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Raagas in SGGS

Discussion in 'Gurmat Vichaar' started by GurpreetPanesar, Mar 18, 2011.

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  1. GurpreetPanesar

    GurpreetPanesar
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    Hi there,

    Sat Sri Akal.

    Would anyone, by any chance, be having detailed info on Raagas referred to in SGGS? (I would prefer if info other than that on wikipedia is given! :))

    Thanks!

    Gury
     
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  3. spnadmin

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    Re: Raagas in Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji

    There is a wealth of information at this source. If you mouse over this page and click on the embedded inks, each link takes you to another page which explains in great detail, every raag. There are also links at the bottom of the page that discuss instruments, taals, sangeet, and other topics. :)

    http://www.searchgurbani.com/raags


    Gurbani Raags

    Sri Devghandhari Jaitsiri Bilawal Maru Sarang Maj Bihagra Todi Gaund Tukhari Malhar Gauri Wadhans Berari Ramkali Kedara Kanara Asa Sorath Tilang Nutnarain Bhairav Kalyan Gujri Dhanasri Suhi Mali Gaura Basant Parbhati Jaijaiwanti

    The Indian Classical Music has three built in pillars called elements of music, they are:


    • Raga
      Mood
      Expression


    A. Raga:

    Raag, in the Sanskrit dictionary, is defined as "the act of coloring or dyeing" (the mind in this context) and "any feeling or passion especially love, affection, sympathy, vehement desire, interest, joy, or delight". In music, these descriptions apply to the impressions of melodic sounds on both the artist(s) and listener(s). A raag consists of required and optional rules governing the melodic movements of notes within a performance.

    Indian classical music is based on raga system, which has continuously evolved over the millenniums, from pre Aryan period until today. The music and ragas also have their roots in the Hindu mythology e.g., Shiv's tandav dance, and Narad's and Saraswati's playing of divine musical instruments are legendary evidences of the existence of music in the world of gods.

    The definition and meaning of raga has changed many a times over the long period of history and mythology. The root word for the term 'Raga' is the Sanskrit word 'Ranja' meaning to please, to colour or to tinge. The meaning of the raga revolves around three basic elements:



    • colour
      passion, and
      melody.

    The melodic performer utilizes a raag as the foundation for improvisation. A recital explores a raag in an non-metered form and/or within the confines of a cyclical rhythmic structure, using intricate ornamentation of notes. First the raag is introduced with a note or group of notes, and then the improvisation progresses to a more melodically and rhythmically complex form.

    The manner in which raags originate is a fascinating subject. Many raags are polished forms of a family of regional folk melodies while others have been created through the imagination of musicians. Some of the latter are raags with their own distinct characteristics whereas other creations are a combination of one or more existing raags. The names of some established raags have changed with time and the characteristics/ definitions of raags also are not as rigid as claimed in theory.

    History of ragas:

    • Bharata is considered to be the earliest authority on Indian Music. In his work 'Natya Shastra' written in the third century A.D.. he has explained the meaning of ragas but has not given any coherent definition of the word. Later works of this period were produced by Kayshap and Matanga
    • Pandit Somnath's work titled 'Rag - Vobodh' was produced in the medieval period. He said that a raga was an arrangement of sounds, consisting of musical notes, which possess Varna. Varna here means manner and order in which Svaras (notes) are applied.
    • The modern writers have given the following definitions of a raga:

    i. Fox Strangeway defines a raga as: "An arbitrary series of notes characterised as far as possible as individuals, by proximity to or remoteness from the note which marks the general level of melody, by a special order in which they are usually reinforced by a drone". 1
    Music of Hindustan, Oxford University, 1914, pp. 107

    ii. Herbert A. Popley defines a raga as: "Different series of notes within the octave, which form each other by the prominence of certain fixed notes and by the sequence of particular notes". 2

    B .Mood
    Mood is the frame of mind or state of feelings. It is the comprehensive term for any state of mind in which one emotion or desire or a set of them is ascendant.

    C. Expression
    It is primarily an act or process of representation. It deals with the role of expression in a musical performance, the means of expression and the factors responsible for expression while presenting any raga.

    Ragamala

    The literal meaning of the word Ragmala is: a chain/necklace (mala) of ragas i.e., a list of ragas. This list differs according to the author and the music school it is based upon. Thus there exists a number of such lists in the music text books.

    The Ragamala listed in Guru Granth Sahib belongs to Hanumant school of music. According to Bhai Vir Singh, a Sikh scholar, the ragamala included in Guru Granth Sahib was prepared by Guru Nanak Dev and it contains a list of popular ragas of that period of time. This ragamala must not be read as an index of ragas of Guru Granth Sahib, for it is only a list of popular ragas sung at the time period of Sikh Gurus.

    Moreover there are ragas mentioned in the Ragamala which are not included in Guru Granth Sahib, and there are ragas used in Guru Granth Sahib which are not mentioned in the Ragamala. In fact the Ragamala included in Guru Granth Sahib is no way related to the ragas used by the Sikh Gurus to compose their hymns. It is just an independent list of ragas based on Hanumant School of music.

    It is also important to note that unlike various Schools of Music, there is no mention of raginis (consort of ragas) or their sons in Guru Granth Sahib. There is a mention of 37 ragas. Thirty one ragas refer to 31 chapters in the musical section of Guru Granth Sahib (pages 14 - 1353), and six other ragas mentioned therein have been mixed with the 31 major names used in Guru Granth Sahib.

    The following ragas names, which are used as chapter headings, have been used by the Sikh Gurus to compose their hymns:

    Sri Devghandhari Jaitsiri Bilawal Maru Sarang Maj Bihagra Todi Gaund Tukhari Malhar Gauri Wadhans Berari Ramkali Kedara Kanara Asa Sorath Tilang Nutnarain Bhairav Kalyan Gujri Dhanasri Suhi Mali Gaura Basant Parbhati Jaijaiwanti

    Other six raga names mentioned/used in Guru Granth Sahib are:



    • Asawari*
    • Lalit*
    • Hindol*
    • Vibas
    • Kafi
    • Bhopali


    The ragas marked with asterix (*) sign mentioned above are listed in Guru Granth Sahib's ragamala, which has a mention of a total of 64 raga names, including 6 major ragas, 30 raginis and 48 sons of ragas. Thus out of a total of 64 ragas mentioned in the ragamala, the Sikh Gurus have used only 20 (17 major names, and 3 other raga names) ragas and have used 17 (14 major names and 3 other names) other ragas which are not mentioned in the Guru Granth Sahib's ragamala.

    Specialist Terminology to understand musical terms used in the following pages.

    1. Thaat- The tune of seven ascending and descending notes is called 'Thath oio' ,

    • A Thaat must have seven notes out of the twelve notes [Seven Shuddha, Four komal (Re, Ga, Dha , Ni), one teevra (Ma) ], placed in an ascending order. Both the forms of the notes can be used.
    • Thaat has only an Aaroha.
    • Thaats are not sung but the raags produced from the Thaats are sung.
    • Thaats are named after the popular raag of that Thaat. For example Bhairavi is a popular raag and the thaat of the raag Bhairavi is named after the raag.
    The music books record ten basic thaats:


    2. Arohi - The ascending scale (sa re ga ma pa dha ni sa) .This is the pattern of notes in which a Raag ascends the scale.
    3. Avrohi - The descending scale (sa ni dha pa ma ga re sa) This is the pattern of notes in which a Raag decends the scale.
    4. Vadi- The most popular note ,This is a note which is strongly emphasised within a particular Raag.
    5. Samvadi- The second most popular note,This is a note which is emphasised within a particular Raag, but not as much as the Vadi.
    6. Aurav- A raga of five notes
    7. Khaurav- A raga of six notes
    8. Sampooran- A raga of seven notes
    9. Aurav-Khaurav- Where arohi has five notes, but avrohi has six notes.
    10. Khaurav-Aurav- Where arohi has six notes, but avrohi has five notes.
    11. Aurav-Sampooran- Where arohi has five notes, but avrohi has seven notes
    12. Khaurav-Sampooran- Where arohi has six notes, but avrohi has seven notes.
    13. Sampooran-Aurav- Where arohi has seven notes, but avrohi has five notes.
    14. Sampooran-Khaurav- Where arohi has seven notes, but avrohi has six notes.
    15. Saptaks - This refers to three divisions of a harmonium


    • Mandar - first (top) part of seven notes
    • Middle - central part of seven notes
    • Tar - last part of seven notes.

    16. The notes can be soft (komal) or sharp (teever)


    Musical terms regarding a presentation of a raag in vocal style


    1.Sthayee : The first part of the composition. Mainly develops in the the lower and the middle octave.
    2..Antaraa : Second part of the composition. Develops in the middle or higher note.
    3.Mukhadaa : The first line of the composition.

    Common Themes of Shabads placed under Raags of Guru Granth Sahib


    1. Soohi - Being away from home. The soul being away from the House of Lord and the joy of meeting the true husband.
    2. Bilaaval - beautification of soul, happiness.
    3. Gaund - Separation, union, surprise.
    4. Sri - Maya and detachment
    5. Maajh - yearning to merge with Lord, giving up of negative values.
    6. Gauri - Principles, serious, thoughtfulness, composed
    7. Aasa - Hope
    8. Gujri - Prayer (Pooja)
    9. Devgandhari - Merging with spouse, self - realization
    10. Bihaagra - Yearning due to separation of soul and happiness due to meeting the Lord.
    11. Sorath - Merits of God
    12. Dhanasari - Mixed theme
    13. Jaitsree - Stability
    14. Todi - Maya, separation
    15. Bairagi - motivation to sing praises of Lord
    16. Tilang - many words from the vocabulary of Islamic origins are used, sadness, beautification.
    17. Raamkali - to give up the life of a wandering Jogi.
    18. Nat Narayan - Joy of meeting the Lord
    19. Maali Gaura - Happiness
    20. Maaru - Bravery
    21. Tukhari - Separation and union with Lord
    22. Kedara - Love
    23. Bhairav - Man's state of hell
    24. Basant - Happiness
    25. Sarang - Thirst to meet God
    26. Malaar - State of separated and united soul
    27. Jaijawanti - Vairaag (Detachment)
    28. Kalyaan - Bhakti (Prayer) Ras
    29. Vadhans - Vairaag (Detachment)
    30. Parbhati - Bhakti (Prayer)
    31. Kaanra - Bhakti (Prayer)


    Feelings communicated by the music of Raags


    1. Soohi - joy and separation
    2. Bilaaval - happiness
    3. Gaund - strangeness, surprise, beauty
    4. Sri - satisfaction and balance
    5. Maajh - loss, beautification
    6. Gauri - seriousness
    7. Aasa - making effort
    8. Gujri - satisfaction, softness of heart, sadness
    9. Devgandhari - no specific feeling but the Raag has a softness
    10. Bihaagra - beautification
    11. Sorath - motivation
    12. Dhanasari - inspiration, motivation
    13. Jaitsree - softness, satisfaction, sadness
    14. Todi - this being a flexible Raag it is apt for communicating many feelings
    15. Bhairaagi - sadness, (Gurus have, however, used it for the message of Bhakti)
    16. Tilang - this is a favourite Raag of Muslims. It denotes feeling of beautification and yearning.
    17. Raamkali - calmness
    18. Nat Narayan - happiness
    19. Maali Gaura - happiness
    20. Maaru - giving up of cowardice
    21. Tukhari - beautification
    22. Kedara - love and beautification
    23. Bhairav - seriousness, brings stability of mind
    24. Basant - happiness
    25. Sarang - sadness
    26. Malaar - separation
    27. Jaijawanti - viraag
    28. Kalyaan - Bhakti Ras
    29. Vadhans - vairaag, loss (that is why Alahniya is sung in this Raag when someone passes away)
    30. Parbhati - Bhakti and seriousness
    31. Kaanra - Bhakti and seriousness

    Links to discussion of Gurbani raags


    Sri
    Devghandhari
    Jaitsiri
    Bilawal
    Maru
    Sarang
    Maj
    Bihagra
    Todi
    Gaund
    Tukhari
    Malhar
    Gauri
    Wadhans
    Berari
    Ramkali
    Kedara
    Kanara
    Asa
    Sorath
    Tilang
    Nutnarain
    Bhairav
    Kalyan
    Gujri
    Dhanasri
    Suhi
    Mali Gaura
    Basant
    Parbhati
    Jaijaiwanti

    Additional links: Timing of Gurbani Raags, Taals in Gurbani Sangeet, Glossary of Indian Musical Terms, Musical Instruments

    Timing of Gurbani Raags
    Taals in Gurbani Sangeet
    Glossary of Indian Musical Terms
    Musical Instruments
     
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  4. jasbirkaleka

    jasbirkaleka India
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    Thanks for this all in-compassing and comprehensive writer-up on Raags, Raags and Raagnies used in Guru Granth Sahib and the feelings and pathoes of each Raag.
    Thanks again.
    I am going to save it for future reference.:singhsippingcoffee:
     
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  5. Astroboy

    Astroboy Malaysia
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    ਨਾਮ ਤੇਰੇ ਕੀ ਜੋਤਿ ਲਗਾਈ (Previously namjap)
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    Some Technical Terms Used in Gurbani – by Taranjit Singh

    The Sikh Gurus wrote Shabads in poetical-metric forms. They were then associated with various Raagas and Ghars and many other terms such as Partaal, Sudhang, Rahaaou, Pauree, Vaar, Ikpadaa, Dupadaa, Tipadaa, Chaarpade, Ashatpadee, Chhand, Ghorian and Alahunian of folk music, types of Kirtan music, Gaathaa, Funhe, Chaubole, Savayyas, Karhale, Solahe, Mahalaa, Pattee, and so on. This Gurbani Reflection will attempt to have a brief discussion of these.

    RAAGAS:
    Raaga — combination of a set pattern of notes — is a condition of melody, which literally means to color or to please. Sri Guru Granth Sahib (SGGS) is arranged in chapters that bear names of musical Raagas, according to the nature of the composition, the musical clef (Ghar), etc. Each of the Raagas is unique. From a music standpoint, specifically the Baanee of the SGGS is arranged and indexed according to the prescribed Raagas, singing forms, music signs/ headings and the other guidelines noted in the Baanee. Popularly known as Gurmat Sangeet, such system of Gur-Shabd Kirtan instituted by the Sikh Gurus (initially established by Baabaa Nanak) is a unique musical tradition indeed, which creates original and specific musicology. The Gurus made the Kirtan an inseparable part of the Sikh way of life. The mixture of both the Shabad and the Raagas compliment each other in that the Raaga conveys a feeling and the Shabad a message. Thus combined together both produce very potent effect and impact on the human mind and heart, invoking spiritual sentiment, concentration, discipline, longing and love for God, etc. Thus the aim of the Kirtan is to experience the inner joy (Bliss) and Sahaj (one's natural state of Being). Therefore, the Kirtan is mentioned in the SGGS to be "the support of life", "remedy against evil", "source of virtues", "invaluable gem", "ocean of bliss", "divine nectar", "bestower of salvation", and so on. Sri Guru Arjan Dev Jee (who first compiled and installed the Aadi Granth at the Harmandir Sahib, was very fond of the Kirtan and the music) initiated the system of music sessions (Chowkies) at the Harmandir Sahib.

    The entire Baanee of the SGGS has been classified under 31 main Raagas. They are as follows: Sri, Maanjh, Gauree, Aasaa, Gujree, Devghandhaaree, Bihaagraa, Wadhans, Sorath, Dhanaasree, Jaitsree, Todee, Bairaaree, Tilang, Suhee, Bilaawal, Gaund, Raamkalee, Nat Naaraayan, Maalee Gauraa, Maaroo, Tukhaaree, Kedaaraa, Bhairav, Basant, Saarang, Malhaar, Kaanraa, Kalyaan, Parbhaatee, and Jaijawantee.

    Besides these 31 main Raagas, there are also variants of Raagas such as Gauree Guaareree, Gauree Dakhanee, Gauree Chetee, Gauree Deepkee, Gauree Poobee, Gauree Maanjh, Gauree Poobee Deeplee, Gauree Sulakhanee, Gauree Maalvaas, Gauree Maalaa, Gauree Bairaagan, Gauree Sorath, Wadhans Dakhanee, Tilang Kaafee, Suhee Kaafee, Suhee Lalit, Bilaaval Dakhanee, Bilaaval Gaund, Bilaaval Mangal, Raamkalee Dakhanee, Maroo Kafee, Maaroo Dakhanee, Basant Hindol, Kalyaan Bhoopaalee, Praabhaatee Dakhanee, and Praabhaatee Bibhaas.

    Each Raaga offers a unique relationship to human moods and feelings. Another interesting aspect of Raagas is that there is a seasonal allocation as well as daily twenty-four hour time cycle allocation. For example, there are some morning Raagas, some evening Raagas, some afternoon Raagas, some night Raagas, and so on . Also, there are Raagas that are associated with seasons. For example, Malhaar and Megha Raagas, are sung in the rainy season, in the spring the Basant Raaga, etc. The reason is that human mind and heart undergo varying degrees of mood changes during a twenty-four hour time cycle as well as different seasons, therefore, certain Raagas are particularly suitable for certain time of the day and night as well as season. Dividing daily twenty-four hour timing cycle in eight Pahars and each Pahar in approximately three hour-period, the Raagas of each Pahar are as follows:
    • 6 AM - 9AM: Bilaaval, Devgandhaaree
    • 9 AM - 12 PM: Saarang, Suhee, Bilaaval, Gujree, Goaud, Todee
    • 12 PM - 3 PM: Wadhans, Maaroo, Dhanaasaree
    • 3 PM - 6 PM: Maanjh, Gauree, Tilang, Tukharee
    • 6 PM - 9 PM: Sri Raaga, Basant, Maalee Gauraa, Jaitsree, Kedaaraa, Kalyaan
    • 9 PM - 12 AM: Bihaagra, Nat Naraayan, Sorath, Malhaar, Kaanraa, Jaijawantee
    • 12 AM - 3 AM: No Raaga specified in the SGGS. The reason could be that this is the time to sleep!
    • 3AM - 6AM: Aasaa, Raamkalee, Bhairav, Parbhaatee
    Unfortunately, Kirtan today has been commercialized to such an extent that most Raagees (Kirtan singers) are only focused and concerned with making quick money. This is commercialization and exploit of the faith. We all are to be blamed for this condition. Because, we do not perform Kirtan ourselves as envisioned by the fifth Guru, Sri Guru Arjan Dev Jee. Instead we hire the so called professionals to sing it for us. The results are in front of us.
    Before Sri Guru Arjan Dev Jee started amateur class of Kirtan singers to perform Kirtan, professional singers (like nowadays) called "Rabbaabees" used to perform Kirtan for the Sangat (congregation) and the Guru. To cut the long story short, once these "Rabbaabees" went on strike, and thus denied to sing. It was that time Sri Guru Arjan Dev Jee started training the amateur class of Raagees to perform Kirtan. The sixth Guru (Sri Guru Hargobind Jee) started a new class of Raagees called "Dhaadee", who sang heroic deeds of old warriors. They thus inspired the Guru's soldiers. The name "Dhaadee" came from "Dhad", which is a relatively small handheld percussion drum.

    GHAR:
    It is a musical sign, used at the top of the Shabad in the SGGS. It gives a hint to Raagees as to what musical clef (beat) to sing the Shabad in. In other words, "Ghar" binds music and poetry in their metrical-form. There are up to seventeen "Ghar" mentioned in the SGGS. Musicologists have different interpretations of this term. But the consensus seems to be that it denotes the parts of a Taal (beat). Following is a list of seventeen Taals used in Indian Music with their respective "Ghar". A close observation of the following list indicates that the majority of the modern Raagees generally seem to sing only in the first three or four.
    • GHAR 1 — Daadraa Taal (There is 1 Taalee* and the Beat has 6 Maatraas**
    • GHAR 2 — Roopak Taal (There are 2 Taalees and the Beat has 7 Maatraas)
    • GHAR 3 — Teen Taal (There 3 Taalees and the Beat has 16 Maatraas)
    • GHAR 4 — Chaar Taal (There are 4 Taalees and the Beat has 12 Maatraas)
    • GHAR 5 — Panj Taal Swaaree (There are 5 Taalees and the Beat has 15 Maatraas)
    • GHAR 6 — Khatt Taal (There are 6 Taalees and the Beat has 18 Maatraas)
    • GHAR 7 — Matt (Ashat) Taal (There are 7 Taalees and the Beat has 21 Maatraas)
    • GHAR 8 — Asht Mangal Taal (There are 8 Taalees and the Beat has 22 Maatraas)
    • GHAR 9 — Mohinee Taal (There are 9 Taalees and the Beat has 23 Maatraas)
    • GHAR 10 — Braham Taal (There are 10 Taalees and the Beat has 28 Maatraas)
    • GHAR 11 — Rudra Taal (There are 11 Taalees and the Beat has 32 Maatraas)
    • GHAR 12 — Vishnu Taal (There are 12 Taalees and the Beat has 36 Maatraas)
    • GHAR 13 — Muchkund Taal (There are 13 Taalees and the Beat has 34 Maatraas)
    • GHAR 14 — Mahashanee Taal (There are 14 Taalees and the Beat has 42 Maatraas)
    • GHAR 15 — Mishr Baran Taal (There are 15 Taalees and the Beat has 47 Maatraas)
    • GHAR 16 — Kul Taal (There are 16 Taalees and the Beat has 42 Maatraas)
    • GHAR 17 — Characharee Taal (There are 17 Taalees and the Beat has 40 Maatraas)
    * Taalee is the pattern of clapping. Taals are typified by a particular pattern and number of claps.
    ** Maatraa is the beat, which may be subdivided if required.
    There are many other Taals that may or may not have the same number of Taalees and/or Maatraas. For example Punajabi Taal, Chhotee Teen Taal, and Thumri all have the same number of Taalees and Maatraas as the Teen Taal. Both the Jhap Taal and Sool Phaak Taal have 3 Taalees as in Teen Taal but only 10 Maatraas. Both Dhamar Taal and Chnachal Taal have 3 Taalees as in Teen Taal but have only 14 Maatras. Ik Taal has 4 Taalees and 12 Maatraas as in Chaar Taal. Aadaa Chautaalaa, Bhaan Matee Taal (Chaar Taal Dee Savaaree), Jagg Paal Taal, and Jai Taal all have 4 Taalees as in Chaar Taal but not the same Maatraas (14, 11, 11 and 13, respectively). Sikhar Taal has 3 Taalees as in Teen Taal but 17 Maatraas. Talwaaraa Taal has 2 Taalees as in Roopak Taal, but 8 Maatraas. Indra Taal has 6 Taalees as in Khatt Taal, but 19 Maatraas. Deep Chandee or Chaachar Taal and Jhumraa Taal have 3 Taalees as in Teen Taal, but 14 Maatraas, and so on. Evidently the Indian music has developed and expanded in such a disciplined way that it has Taals of a just a few Maatraas to many Maatraas.

    Not only music, Taal also pervades every movement of the entire Creation. Days, nights, weeks, months, years, seasons, movement of the planets in orbits, constant spinning of electrons around the center of the atom (called the nucleus where the protons and neutrons are located) etc. are a few reminders.

    VAAR AND DHUNI :
    There are 22 Vaaras included in the SGGS, 9 of them come with distinctive assigned traditional folk musical tunes (Dhuni) of their own as noted below. Thus, they have a simple rhythm or a pattern of a folk Taal (beat) with a wider simple and emotional appeal. Vaars are not assigned with any particular "Ghar" notation. They are accompanied by "Slokas" and "Paurees", and the essence of the Vaar lies in the "Pauree". They are generally intended to produce martial feelings.
    • Maanjh Kee Vaar Mahala 1 — Malak Mureed Tathaa Chandharaa Soheeaa kee Dhuni (sggs 137).
    • Gauree Kee Vaar Mahala 4 — Raai Kamaaldee Mojdee Kee Dhuni (sggs 318).
    • Aasaa Dee Vaar Mahala 1 — Tunde Asraaje Kee Dhuni (sggs 462).
    • Gujree Kee Vaar Mahala 3 — Sikandar Biraahim Kee Kee Dhuni (sggs 508).
    • Wadhans Kee Vaar Mahala 5 — Lalaan Bahreemaa Kee Dhuni (sggs 585).
    • Raamkalee Kee Vaar Mahala 3 — Jodhe Veere Poorvaanee Kee Dhuni (sggs 947).
    • Saarang Kee Vaar Mahala 5 — Raai Mahame Hasane Kee Dhuni (sggs 1237).
    • Malaar Kee Vaar Mahala 1 — Raanai Kailaas Tathaa Maalde Kee Dhuni (sggs 1278).
    • Kaanare Kee Vaar Mahala 5 — Moose Kee Dhuni (sggs 1312).

    Vaars are to be sung in appropriate Raaga and Dhuni indicated in the SGGS. For example, Maanjh Kee Vaar is to be sung in Raaga Maanjh accompanied by the Taala of "Malak Mureed Tathaa Chandharaa Soheeaa kee Dhuni". Unfortunately the art of traditional Dhunis mentioned in the SGGS appears to be dying out, and needs to be preserved by training youngsters.

    GHORIAN, ALAHUNIAN AND KARHALE:
    In addition to the classical music, the folk music (because of its wide appeal) is also given importance in the SGGS. In this regard, in addition to the Vaars listed above, there are some Shabads about the "Ghorian" and "Alahunian" etc. "Ghorian" Shabads are on marriage and other festive occasions. "Alahunian" Shabads are on death.

    Karhale is a type of the "Chhand". It also denotes a type of folk music the camel riders sing while traveling. The Gurbani has repeatedly compares our wandering minds with the camel as well. For example, see SGGS pages 234-235.

    PARTAAL:
    This is also a musical sign for the Ragees. Partaal means there are different Taals (beat) for the parts of the Shabad. In other words, Partaal means the parts of the Shabad should be sung in different Taalas and tempo. In the SGGS, there are 49 Shabads in Partaal set to different "Ghar".

    SUDHANG:
    This is also a musical sign for the Ragees. This term appears once in the SGGS (page 369, Aasaa Raaga). Essentially it conveys direction to Raagees to sing the Shabad in its pure form. For example, when the Shabad is in Aasaa Raaga, then it must be sung in that Raaga (and Ghar).

    RAHAOU:
    The word "Rahaou" marks "pause", and denotes main theme line. In other words, the verse of "Rahaou" contains the basis, essence or central thought of the Shabad. Whilst, the remaining lines of the Shabad are considered an exposition of the verse of "Rahaou". That's why Raagees use it as "Asthaaee" (first or the main part of the music composition) and thereby sing it repeatedly. In some Shabads, there are more than one "Rahaou", such as Rahaaou 1, Rahaaou 2, Rahaaou 3, Rahaaou 4, etc.(for example, see Pages 26-26, 154, 96-97, 899 of the SGGS). This indicates introduction of a new thought. There is no "Rahaou" in the "Slokas". In regard to the Vaars of Bhai Gurdaas Jee, the last line of the "Pauree" is considered to contain the main thought.

    IKPADAA, DUPADAA, TIPADAA, CHAARPADE, CHHAND, CH HAKAA, ASHATPADEE, SAVAYYAS:
    As the name implies, "Ikpadaa" denotes the Shabads of one verse. When "Ikpadaa" shabads have two verses, they are sung as one verse. "Dupadaa" are the Shabads that contain, besides the Rahaou lines, two stanzas. "Tipadaa" are the Shabads of three stanzas. Similarly, the "Chaupade" are the Shabads of four verses, "Chhands" are the Shabads of six lines, and "Ashatpadee" are the Shabads of eight verses. "Chhhakaa" is of six Padaas. Someplaces both "Chaupade Dupade" appear together (for example, see SGGS page 185). It means that particular Shabad contains "Chaupade" following "Dupade". The "Savayyas" are the compositions of praise.
    SALOKA:
    A form of verse or stanza, generally a two-liner form allowing a variety of metrical arrangement.

    PAUREE:
    "Paurees" are a form of stanzas. They also contain the essence of the Vaars. Literally meaning ladder or rung, it is a form of stanza adopted for Vaars. They generally consist of 6 to 8 lines each. Stanzas of Baabaa Nanak's Japuji are also traditionally called Paurees. Traditionally, Raagees are supposed to conclude Kirtan with singing of a "Pauree" from Raagas Bilaaval, Kaanraa etc.

    GAATHAA, FUNHE, AND CHAUBOLE:
    Funhe is a form of the Chhand (for example, see SGGS page 1361). Chaubole is also a form of the Chhand (for example, see SGGS page 1363 where it has 11 verses). Gaathaa denotes composition in an ancient language (mixture of Sanskrit, Paalee and other languages). Many Buddhist scriptures are written in this language (for example, see page 1360 of SGGS).

    SOLAHE:
    "Solahe" is the Shabad containing generally sixteen stanzas (for example, see SGGS page 1021). They are only found in Raaga Maaroo. There is no "Rahaaou" in them. Also, they follow "Ashatpadees".

    MAHALAA:
    Initially called Adi Granth, the contents of the SGGS (1,430 pages) contains Baanee of the Gurus (Guru Nanak Dev, Guru Angad Dev, Guru Amar Das, Guru Ram Das, Guru Arjan Dev, Guru Tegh Bahadur, and one Sloka of Guru Gobind Singh Jee), and Hindu saints (Brahmans and Soodras) and Muslim Sufis. These 15 saints were Kabeer, Nam Dev, Ravidas, Sheikh Farid, Trilochan, Dhanna, Beni, Bhikan, Sur Daas, Parmanand, Pipa, Ramanand, Sadhana and Sain. It also contains the hymns of eleven Bhattas and Bards, they were Mathuraa, Jalap, Harbans, Talya, Salya, Bhal, Kulh Sahar, Nal, Kirat, Sadrang and Gayand. In addition, it also consists of the hymns of Mardaanaa (the minstrel of Baabaa Nanak), Raamkalee Sad by Sunder , and Vaar of Sattaa and Balwand.
    The word "Mahalaa" at the top of the Shabad identifies which Guru is the author. For example, "Mahalaa 1" identifies the first Guru, "Mahalaa 2" identifies the second Guru, "Mahalaa 3" identifies the third Guru, "Mahalaa 4 " identifies the fourth Guru, "Mahalaa 5" identifies the fifth Guru, "Mahalaa 9" identifies the ninth Guru. This notation appears with the Baanee of the first five Gurus and the ninth Guru only.

    PATTEE:
    Literally "Pattee" means a writing board, slate or notebook (Fattee). When it appears at the top of the Shabad, it's also used to impart the Divine Teachings in the order of Varanmaalaa (alphabet), for example see page 432 of the SGGS.
     
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