awswn qrIkw guzSqw zmwnw sy ly kr Awj qk iksI ny BI nhIN bqlwieAw["
    "Sbd kI qwrIP qo hryk mq myN hY, mgr Sbd kw Byd iksI mq kI ikqwb myN nhIN ilKw["
    pr ibAws rwDw suAwmI fyry dy bwbU swvx isMG ies pwj dw KMfn jwxy/Axjwxy krdy ilKdy hn, "Bwrq dy pRwcIn irSI aus (Sbd) nUM AkwSbwxI kihMdy sn[ vyd aus nUM ‘nwd’, aupinSd aud gIq, muslmwn sMq aus nUM ‘ndwie AwsmwnI’ jW sulq-nul-Ajkwr[ gurU nwnk dyv jI aus nUM Sbd, hukm Aqy kIrqn ibAwn krdy hn[ bweIbl ivc aus nUM Word or Logos Bwv Sbd ikhw hY[" Call of the Great Master, Page 49-50
    rwDw suAwmI mq dy Awpw-ivroDI Aqy AvqwrvwdI sMklp
    rwDw suAwmI mq Sbd gurU Aqy pUrv gurU dI QW vrqmwn gurU dI pUjw Aqy tyk dI isiKAw idMdw hY[
    ipCloN kI qj tyk, qyry Bly kI khUM[ vkq gurU ko mwn, qyry Bly kI khUM[ swr bcn
    gurU gRMQ nhIN ho skqw, voh qo jV hY, Kud bolqw nhIN AOr nw aupdyS kr skqw hY[ swr bcn
    pr ies dy ault ies mq dw dUjw gurU rwie swlgrwm Sbd dI mihmw vI krdw hY[ "kul mwlk dw srUp Sbd hY[ siqnwm pwrbRhm Awqmw, pRmwqmw, kul jIv BI Sbd srUp hYN[ bgYr Sbd kI aupwSnw AOr koeI iDAwn inj Gr myN nhIN pwhuMc skqw[ kul jIvoN ko jo Apnw auDwr cwhqy hYN, lwzmI hY ik AMqr myN Sbd gurU ky crnoN myN lgyN[" pRym pqR, Bwg 4, bcn 2, pMnw 14
    rwDwsuAwmI mq dy AMDkwrI isDWq
    1) eISvr srb SkqImwn hY[ aus dw sdw ivkws huMdw rihMdw hY[
    2) aus dw nwm kul mwlk qy rwDw suAwmI hY[ mnu`K dI suriq rwDw hY[ gurU dy iDAwn qy Sbd dy AiBAws nwl suriq rwDw suAwmI Dwm qIk pujdI hY[
    3) rwDw suAwmI Dwm qIk pwhuMcx dy iqMn swDn hn, gurU BgqI, Sbd suriq Aqy AiBAws[
    4) nwm do qrHW dw hY, vrxwqimk Aqy Dunwqimk
    5) isRStI rcnw dy iqMn Bwg hn, bRhmMf, ipMf, idAwl dyS[ kwl ny idAwl dI syvw kIqI, aus ny suriq nUM kwl v`s kr id`qw[ hux kwl qoN Cutkwrw pwauxw hY[
    6) siqsMg do iksm dw hY, AMqrIvI Bwv dyhDwrI gurU dw iDAwn Aqy Sbd ivc suriq nUM joVnw[ bwhrmuKI Bwv ksy cMgy purS dI sMgq krnI, aus dy Sbd suxny Aqy syvw krnI[
    7) vrqmwn gurU Bwv mwdI gurU hoxw lwzmI hY[ aus dI pRswdI (jUT) Kwxw Dwrimk krm hY[
    pRswdI (gurU dI jUT)
    rwDw suAwmI mq dy gRMQW ivc pRswdI, gurU dI jUT KwxI sRySt Dwrimk krm iliKAw hoeiAw imldw hY, ‘mhwqmwauN kI pRswdI qo inhwieq au`qm AOr pwk hY[ voh AMqhkrx ko SuD krqI hY[’ jIvn cirqR sRI iSv idAwl ishuM pMnw 101
    ‘pRswdI sy iXh mqlb hY ik sMq gurU jW swD gurU ApnI zbwn sy Cuey Xw lb lgw kr pivqR kr dy[’ swlgrwm, pRym pqR, Bwg 4 ,pMnw 104
    kIAw crnwimRq leI pRswdI[ hwr cVHw kr bMdgI swDI[
    gRws (burkI) pRswdI kw dIAw jb hI[ Gt ky prdy KulH gey qb hI[
    btI pRswdI suK BieAw BwrI[ iPr pwxI kI Br leI JwrI (hu`kw)[
    auT kr drSn iCn iCn pwqI[ crnwimRq pRswdI KwqI[
    crnwimRq pRswdI lyvY[ mwn munI qj qn mn dyvY[
    pIk-dwn ly pIk (Qu`k) krwvY[ iPr pIk sB Awp pI jwvY[
    iPr Bojn kr bIVI KweI[ bWtI bIVI knhIAw BweI[
    SIq pRswd sBI iml lInw[ jnm jnm ky pwqk CInw[
    kurlI deI suAwmI kul myrw auDwrw[ jnm sPl AOr qn mn suDwrw[ swr bcn, pMnw 779
    suAwmI iSv idAwl jI 60 swl dI aumr Bog ky 15 jUn 1878 (1 hwV sMmq 1935) nUM Awgry hI surgvws ho gey, ijQy ienHW dI smwD bxI hoeI hY[
    rwie swlgrwm
    ienHW dw jnm 14 mwrc 1829 nUM rwie bhwdr isMhu vkIl dy Gr Awgry ivc hoieAw[ ivdvqw pRwpq kr ky 18 swl dI aumr ivc 14 mwrc 1847 nUM post mwstr jnrl (pI: Aym: jI), XU: pI: dy dPqr ivc klrk dI nOkrI au`qy lg gey[ nOkrI dy 11vyN swl qr`kI krdy krdy pI: Aym: jI: dy mu`K AiDkwrI bx gey[ suAwmI iSv idAwl dw Brw lwlw pRqwp isMG vI pI: Aym: jI: dy dPqr ivc klrk sn Aqy gurbwxI dw pwT kirAw krdy sn[ gurbwxI qoN BRvwq hox kwrn rwie swlgrwm vI lwlw pRqwp isMG dI rwhIN suAwmI iSv idAwl dy siqsMgI bx gey[
    suAwmI iSv idAwl dy idhWq mgroN rwDw suAwmI mq, ijs dw muF rwie swlgrwm ny Awp hI DirAw sI, dy dUjy gurU bxy[ fwkKwny dy au`c AiDkwrI hox kwrn Awp ny rwDw suAwmI mq dy bhuq igxqI SDwlU bxwey Aqy mq nUM pRc`lq kIqw[ keI ieiqhwskwrW dw ivcwr hY ik rwDw suAwmI mq dy bhuigxqI SrDwlUAW, jo ik AMgryz dI nOkrI krdy sn, ny srkwr ivruD 1857 dy gdr ivc Bwg nhIN sI ilAw Aqy srkwr dI ‘pwVo qy rwj kro’ dI pwmr nIqI ADIn AMgryzW ny ies mq nUM pRc`lq krn ivc shwieqw kIqI sI[ 6 dsMbr 1898 nUM rwie swlgrwm dw Awgry ivc dyhWq ho igAw[
    pMfq bRhm SMkr
    rwie swlgrwm qoN mgroN rwDw suAwmI gdI dy vwrws pMfq bRhm SMkr bxy[ pMfq jI, jo ik bnwrs dy vsnIk sn, ny klk`qw XUnIvristI qoN AYm: ey:qk dI ividAw pRwpq kIqI Aqy Alwhwbwd dy AkwauNtYNt jnrl dy dPqr ivc au`c AiDkwrI bxy[ 12 AkqUbr 1907 nUM pMfq bRhm SMkr jI dw dyhWq ho igAw[
    rwDw suAwmI dI g`dI dw r`PV
    pMfq bRhm SMkr dy idhWq qoN mgroN rwDw suAwmI Awgry dI gdI dy vwrs kwmqw pRSwd bxy[ pMfq bRhm SMkr dI BYx bUAw jI nUM bnwrs dy lokW ny Avqwr mMn ilAw Aqy auh bnwrs dI g`dI dI gurU bx bYTI[ rwie mwDo pRSwd, jo ik Alwhwbwd dy AkwauNtyNt jnrl dy dPqr, ij`Qy pMfq bRhm SMkr kMm krdy sn, ny ieh SoSw C`f ky ik pMfq bRhm SMkr gdI dy vwrs aus nUM bxw gey hn, qIjI g`dI sQwpq kr leI[
    nvMbr 1913 ivc kwmqw pRSwd jI dw dyhWq ho igAw[ Awgry dI g`dI, jo ik idAwl bwg dy nwm nwl pRis`D sI, au`qy AMbwly dy AnMd srUp AlhUvwlIAw 1917 ivc pMjvy gurU bx bYTy[ Awgry ivc hI rwDw suAwmIAW dIAW iqMn g`dIAW bx geIAW sn idAwl bwg, suAwmI bwg Aqy ipplI mMfI[
    g`dI rwDw suAwmI ibAws
    iSv idAwl jI dy do mu`K siqsMgI SrDwlU sn, rwie swlgrwm Aqy bwbw jYml isMG jI[ rwie swlgrwm iSv idAwl jI dy dyhWq 15 jUn 1878 (1 hwV sMmq 1935) qoN mgroN rwDw suAwmI Awgry dI g`dI dy dUsry gurU bx gey[
    bwbw jYml isMG
    ipMf gumwx, izlHw gurdwspur dy jMm-pL bwbw jYml isMG sMn 1891 ivc POj dI nOkrI C`f ky ibAws stySn lwgy dirAw dy FwihAW ivc ipMf bl-srW dI jUh ivc Bjn bMdgI krn l`g pey[ ipMf bl-srW vwilAW, ijnHW nUM is`^ srUpI bwbw jYml isMG dy rwDw suAwmI siqsMgI hox bwry jwxkwrI nhIN sI, ny aus nUM is`^ sMq jwx ky ipMf dI Swmlwq ivcoN 11 knwl 16 mrly zmIn is`K Drmswl bxwaux vwsqy dy id`qI[ 14 jUn 1897 nUM ies zmIn dI rijstrI (nMbr 254) gurU gRMQ swihb dy nwm hoeI[ ipMf dy mohrI, mqwb isMG, Bwn isMG, bUV isMG, Syr isMG, guid`q isMG Aqy nMbrdwr lwlU rijstrI krvwaux vwilAW ivc Swml sn[ rijstrI ivc TyT aurdU Aqy pMjwbI ivc iliKAw hY ik ‘gurU gRMQ swihb vwikAw Drmswlw muqijm brwie hqmwm jYml isMG swD j`t[ BweI jYml isMG nUM ieh zmIn rihx jW bYA nhIN krn dw h`k hwsl nhIN hY, qwik Awm Drmswlw muq`lkw Drmswlw rhygI[’
    bwbU swvx isMG
    ipMf mihmw isMG vwlw, luiDAwxw dy jMm-pL bwbU swvx isMG gryvwl dw bwbw jYml isMG nwl myl sMn 1894 ivc kohmrI ivc hoieAw[ bwbw jYml isMG sMn 1903 ivc prlok clwxw kr gey[bwbw jYml isMG dy dyhWq mgroN auh rwDw suAwmI ibAws dI g`dI dy gurU bxy[ zmIn dy ieMqkwl nMbr 536, jo ik 10 meI 1905 nUM gurU gRMQ swihb dy nwm hoieAw, ivc iliKAw hY, ‘swvx isMG cylw jYml isMG brwie mohqimmoN[’ sMn 1948 2 AprYl nUM bwbU swvx isMG prlok clwxw kr gey[
    bwbw jgq isMG
    bwbU swvx isMG, jo ik sMq ikRpwl isMG nUM g`dI dw vwrs bxwauxw cwhuMdy sn, dI ieCw dy ault aunHW dy poqry crn isMG ny j`tW nUM mgr lw ky jgq isMG nUM gurU bxw id`qw[ sMn 1951 ivc jgq isMG prlok clwxw kr gey[
    crn isMG
    jgq isMG dy dyhWq mgroN crn isMG ny g`dI sWB leI[ bwbw jYml isMG dy auqrwiDkwrIAW ny 11 knwl 16 mrly dy fyry nUM keI guxw vDw ilAw[ is`^I gurmiq Aqy gurmrXwdw dy ault rwDw suAwmI mq, jo ik Avqwrvwd, mwXwvwd, imiQhwsvwd dw gMF-joV hY, dw pRcwr huMdw vyK ky ipMf bl-srW dy mohrIAW swDU isMG, qyjw isMG drSn isMG Aqy gurdws ml ny meI 1954 ivc j`j dI kcihrI ivc muk`dmw kr id`qw ik gurU gRMQ swihb dI mlkIAq 11 knwl 16 mrly vwlI QW au`qy is`^I mrXwdw Anuswr pRcwr kIqw jwvy[
    juAwb ivc crn isMG ny ikhw, ‘AsIN gRMQ swihb nUM gurU mMndy hI nhIN, bIV cu`k id`qI geI hY[ ies jwiedwd au`qy swfI injI mwlkI hY[’ jdoN sMn 1957 ivc h`d 30 GumW dI mwlkI dw kwnUn bx igAw qW crn isMG ny ‘rwDw suAwmI ibAws siqsMg’ nwm dI sMsQw bxw leI Aqy aus dw kbzw Awpxy h`Q-v`s r`K ilAw[
    rwDw suAwmI ibAws fyry dy vI DVy bx gey[ iek ivroDI DVy Anuswr ijhVI jwiedwd bwbU swvx isMG ny iskMdrpur, srsw ivc bxweI sI auh rwDw suAwmI ibAws fyry dI sWJI hY, pr crn isMG Anuswr auh anHW dI injI jwiedwd hY[
    rwDw suAwmI ibAws dIAW iqMn g`dIAW
    bwbU swvx isMG dy rwDw suAwmI ibAws dI g`dI sWB lYx nwl bwbw jYml isMG dy iek hor cyly bwbw b`gw isMG ny qrn qwrn ivc fyrw bxw ilAw[
    bwbU swvx isMG dy cyly sMq ikRpwl isMG ny ibAws vwlI g`dI jgjIq isMG nUM imlx krky id`lI dI guV mMfI ivc iek swvx AwSRm nwm dw fyrw sQwpq kr ilAw[
    v`K v`K rwDw suAwmI dy gurUAW dy mq-Byq
    "iek BweI ny vzIrwbwd Aqy dUjy ny lwhOr qoN s: swvx isMG qy aunHW nwl sMbMD rKx vwilAW bwry smwcwr ilKdy hoey bhuq APsos kIqw hY[ pr jd aunHW (bwbU swvx isMG) nUM siqsMg dI qwlIm dI vwkPIAq hI nhIN, qd aunHW dw kI ksUr hY[ sMswr ivc Ajyhy l`KW AwdmI hn, jo mn AwieAW g`lW krdy hn[" AnMd srUp, pRym pRcwrk Awgrw, 19 jnvrI 1931
    "iek BweI ny pRSn kIqw hY ik kI ibAws ivc vI ausy sMq mq dw pRcwr huMdw hY, ijs dw ik idAwl bwg ivc aupdyS kIqw jWdw hY? mYnU Awpxy qjrby qoN ieh mwlUm hY ik s:swvx isMG rwDw suAwmI nwm nUM DunIAwqimk nhIN mMdy[ suAwmI jI ibnw iksy hor gurU au`qy inscw nhIN krdy[ cUNik sMq siqgurU aus nwm dw aupdyS krdy hn, ijs dI DunI aunHW AMdr gUMjdI hY, jo aunHW dI izMdgI dw AwDwr hY’ ijs nwl auh is`^ dI suriq nUM joVdy hn[ ies qoN pRgt hY ik srdwr swihb (swvx isMG) dy AMdr nw rwDw suAwmI dI DunI hY, nw aunHW dw rwDw suAwmI Dwm nwl koeI sMbMD hY[" sRI AnMd srUp, pRym pRcwrk, 23 nvMbr 1931
    nwnksr sMpRdwie
    bwbw nMd isMG jI
    nwnksr sMpRdwie dy moFI bwbw nMd isMG jI dw jnm rwmgVIey jY isMG dy Gr ipMf Syrpur klW, qihsIl jgrwauN, izlw luiDAwxw ivKy hoieAw[ aunHW ny bwl AvsQw qoN hI inrmly Aqy audwsI mq dI ibRqI Aqy rucI kwrn BgqI mwrg Apnw ilAw Aqy sMq vDwvw isMG Aqy hrnwm isMG qoN Dwirmk ividAw pRwpq kIqI[ kuC icr hzUr swihb syvw kIqI[ sMn 1918 ivc ipMf klyrW ivc Aw ky Bjn bMdgI SurU kr id`qI Aqy mwlvy dy ielwky ivc is`^I dw pRcwr kIqw[ gurU nwnk dy AwSy Anuswr Awpxy SrDwlUAW nUM AwdyS id`qw ik aunHW dI Xwd ivc koeI gurdvwrw jW smwD Awid nw bxweI jwvy[ bwbw jI sMn 1943 ivc surgvws ho gey[
    sMq eISr isMG jI
    sMq eISr isMG jI dw jnm sMn 1905 ivc rwm isMG dy Gr, ipMf A`lovwl, izlw pitAwlw ivKy hoieAw[ mwipAW ny aunHW dw nwm gulwb isMG r`iKAw[ muFlI ividAw lwgly ipMf culylw dy skUl ivc pRwpq kIqI Aqy 10vI qk dI pVHweI pitAwly mwfl skUl ivc pUrI kIqI[ sMq Aqr isMG jI dy SrDwlU bx ky ryrU rihx lg pey Aqy AMimRq C`kx qy eISr isMG nwm riKAw igAw[ jnvrI sMn 1927 ivc sMq Aqr isMG dy idhWq qoN mgroN kuC icr is`^ gurDwmW dI Xwqrw kr ky rwVy Aw ky sMq nMd isMG jI dy SrDwlU bx gey[ sMq nMd isMG jI dy surgvws hox auprMq sMq eISr isMG ny bwbw nMd isMG jI dy AwSy dy ault rwVy ngr nUM nwnksr fyry dw muF bxw id`qw[
    sMq ikSn isMG jI
    sMq ikSn isMG jI dw jnm dsMbr sMn 1900 ivc pwlw isMG ipMf msIqW, izlwH srsw, (hirAwxw) ivc hoieAw[ ipMf dy swD srmuK dws Aqy qoqw rwm qoN gurbwxI dw pwT krn jogI gurmuKI pVHI[ gBrU aumr ivc pitAwlw Poj ivc nOkrI kr leI Aqy gRMQI gurbKS isMG nUM gurbwxI dw pwT, kIqn Aqy hor Dwrimk syvwvW krn ivc sihjog idMdy rhy[ pltx ivc sMq Aqr isMG, rwrUvwly dy bhuq SrDwlU hox kr ky BweI ikSn isMG vI aunHW dy SrDwlU bx geY[
    ds swl dI nOkrI auprMq sMq Aqr isMG dI Srn rwrU gurdvwry ivc Aw itky[ sMn 1927 ivc sMq Aqr isMG dy idhWq hox qy Awpxy gur-BweI eISr isMG nwl gurDwmW dI Xwqrw kr ky sMq nMd isMG jI dy AsQwn rwVy ngr ivc Aw itky[ sMn 1943 sMq nMd isMG jI dy surgvws hox auprMq ij`Qy BweI eISr isMG gurbwxI duAwrw is`^I dw pRcwr krdy auQy BweI ikSn isMG lMgr Awid dy pRbMD dI syvw krdy[ sMn 1963 ivc sMq eISr isMG dy Akwl clwxy pr Awp dovyN syvwvW inBwauNdy rhy[ 3 jnvrI sMn 1990 ivc Awp dw dyhWq ho igAw[
    sMq qyjw isMG jI
    Awp izlwh luiDAwxw, ipMf pohIr, BweI rwm isMG dy Gr 17 jnvrI sMn 1927 ivc jnmy[ ipMf dy skUl ivc cOQI jmwq dI pVHweI kIqI Aqy igAwnI igAwn isMG qoN gurbwxI pwT Aqy kIrqn dI dwq pRwpq kIqI[ sMn 1948 ivc nwnksr dy fyry Aw ky syvw ivc jut gey[ 10 jnvrI sMn 1990 ivc sMq ikSn isMG dy dyhWq pr SrDwlUAW ny Awp nUM nwnksr dI g`dI dw vwrs bxw id`qw[
    mwXwDwrI swDW dIAW cwtirAW ip`Cy vhIrW
    gurbwxI Aqy gurmiq qW pRBU pRwpqI dy mwrg dy pWDI, is`K nUM gurU (Sbd) gRihx krn nUM pRyrdI hY pr dMBI sMq bwibAW, pKMfI swDW ny lweI-l`g cwtiVAW dI Bwl ivc vhIrW Gq ky is`^W dI vDyry igxqI vwLy ivdySI SihrW ivc vI T`gI dy A`fy KolH ley[
    bwbw mINhW isMG
    pRwpq sMKyp jwnkwrI Anuswr bwbw mINhW isMG dw jnm jnvrI sMn 1906 ivc hoieAw[ nwnksr TwT/fyry isAwV, izlwh luiDAwxw, pMjwb Aqy ircmuMf ,bI sI, kYnyfw dy fyirAW/gurdvwiAW dy moFI hox qoN is`D huMdw hY ik bwbw jI bwbw nMd isMG dy mu`Fly cyilAW ivcoN sn[ isAwV dy fyry/gurdvwry dw muF kdoN riKAw igAw ies bwry koeI jwnkwrI auplbD nhIN hY[
    disAw jWdw hY ik bwbw mINhW isMG jI sMn 1970 ivc bwhrly mulkW dy dOry qy cVH pey Aqy aunHW ny sB qoN pihlW ircmuMf, bI sI, kYnyfw ivc fyrw/gurdvwrw bxwaux dw AwrMB iviFAw[ 12 julweI sMn 1979 ies fyry/gurdvwry nUM soswietI vjoN rijstr krvwiAw igAw[ hux ies sMsQw nwl AYfimMtn, (AlbRtw). bRYmptn, (auntYrIau), srI (bI sI), Aqy koivntrI, ieMglYf dy fyry/gurdvwry vI sMbMDq d`sy jWdy hn[
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