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Heritage Old Paintings and Images of Lahore (British Library Collection)

Discussion in 'History of Sikhism' started by spnadmin, Sep 29, 2010.

  1. spnadmin

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    Photograph of the Chauburji Gateway at Lahore, Pakistan, taken by an unknown photographer in the 1880s, part of the Bellew Collection of Architectural Views. Lahore, the capital of Punjab province, is considered the cultural centre of Pakistan. Islam came here after the advent of Mahmud of Ghazni in 1021 AD, and it was subsequently ruled by a succession of dynasties of the Delhi Sultanate, followed by the Mughals, the Sikhs and the British. It reached its apogee under the Mughals, known as the Garden City and with enough architecture to rank it with other great Mughal centres like Delhi, Agra and Fatehpur Sikri. The Gateway of the Four Minarets or Chauburji was once the entrance to one of Lahore's many pleasure gardens. The garden, together with one of the gate's corner minarets (on the north-west) is now lost. An inscription on the gateway records that the garden was established here in 1646, in the reign of Shahjahan, by a lady described as Sahib-e-Zebinda Begum-e-Dauran, or 'the elegant lady of the age'. The lady referred to is probably Jahan Ara Begum, the eldest and favourite daughter of Shahjahan, who was known to have built gardens at Lahore. The gateway is beautifully decorated with rich mosaic-work.


    Photograph from the Macnabb Collection of a street scene in Lahore, taken by an unknown photographer, most likely during the 1890s. The city of Lahore is situated on the Ravi River where it meets the road from Afghanistan to Bengal. It rose to prominence under the Mughal Empire after Babur (ruled 1526-1530) defeated Ibrahim Lodi, a Sultan of Delhi, in 1526 and it became the capital city of Emperor Akbar (ruled 1556-1605) from 1584 to 1598. Akbar rebuilt the fort and enclosed the city within a high defensive wall set with 12 gates. Under the rule of Ranjit Singh (1780-1839), the famous Sikh leader, it became the capital of Punjab (modern Pakistan) from 1799 to 1839. Its reputation as a ‘city of gardens’ is a result of the Mughal prominence in style, as they created gardens on a grand scale and left an architectural legacy in Lahore that includes the fort, its palaces, and tombs. This photograph is a view of ornate balconies projecting from the facades of houses with shop awnings below and was probably taken in the narrow streets of the old city. It captures people in motion with a horse-drawn cab in the foreground.





    Watercolour of a view of Lahore, Punjab, by an anonymous artist working in the Delhi style, c. 1825. Inscribed on the front in Persian characters: 'Taswir' ['naqshah']' i dar al-saltanat Lahaur' (Picture of the seat of government Lahore); on back in English: 'The City of Lahore.'






    Photograph of the Badshahi Mosque, Lahore, Pakistan, taken by an unknown photographer in the 1870s, part of the Bellew Collection of Architectural Views












    This photograph of the fort at Lahore was taken by Samuel Bourne in the 1860s. Lahore was the location of the Mughal court during the reign of the Mughal Emperor Akbar from 1584 to 1598. He built the massive Lahore Fort on the foundations of a previous fort on the site and enclosed the city within a red brick wall boasting 12 gates. Jahangir and Shah Jahan extended the fort, built palaces and tombs, and laid out gardens. The Alamgiri gateway to the fort shown in the background of this photograph was built by the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb (r. 1658-1707) in 1673-4, at the same time as the Badshahi Masjid of the same city. The arched gateway is flanked by two monumental semi-circular bastions topped by octagonal domed kiosks.










    Watercolour of the Shalimar Gardens, by an anonymous artist working in the Punjab style, c. 1860. Inscribed in Persian characters:' Shala Bagh. 'The Shalimar Bagh (gardens) are 5 miles north-east of Lahore and were laid out in 1642 on the orders of the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan (ruled 1627-1658). At over 457 m long, they consist of three descending terraces through which a water channel flows, with pools and many fountains. Two of the terraces are designed as charbaghs, the “four-fold” square garden divided symmetrically into quarters by parterres, a form often used by the Mughals. Audience halls and marble pavilions used as residences for Shah Jahan and his daughter were built on the second terrace on the edges of a large central tank filled with fountains. Gardens became popular spaces for pleasure and relaxation under Mughal patronage and Shah Jahan was personally interested in their design. Lahore became known as the “city of gardens” as a result of the Shalimar Bagh and other gardens created by the Mughals from the 16th to the 18th centuries.




    Photograph from the Macnabb Collection of the interior of the Sheesh Mahal in the Fort in Lahore, taken by an unknown photographer, most likely during the 1890s. From 1584 to 1598 Lahore was the capital city of the Mughal emperor Akbar (ruled 1556-1605), who built the massive fort. The emperors Jahangir (ruled 1605-27) and Shah Jahan (ruled 1628-58) extended the fort and built garden courtyards and richly-decorated palace apartments within. The Sheesh Mahal (Palace of Mirrors) is the finest of several white marble pavilions erected by Shah Jahan in 1631-2. It was reserved for the private use of the emperor and his family and stands in the Shah Burj (King’s Pavillion), today known as the Musamman Burj, at the north-west corner of the fort. It is intricately decorated with pietra dura and has mirror work inlaid into the walls and on the ceiling, which creates a shimmering effect.








    Photograph from the Macnabb Collection of the Badshahi Mosque in Lahore, taken by an unknown photographer, most likely in the 1890s. The mosque was built in 1673-74 by the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb (ruled 1658-1707) and is considered the largest in area on the subcontinent. Constructed of red sandstone and decorated with white marble, the Badshahi Mosque was modelled on the Jama Masjid of Delhi, and departs from the local Punjabi tradition of tile-facing. It has many minarets, four very tall which are positioned at the corners of the walled compound and two at each end of the massive prayer hall. This photograph shows the main façade of the hall, which is decorated with white marble ornamentation inlaid in red sandstone, and crowned by three bulbous marble domes. The vast courtyard, measuring 530 feet square over two levels, can be seen in the foreground



    Photograph of the Samadhi of Ranjit Singh at Lahore, Pakistan, taken by George Craddock in the 1880s, part of the Bellew Collection of Architectural Views. Lahore, the capital of Punjab province, is considered the cultural centre of Pakistan. Islam came here after the advent of Mahmud of Ghazni in 1021 AD, and it was subsequently ruled by a succession of dynasties of the Delhi Sultanate, followed by the Mughals, the Sikhs and the British. It reached its apogee under the Mughals, known as the Garden City and with enough architecture to rank it with other great Mughal centres like Delhi, Agra and Fatehpur Sikri. Lahore suffered with the decline of the Mughal empire in the 18th century, frequently coming under attack. It was finally taken by the Sikhs, who under their leader Ranjit Singh (ruled 1799-1839), were masters of the Punjab region by 1818. During Sikh rule, although some repair and reconstruction of Mughal buildings did take place, many of the Mughal monuments were stripped of their marble and other decorative elements. Buildings in the Sikh style were erected, and the tradition of gardens at Lahore was continued. The grandest edifice in the Sikh style is the mausoleum of Ranjit Singh, begun by his son Kharak Singh and completed in 1848. It blends Hindu and Muslim elements, the square roof features a central fluted dome and is embellished with several chhatris or pavilions. Its interior is decorated with marble arches and glass mosaics.


    Photograph of the gateway of the Badshahi Mosque, Lahore, Pakistan, taken by an unknown photographer in the 1870s, part of the Bellew Collection of Architectural Views. Lahore, the capital of Punjab province, is considered the cultural centre of Pakistan. Islam came here after the advent of Mahmud of Ghazni in 1021 AD, and it was subsequently ruled by a succession of dynasties of the Delhi Sultanate, followed by the Mughals, the Sikhs and the British. It reached its apogee under the Mughals, known as the Garden City and with enough architecture to rank it with other great Mughal centres like Delhi, Agra and Fatehpur Sikri. The Badshahi Mosque, one of the last great Mughal monuments, was built in 1673-74 by the Emperor Aurangzeb (ruled 1658-1707). Constructed of red sandstone and decorated with white marble, it was modelled on the Jama Masjid of Delhi, and departs from the local tradition of tile-facing. Set on a high plinth within a walled enclosure adjacent to the western wall of Lahore Fort, the mosque has three domes and an arcaded facade with octagonal minarets at the corners, and is said to be one of the biggest mosques in the world. Its interior is richly decorated with painted stucco.


    http://shirazhassan.blogspot.com/2010/09/old-paintings-and-images-of-lahore.html
     

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    10 Pictures from left to right as follows.


    Watercolour of the Golden Mosque in Lahore, by an anonymous artist working in the Punjab style, c. 1860. Inscribed: 'Gold Masjid Lahore.'


    Photograph of the Lahore Citadel from Hazuri Bagh from the 'Strachey Collection of Indian Views', taken by Samuel Bourne in 1863

    Plate 11 from "Recollections of India. Part 1. British India and the Punjab" by James Duffield Harding (1797-1863) after Charles Stewart Hardinge (1822-1894), the eldest son of the first Viscount Hardinge, the Governor General. Charles Hardinge recalled his impressions of the city: 'Those who were acquainted with Lahore in those days can alone form an idea of its picturesque aspect. Surrounded by the ruined tombs of the Muhammadan kings, the city with its fortifications, its colossal pillars and minarets, presented an appearance which made it rank among the most striking of our Eastern towns, Amritsar alone excepted.' The Hazuri Bagh gateway is seen here from inside the courtyard adjoining the Lahore fort. In the garden is a small marble pavilion known as the Baradari of Ranjit Singh.

    Photograph of Date trees in Lahore, from the 'Strachey Collection of Indian Views', taken by Samuel Bourne in 1863. Bourne, the bank clerk and amateur photographer arrived in India in 1863 during the early years of commercial photography. Prints taken during three expeditions to Kashmir and the Himalayas between 1863 and 1866 demonstrate his ability to combine technical skill and artistic vision. These views display a compositional elegance which appealed to Victorian notions of the ‘picturesque’; strategically framed landscapes of rugged mountain scenery, forests, rivers, lakes and rural dwellings.

    Photograph of an octagonal minaret topped by a cupola of the Mosque of Wazir Khan at Lahore, Pakistan, taken by an unknown photographer in the 1870s, part of the Bellew Collection of Architectural Views

    Photograph with a side view of the Badshahi Mosque, Lahore, Pakistan, taken by an unknown photographer in the 1870s, part of the Bellew Collection of Architectural Views

    Distant view of the city of Lahore from the right bank of the Ravi River.Water-colour painting by Henry Ambrose Oldfield (1822-1871) in January 1849. Inscribed on the front in water-colour is: 'City of Lahore. Jany 1849. H.A. Oldfield'; on the back in ink: 'The stakes connected by ropes, across the river, mark the site of a ford for elephants. The Bridge of Boats, attempted to be destroyed by the Sikhs in 1848 is just behind the building in the foreground.'

    Ranjeet Singh's tomb. Sikh chieftain Ranjit Singh (1780-1839) ruled the Punjab from 1799 to 1839 following his famous seizure of Lahore in 1799 and Amritsar subsequently in 1809. In the same year, he made a treaty with the British by which he agreed not to extend his domain south of the Sutlej River. However he built up a formidable army with the help of European officers and by the time of his death he controlled all of the Punjab north of the Sutlej as well as Kashmir. At the end of the Sikh Wars in 1849 most of his kingdom fell to the British. This photograph taken by Samuel Bourne in the 1860s shows a view of his tomb at Lahore

    Interior of Great Musjid, Lahore. Photograph of the Great Masjid, Lahore Citadel from the 'Strachey Collection of Indian Views', taken by Samuel Bourne in 1863

    Photograph of the Gulabi Bagh Gateway in Lahore, Pakistan, part of the Archaeological Survey of India Collections (Indian Museum Series), taken by Henry Hardy Cole in 1884. The Gulabi Bagh (rose garden) was built in 1655 by a Persian noble, Mirza Sultan Beg who was Admiral of the Fleet under the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan. This is a general view looking along the façade of the gateway showing rich mosaic tile decoration. The garden no longer exists.

    Tomb of Sharifa Begum, Lahore.This photograph was taken in 1884 and forms part of the Archaeological Survey of India Collections (Indian Museum Series), it was attributed to Henry Hardy Cole although probably incorrectly. Sharif-un-Nisa Begum was the sister of Nawab Khan Bahadur Khan, Viceroy of Lahore; before her death she expressed a desire to be laid to rest in this tower from where she read the Koran every day. The tomb is situated within an elevated square and is decorated with enamelled fresco designs. On the upper portion of the walls are glazed tiles and an Arabic inscription which reads 'God is eternal; all the rest is perishable.'
     

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    Dai Angan's Tomb, Lahore. This photograph of the tomb of Dai Angan in Lahore was taken by H H Cole in 1884 for the Archaeological Survey of India. Wife of a magistrate in Bikaner in Rajasthan, Dai Angan was wet nurse to the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan (r. 1628-57). Inscriptions give the date of construction as 1671. The single-storey tomb is brick built and faced in painted plaster and tile mosaics in colourful floral and geometric motifs. Its square plan comprises a central domed chamber with eight further chambers surrounding it. There is a domed kiosk at each of the building's four corners.

    The Lahore Bazaar near the Delhi Gate. Water-colour painting of a bazaar in Lahore by Alfred Frederick Pollock Harcourt (1836-1910), 23 January 1879. Inscribed on the front in pencil is: 'A.H. 23 Jany 79'; on the back in ink:' Lahore City by the Delhi Gate. Alfred Harcourt.'

    Alamgiri Gate of Fort, Lahore. Water-colour painting of the gateway to the Hazuri Bagh at Lahore in the Punjab (modern Pakistan) by Henry Ambrose Oldfield (1822-1871) in December 1848. Inscribed on the front in water-colour is: 'Gateway in the Huzooree Bagh. Lahore. H.A. Oldfield. Decr. 1848'

    Entry into Lahore from the Parade Ground. Plate 9 from "Recollections of India. Part 1. British India and the Punjab" by James Duffield Harding (1797-1863) after Charles Stewart Hardinge (1822-1894), the eldest son of the first Viscount Hardinge, the Governor General. This depicts the entry of the child Maharajah Duleep Singh to his palace in Lahore accompanied by an escort of British troops commanded by Brigadier Cureton, following the First Anglo-Sikh War (1845-46). Here, Maharajah Duleep Singh was forced to renounce his sovereign rights to the British Government under Governor-General Hardinge. The British installed their ally Gulab Singh, as Maharajah of these territories.
     

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