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Gurus Martyrdom of Guru Teg Bahadur (1621 - 1675)

Discussion in 'History of Sikhism' started by spnadmin, Nov 21, 2010.

  1. spnadmin

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    Tayg Bahaadar simaree-ai ghar nau nidh aavai dhaa-e


    This is a beautiful tribute in remembrance of Guru Teg Bahadur, rendered in the classic Karnatic style of raag, by Srikant Bhakre. Hope you like it!

    YouTube - Bhajan - Jo Nar Dukh


    Guru Tegh Bahadur, 1621-75 A Brief History

    Born in Amritsar, Guru Tegh Bahadur was the ninth of the ten Gurus who founded Sikhism.

    He's honoured and remembered as the man who championed the rights for all religious freedom.

    Contributions

    He taught liberation from attachment, fear and dependence. Strength should be gained through truth, worship, sacrifice and knowledge.

    During the reign of Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb, Islam was imposed on the people. Hindu temples were demolished and turned into mosques, higher taxes were charged to non-Muslims and the Emperor persecuted those who would not conform to Islamic law.

    Guru Tegh Bahadur spoke out amid this persecution. He refused to convert to Islam and in 1675, he was beheaded in Delhi. The site of his execution was later turned into an important Gurdwara.

    He's also remembered for his poetry, much of which is included in the Guru Granth Sahib.

    He married Bibi Gujjari and they had one son: the tenth Guru, Guru Gobind Singh.

    He founded the city of Anandpur which later became a centre of Sikhism.

    http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/sikhism/people/teghbahadur.shtml
     

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  3. spnadmin

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    re: Martyrdom of Guru Teg Bahadur (1621 - 1675) November 24

    Events leading to the martydom of our 9th Guru[/B

    AURANGZEB'S CAMPAIGN OF RELIGIOUS PERSECUTION:

    As Aurangzeb ascended the throne of India by imprisoning his father and murdering his brothers, he decided to enlist the sympathies of the fanatical section of his co-religionists. His idea was to exterminate the idolatrous Hindus and to convert the whole of India to Islam. In order to achieve this objective he tried to go through four fundamental means to deal with the Hindus. Firstly he made peaceful overtures; secondly he offered money; thirdly he threatened punishment and lastly he tried to cause dissention among them. When all these measures failed, he resorted to forcible conversion. Orders were issued to the governors of all the provinces that they should destroy the schools and temples of the infidels and thereby put an end to educational activities as well as the practices of the religion of the Kafirs (non-Muslims meant Hindus). Many temples at Mathura and Banaras were destroyed. Even a Sikh temple in Buriya in Khizrabad pargna of Sirhind had been demolished and a mosque was built on the site. Some Sikhs, however, attacked the mosque and killed the priest. This type of incidents had become common occurrences. In order to force conversion to Islam, all possible means were adopted. In the field of taxation, the policy of discrimination was launched with great vigor. Jaziya and pilgrimage taxes were re- evied. Five percent custom duty was levied on the Hindus while the Muslims were charged only half of that.

    The proselytizing zeal of the officials, with their campaign of religious persecution and their conversion at the point of the sword, had sent the wave of terror throughout the country. Sher Afghan Khan, the Emperor's viceroy in Kashmir, set about converting the Kashmiri Hindus by force and massacred those who opposed to embrace Islam. Even the Mohammadans who in any way assisted the Hindus, were mercilessly put to death. In extreme agony of too much slaughter, the Brahman priests of Kashmir prayed to their gods. It is said that the Kashmiri Brahmans heard a supernatural voice who told them, Guru Nanak is the spiritual king in this age. Guru Tegh Bahadur is now seated on his throne. Go to him, he will protect your honor and your religion.

    KASHMIRI BRAHMANS COME TO GURU:

    A deputation of Kashmiri Pandits (Brahmans) came to Anandpur and among tears of agony, they narrated their tales of woe and suffering to the Master. The Guru's eight years old son appeared on the scene and asked his father why those people had tears in their eyes. He replied, The Emperor of India is converting the Hindus to Islam at the point of the sword and thus there is no end to the misery of these people.

    What is the remedy, father? asked the son.

    The Guru replied, This requires sacrifice- sacrifi ce of a holy and supreme soul. His son responded, O dear father, who is more holy than you in this age? Go and offer yourself and save these people and their religion. On hearing this the Guru asked the Kashmiri Brahmans to go to the Emperor and make the following representation to him, Guru Tegh Bahadur, the ninth Sikh Guru is now seated on the throne of the great Guru Nanak, who is the protector of faith and religion. First make him a Musalman and then all the people, including ourselves, will of our own accord adopt the faith of Islam.


    GURU SUMMONED TO DELHI:

    The Pandits obeyed the Guru and conveyed the proposal to the Emperor. On hearing this proposal, the Emperor was very much pleased because he thought that it was much easier to convert one person than the whole lot. He retorted, If the Guru does not become Musalman, he will then at least show us a miracle. He was hopeful that once the Guru was converted, there would be a large accession of Hindu and Sikh converts. The Emperor, therefore, sent his emissary to the Guru to invite him to Delhi. The Guru received Emperor's message and wrote in reply that he would come to Delhi after the rainy season.

    MARTYRDOM OF GURU TEGH BAHADUR:

    The Guru took leave of his family and his devoted Sikhs and began his journey to Delhi sometimes in June-July. rom Anandpur he passed through Kiratpur, Rupar and various villages before reaching Saifabad in Patiala state to see his Muslim friend Saif-ul-din. He stayed for sometimes with him. Saif-ul-din became his disciple. He went to Samana where he met another disciple called Mohammad Bakhsh. The Guru continued his journey through Kaithal, Lakhan Majra, Rohtak and other places, conferring temporal and spiritual favors on his disciples, and finally he reached Agra where he encamped in a garden outside the city.

    After the rainy season, the Emperor again sent his messenger to hasten the Guru's presence to Delhi. When the messengers were unable to find the Guru, they reported that he had fled. Orders were issued all over the empire to find and arrest him. There are different views about the place of Guru's arrest. Some writers say that he was arrested at Dhamdhan; some say that he was arrested at Malikpur near Rupar and others say that the arrest was effected at Delhi while others still account for his arrest at Agra. According to Sikh accounts there lived a poor old man, Hasan Ali, at Agra. He knew that there were orders about Guru's arrest and the person who could effect his arrest, would receive one thousand rupees as a reward. Hasan Ali prayed, O true Guru, if ever you want to get arrested, please do it through me. This will fetch me some money to bring my family out of the clutches of miserable poverty. The Guru being the searcher of hearts, came to Agra to get arrested through Hasan Ali.

    The Guru saw a shepherd boy in the garden whom he gave his gold ring studded with diamonds and asked him to pledge it and bring him two rupees worth of sweets. When the boy told him that he had no cloth to wrap the sweets, the Guru gave him his valuable shawl for that purpose. The boy took his grandfather, Hasan Ali along with him and stopped at the confectioner's shop, gave him the ring and asked for sweets to be wrapped in the shawl. On seeing the ring and the valuable shawl, the confectioner was astonished and asked the boy from whom he had received those articles. The boy told him the truth but the confectionerbecame suspicious and took them to the police. The police went to the garden with the boy and asked the Guru who he was. When he disclosed his identity, the police officer was delighted that he would get a large reward from the Emperor for his capture. The Guru was thus imprisoned. The Governor of the fort reported the arrest to the Emperor. Ultimately he was brought to Delhi. There were three Sikhs, Bhai Mati Das, Bhai Dayala and Bhai Sati Das with the Guru (Some writers account for five Sikhs- Mati Das, Gurditta, Uda, Chima and Dayala) who were arrested with him and were brought to Delhi.

    The Emperor explained that God appeared to him in a vision and told him to convert the whole world to Islam. Those who were to embrace Islam, would be rewarded with wealth, appointments, land revenue grants and lands. The Emperor tried to lure him, In this way you will have many disciples, and you will become a great priest of Islam. Therefore accept my religion- Islam, and you will receive from me whatever your heart desire. The Guru asked for one and one-quarter of maan (about 100 pounds) of black pepper. When it was brought, it was put into a heap and was ignited. The heap of pepper was let burning for twenty-four hours and was apparently reduced to ashes. The heap was then pounded and sifted. Three pepper pods came out as whole. The Guru addressed, O Emperor, you desire that there should be only one religion (Islam) out of two religions (Hinduism and Islam), but as these three pepper pods have been saved from the fire, God wishes to make three religions out of two. So there shall be three religions- Hinduism, Islam, and Sikhism in the future.

    Upon this it was ordered that the Guru be imprisoned with sufficient guards around him. Again he was sent or and was told that if he embraced Islam, every service would be performed for him otherwise he would be severely tortured. He replied that he would never embrace Islam and thus, remained in Delhi jail for eight days. He was given three choices: firstly to embrace Islam; secondly to perform a miracle; and thirdly to prepare himself to court death. The Guru responded that to show a miracle was against the Will of God and thus he would not consent to the Emperor's proposals and the Emperor might act as he pleased. He was then put to extreme tortures.

    It is said that there was conversation between the Guru and his disciple Bhai Mati Das. He told Mati Das that Guru Nanak had blessed Emperor Babar with the continuation of his empire for a long time. Since the Mughal Emperors started committing great enormities, their line would be exterminated if he (Guru) laid down his life. In consequence of this conversation which was overheard by a priest, Bhai Mati Das was bound between two pillars and his body was sawn asunder. When the executioners put saw on his head, he began to recite japji (the first Bani in Guru Granth Sahib). It is said that when his body was cut into two, he continued reciting Japji and he was silent only when the recitation of Japji was complete. This was a wonder of Guru's Grace. Bhai Dayala was boiled to death in a cauldron of hot water. It is said that the third companion Bhai Sati Das was roasted alive with cotton wrapped round his body. The authorities thought that these tortures of his Sikhs might shake the Guru. Nothing could and nothing can shake the Divine Light (the Guru).

    The final message was given to the Guru, You are to accept the religion of Islam or show a miracle. If you work a miracle, you may remain a Guru. If you accept Islam, then you will be advanced to an exalted position. If you fail to accept these offers, you shall be put to death. This is the final decision.
    The Guru emphasized, I will never abandon my faith. I want no honor in this life; I want honor hereafter. The threat of death possesses no terrors for me. For death I am prepared and I cheerfully accept it.

    Hearing this reply it was ordered that the Guru should be executed. Saiyid Adam Shah accompanied by courtiers and Muslim priests came with a warrant for his execution. Many people turned out to witness the execution. He was then taken out of his cage and allowed to perform his ablutions. He sat under the banyan-tree where he recited Japji. The executioner, Jalal-ud-din of Samana (some say it was Adam Shah) took his sword and in a split of second, severed Guru's head from the body. This happened on the afternoon of Thursday, the fifth day of the light half of the month of Maghar in Sambat 1732 (November 11, 1675) at Chandni Chowk, Delhi where now stands Gurdwara Sis Ganj in his memory. This Gurdwara was constructed by Sardar Baghel Singh Karor-Singheiye in 1790.

    History has recorded that a furious storm raged immediately after this brutal deed which filled every one's eyes with dust. Bhai Jaita dashed out of the crowd and instantaneously took away the holy head of the Guru to Anandpur. He reached Kiratpur on the 15th of November, 1675. From there the Guru's head was taken to Anandpur with full honor and on the 16th of November, 1675, it was cremated with full ceremonies. There is a Gurdwara called Sis Ganj at Anandpur where the hallowed head of the Guru was cremated. The tenth Guru received Bhai Jaita who belonged to backward classes, embraced him and said, Rangrettei Guruke bettei (Rangrettei were the sons of the Guru, Rangrettei was Bhai Jaita's caste). Bhai Jaita told the young Guru and his family how Guru Tegh Bahadur had sent for five paise and a coco- nut and bowed to his son Gobind Rai, made him the successor and infused his Light unto him.

    Lakhi Shah Labana was a famous contractor in Delhi and he was also a follower of the Guru. He emptied his carts laden with lime near the Red Fort, taking advantage of the darkness and the carelessness of the Mughal sentries, and with the help of his sons, Nagahiya, Hema, Harhi and his friend Dhuma, whisked away the sacred body of the Guru, in one of their carts. Apprehensive of the government reprisal, Lakhi Shah and his sons then built up a pyre inside their own house and set fire to it. When the body was duly reduced to ashes, they cried out that their house had caught fire and called upon their neighbors to assist them in extinguishing it. Next day they collected the Guru's remains and buried them in a copper vessel called 'gaggar' in the earth under his funeral pyre. On this spot there stands a Gurdwara, Rakab Ganj, near Parliament House in New Delhi.

    Having broken his potsherd on the head of the king of Delhi, he departed for Paradise;

    FN-1:Guru belonged to Sodhi clan.
    FN-2:It is said that Aurangzeb was at Hasan Abdal at that time but he was being continually reported about the Guru's activities.
    FN-3:Some writers say that Emperor Aurangzeb was not at Delhi at that time as he had gone on an expedition to Hasan Abdal, but Guru's execution was carried on as per orders of him. Others say that all conversation took place directly between the Guru and Aurangzeb because this opportunity was unique and of utmost importance to achieve his goal of ultimate mass conversion to Islam.
    FN-4:It is said that the Guru had told Bhai Jaita that his head would fall into his lap, and he should fear nobody, take it to Anandpur and cremate it there. It is also said that Bhai Jaita shared this secret with his neighbor Bhai Nanu and he also took Bhai Uda, a resident of Ladwa, into confidence and three of them took Guru's head to Anandpur.

    http://www.allaboutsikhs.com/sikh-gurus/sri-guru-tegh-bhadur-sahib-ji-p2.html#9
     

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    Re: Martyrdom of Guru Teg Bahadur (1621 - 1675) November 24

    Bhai Mati Das
    YouTube - Bhai Mati Das- Original Full Version


    Bhai Mati Das was a Mohyal Brahman of village Kariala in Jehlam district, about 10 kilometres from Chakwal on the road to Katas Raj. The village stands on the top of Surla hills. This part of the country is known as Dhani meaning rich. A few kilometres away are the Salt Mines and coal mines of Dandot. The Katas lake is beautiful. A great Hindu fair was held there upto 1947. The Hindus always selected fine places of enchanting natural beauty for their fairs, festivals and pilgrimages. The inhabitants upto 1947 were both Hindu and Muslim, all handsome, tall, robust, and strong, enjoying a good standard of living.

    Mati Das was the son of Hira Nand a devotee of Guru Hargobind under whom he had fought in many battles. He survived the Guru, and a little before his death he had entrusted his two sons, Mati Das and Sati Das to the care of Guru Har Rae, who had assured the dying man of his full attention and help. Both the lads remained attached to the Guru's family at Kiratpur. When Har Krishan was summoned to Delhi by Aurangzeb, both the brothers, Mati Das and Sati Das, were present in his entourage along with Dayal Das, Gurditta, a descendant of Bhai Budha.

    On Guru Rar Krishan's death at Delhi, these two brothers were included in the deputation of five men containing Dayal Das and Gurditta also to declare the nomination of Tegh Bahadur as the ninth Guru at Bakala where the new Guru was then residing. The Guru was pleased to offer the two important portfolios of finance and home departments to Mati Das and Sati Das respectively. Both knew Persian well, and were quite familiar with the working of the Guru's durbar The departmnent of household affairs was entrusted to Dayal Das.

    The two brothers accompanied Guru Tegh Bahadur during his journey to Assam. They were present at the foundation of Anandpur by Guru Tegh Bahadur on his return to Panjab. The Guru's council of administration then consisted of Mati Das, Sati Das, Dayal Das and Gurditta. When the Guru was carried to Delhi, these four persons followed the Guru.

    At Delhi the Guru and his four companions were summoned into the council chamber of the Red Fort. The Guru was asked numerous questions on rdigion, Hinduism, Sikhism and Islam. It was sugges*ted that the Guru should embrace Islam, an he was offered many temptations. Several newly converted Hindus were produced before the Guru to tell him how happy they were in Islam. On Guru's em*phatic refusal to abjure his faith, he was asked why he was called Tegh Bahadur or gladiator. Bhai Mati Das immediately replied that the Guru had won the title by inflicting a heavy blow on the imperial forces at the young age of fourteen. He was reprimanded for his breach of etiquette and outspokenness. As Mati Das was a Brahman, the Guru was asked why he had courted the company of such men when he did not believe in caste, and why he was defending the Brahmans of Kashmir. The Guru replied that when a person became a Sikh, he lost his caste. As for the Kashmiri Pandits, it was his duty to raise his voice against cruelty and injustice. The Guru and his companions were ordered to be imprisoned and tortured until they agreed to embrace Islam.

    After a few days Guru Tegh Bahadur and three of his companions were produced before the Qazi of the city. Gurditta had managed to escape. He remained in hiding in the city, and in spite of all the efforts of the Government, he could not be traced. The Qazi first of all turned to Mati Das and asked him to embrace Islam. He replied that Sikhism was true and Islam was false, and he would not renounce virtue for vice. If God had created only Islam, all men would have been born circumcised, he said. He was condemned to instantaneous death.

    The executioners were called and the Guru and all the three of his companions were made to sit at the place of execution. Bhai Mati*Das approached the Guru with folded hands and asked for his bless*ings, saying that he was happy to be the first to achieve martyrdom.


    The Guru blessed him telling that they must resign themselves cheer*fully to the will of the Lord. He praised him for his lifelong single-minded devotion to him and his cause. With tears in his eyes he bade him farewell saying his sacrifice would occupy an abiding place in history. Mati Das touched the Guru's feet, embraced his friend and brother, and came to his place.

    Mati Das while standing erect was tied between two posts. Two executioners placed a double-handed saw on his head. Mati Das serenely uttered "Ik Om" and started repeating the japji.' He was sawn across from head to loins. Dayal Das abused the Emperor and his courtiers for this infernal act. He was tied up like a round bundle and thrown into a huge cauldron of boiling oil. He was roasted alive into a block of charcoal. Sati Das condemned these brutalities. He was hacked to pieces limb by limb. The Guru witnessed this savagery with divine coolness. The world history does not offer anything worse than this halal butchery of human beings.

    Bhai Mati Das, the martyr, was the son of Bhai Hira Mal, also called Hiranand, a Chhibbar Brahman of Kariala, now in Pakistan. His grandfather, Bhai Paraga, had embraced the Sikh faith in the time of Guru Hargobind and had taken part in battles with the Mughal forces. His uncle Dargah Mall served Guru Har Rai and Guru Har Krishan as Diwan or manager of the household. Bhai Mati Das and his brother, Bhai Sati Das, assisted Dargah Mall in his work during Guru Tegh Bahadur's time. The former was himself appointed Diwan along with Dargah Mall who was by then considerably advanced in years. Diwan Mati Das accompanied Guru Tegh Bahadur during his travels in the eastern parts in 1665-70. He was among those who were detained with Guru Tegh Bahadur at Dhamtan in 1665 and then released from Delhi at the intervention of Karivar Ram Singh, of Amber. In 1675, when the Guru set out from Anandpur for Delhi, Bhai Mati Das accompanied him. He was arrested with him under imperial orders and taken to Delhi. Upon his refusal to forswear his faith, he was tortured to death. He was, on 11 November 1675, sawn into two, from head downwards.

    References

    1. Bhalla, Samp Das, Mahima Prakash. Patiala, 1971
    2. Gian Singh, Giani, Sri Gur Panth Prakash. Patiala, 1970
    3. Santokh Singh, Bhai, Sri Gur Pratap Suraj Granth. Amritsar, 1927-35
    4. Macauliffe, Max Arthur, The Sikh Religion. Oxford, 1909
    5. Trilochan Singh, Guru. Tegh Bahadur. : Prophet and Martyr. Delhi, 1967
    6. Harbans Singh, Guru Tegh Bahadur. Delhi, 1989

    http://www.allaboutsikhs.com/early-gursikhs/early-gursikhs-bhai-mati-das-ji.html
     
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  9. spnadmin

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    Re: Martyrdom of Guru Teg Bahadur (1621 - 1675) November 24

    Bhai Dyal Das ji

    Bhai Dyal Das was another of the Sikhs who had been arrested along with Guru Tegh Bahadur, and taken to Delhi. Like his companions, Bhai Dyal Das was also arrested, chained and imprisoned in the Kotwali Delhi. After having martyred Bhai Mati Das, the qazis turned to Bhai Dyal Das. They led him to the spot where Bhai Mati Das had been sawn into two. He was told to see what had happened to his companion. He was advised to be wiser. He was told of joys and pleasures he could enjoy by accepting Islam. He was told what would happen to him if he refused to become a Muslim. Bhai Dyal Das heard all this. He did not feel nervous or afraid. He remained firm in his resolve. Then he said, 'My misguided friends, do you think that you have killed my brother, Bhai Mati Das ? You are mistaken. You have not killed him. You have given him ever lasting life. He has become immortal. He will live forever in the hearts of men. he will be source of inspiration to others. Many like him will rise and follow his example. A time will come when you and your emperor will be no more, but Bhai Mati Das will be yet alive. I will not give up my faith. The pleasure which you offer have no charm for me. The tortures which you have threaten me have no terrors for me. Be quick. Send me to where my brother, Bhai Mati Das, has gone to live forever in the lap of the Lord.'

    'All right,' said the Chief Qazi, 'be ready.' He was seated in a large boiling vessel. It was filled with water. Then they lit fire under it. They went on heating it from below. The water began to boil. Bhai Dyal Das was calm and cool all this while. He sat in the boiling water with no sign of suffering on his face. He did not give out even the faintest cry of pain. He went on repeating Guru's hymns. This went on until his soul left his body to join Bhai Mati Das.

    http://www.searchsikhism.com/dyal.html
     
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    Re: Martyrdom of Guru Teg Bahadur (1621 - 1675) November 24

    Bhai Sati Das

    Bhai Sati Das was a brother of Bhai Mati Das, who had been the first to be martyred on that day. After putting Bhai Dyal Das to death, Aurangzeb's men took out Bhai Sati Das from the prison. He was told to see what had happened to his other two companions. 'If you don't want to suffer what they have suffered,' they said, 'give up your kufar or false faith, and embrace Islam, the only acceptable to God. Be wise, make a wise choice. If you embrace Islam, you will be given a high position and plenty of pleasures. Make up your mind. Bhai Sati Das was firm as a rock in his resolve. He told the Qazi and his men that he was eager to join his martyred companions. Under the Qazis's orders, Bhai Sati Das was wrapped in cotton, which was soaked in oil. Thus wrapped, he was burnt alive to death. All the time he was calm and cheerful, and continued reciting the Guru's hymns. This happened on 11th November, 1675. Such heroic souls never die. They live for all times as sublime as ever. Throughout the ages they stand like light-houses in the waves, guiding humanity through storms. They are inspiration of the soul for the rising generation.

    It behooves us to ever remember such heroes; to preserve and pursue, in our life and practice, the noble principles for which they laid down their lives. We should be firm and sincere in our faith. We should prefer a life of spiritual joys to a life of flesh and fleshy pleasures.

    http://www.searchsikhism.com/sati.html
     
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  11. Bmandur

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    Re: Martyrdom of Guru Teg Bahadur (1621 - 1675) November 24

    Dhan Guru Teg Bahudar Ji
     
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  12. findingmyway

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    Dear spnadmin ji,
    A thousand times thank you for posting such wonderful history! It would be great to have this thread as a sticky. This is the true miracle of Sikhi and of Waheguru's creation-there are people who are not afraid to always do the right thing and not ask 'why me' or why is there suffering. They gave their lives in a horrendous manner to reduce the suffering of others-if that is not proof of goodness then I don't know what is! Such an inspiration! I do ardaas regularly that I may also one day have such conviction as these brave souls so that I will not fall at the next hurdle and that I may follow the lesson given by salok mahalla 9 which is incredibly difficult.
    wahkaur
     
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