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KRODH - Anger in Sikhism !

Discussion in 'Sikh Sikhi Sikhism' started by Archived_Member16, Oct 11, 2007.

  1. Archived_Member16

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    Krodh is derived from the Sanskrit word krodha, which means wrath or Rage. This is an emotion recognized in the Sikh system as a spring of conation and is as such counted as one of the Five Evils.

    It expresses itself in several forms from silent sullenness to hysterical tantrums and violence. In Sikh Scripture krodh usually appears in combination with kam — as "kam krodh". The coalescence is not simply for the sake of alliterative effect. Krodh (ire) is the direct progeny of kam (desire). The latter when thwarted or jilted produces the former. The Scripture also counts krodh (or its synonym kop) among the four rivers of fire.

    Violence, attachment, covetousness and wrath," says Guru Nanak "are like four rivers of fire; those who fall in them burn, and can swim across, O Nanak, only through God's grace" (GG, 147). Elsewhere he says, "Kam and krodh dissolve the body as borax melts gold" (GG, 932). Guru Arjan, Nanak V, censures krodh in these words: "O krodh, thou enslavest sinful men and then caperest around them like an ape."

    In thy company men become base and are punished variously by Death's messengers. The Merciful God, the Eradicator of the sufferings of the humble, O Nanak, alone saveth all" (GG, 1358). Guru Ram Das, Nanak IV, warns: "Do not go near those who are possessed by wrath uncontrollable" (GG, 40). Krodh is to be vanquished and eradicated. This is done through humility and firm faith in the Divine.

    Guru Arjan's prescription: "Do not be angry with any one; search your own self and live in the world with humility. Thus, O Nanak, you may go across (the ocean of existence) under God's grace" (GG, 259). Shaikh Farid, a thirteenth-century Muslim saint whose compositions are preserved in the Sikh Scripture, says in one of his couplets: "O Farid, do good to him who hath done thee evil and do not nurse anger in thy heart; no disease will then afflict thy body and all felicities shall be thine" (GG, 1381-82). Righteous indignation against evil, injustice and tyranny is, however, not to be equated with krodh as an undesirable passion. Several hymns in the Guru Granth Sahib, particularly those by Guru Nanak and Kabir, express in strong terms their disapproval of the corruption of their day.

    References:
    1. Sabadarth Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji. Amritsar, 1964
    2. Jodh Singh, Bhai, Gurmat Nirnaya. Ludhiana, 1932
    3. Sher Singh, The Philosophy of Sikhism. Lahore, 1944
    4. Avtar Singh, Ethics of the Sikhs. Patiala, 1970
    5. Nirbhai Singh, Philosophy of Sikhism. Delhi, 1990
    Above adapted from article By L. M. Joshi
    source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Krodh

    ***********************************************************​

    Furthermore, please see the following "Youtube" link ( Anger & Lust - SIKH RELIGION ) too :
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KkJbjdnwwIk
     
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  3. Astroboy

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    Some of the minor phases of Krodh are:

    Slander, evil gossip, backbiting, profanity, fault-finding, irritability, jealousy, malice, impatience, resentment, destructive criticism, ill will, haughtiness, lecturing
    on mistakes and faults of others, just to name a few.
    .
     
  4. spnadmin

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    KRODH..:}8-: The one that gets hold of me every time.
     
  5. dalsingh

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    kam (desire)

    I would say kam is better translated as lust myself.
     
  6. Astroboy

    Astroboy Malaysia
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    KAM (L. M. Joshi) (Skt. kama), meaning desire, longing, concupiscence, sensuality or lasciviousness, is counted among the five cardinal sins or sinful propensities. In common usage, the term stands for passion for sexual pleasure and it is in this sense that it is considered an evil in Sikhism. In Brahmanical literature kam is not always disdained. Kam as Kamadeva is a god in the Hindu pantheon comparable to Eros of Greek mythology and Cupid of the Romans, and is as such not contradictory to spiritual life. Kam (gratification of desire) is in Hinduism one of the four objectives (purusarthas) of human life, the other three being artha (acquirement of wealth), dharma (discharge of duty), and moksa (final emancipation). Jainism and Buddhism, which arose as protest movements against Brahmanical ritualism and superstition, however looked upon kam with horror. For munis and sramanas of Jainism and Buddhism and for yogis of the Sankhya school, kam was to be deliberately suppressed to achieve ultimate release. As a result, they preached celibacy and asceticism.
    The Gurus rejected Brahmanical superstition as well as self-mortifying austerities. Yet they recognized the four purusarthas, referred to in gurbani as char padaraths or the four human pursuits. However, in Sikhism kam is not unrestricted gratification of carnal desires, but an impulse which needs to be kept under check like other impulses and passions. Unrestrained propensity towards kam, especially sexual relationship outside the marital bond, is condemned in the strongest terms in Sikh codes of conduct as well as in the Scripture. It is a destructive evil and a deadly sin. To quote Guru Arjan, Nanak V: “O Kam, thou landest people in hell and makest them wander through many births, enticest all minds, swayest all the three worlds and undoest one's meditation, austerities and restraint. The pleasure is ephemeral and thou afflictest high and low alike " (GG, 1358). Guru Tegh Bahadur, Nanak IX, says: "In the sinning heart reigns kam and the fickle mind breaks out of control. Kam casts its noose even upon yogis, jangams and sannyasis. Only those imbued with God's Name (fall not a prey to it) and are able to go across the ocean of existence" (GG, 1186). Bhai Gurdas describes an ideal Sikh as one who is loyal to his wife and "regards all other women as mothers, sisters and daughters" (Varan, XXIX. 11). Guru Gobind Singh also said: "Love your own wedded wife ever so more, but do not go to another woman's bed even in a dream." Sikh codes of conduct strictly prohibit extramarital relations.
    While prescribing self-control and restraint and not total annihilation of kam, the Gurus suggested two ways of channelizing and sublimating it. On the one hand, they pronounced grihastha or married life to be the ideal one, and, on the other laid down love of God and absorption in His Name as the essential principle of spiritual discipline. Says Guru Gobind Singh, "Hear ye all, I proclaim here the truth: only they who love God find Him." The image of a devotee most common in Sikh Scripture is one of a wife deeply in love with her kant or husband presently separated from him, and waiting, craving, praying for a reunion with him. Such fervent devotion cannot but bridle the wayward passion in man. According to Guru Arjan, a person who has cultivated the love of the Lord’s feet would desire neither kingship, nor worldly power, nor even mukti or liberation (GG 534).
    BIBLIOGRAPHY
    1. Sabadarth Sri Guru Granth Sahib. Amritsar, 1964
    2. Sher Singh, The Philosophy of Sikhism. Lahore, 1944
    3. Avtar Singh, Ethics of the Sikhs. Patiala, 1970
     
  7. Astroboy

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    KRODH (L. M. Joshi)(Skt. krodha) or wrath is an emotion recognized in the Sikh system as a spring of conation and is as such counted as one of the Five Evils. It expresses itself in several forms from silent sullenness to hysterical tantrums and violence. In Sikh Scripture krodh usually appears in combination with kam—as kam krodh. The coalescence is not simply for the sake of alliterative effect. Krodh (ire) is the direct progeny of kam (desire). The latter when thwarted or jilted produces the former. The Scripture also counts krodh (or its synonym kop) among the four rivers of fire. Violence, attachment, covetousness and wrath," says Guru Nanak "are like four rivers of fire; those who fall in them burn, and can swim across, O Nanak, only through God's grace" (GG, 147). Elsewhere he says, "Kam and krodh dissolve the body as borax melts gold" (GG, 932). Guru Arjan, Nanak V, censures krodh in these words: "O krodh, thou enslavest sinful men and then caperest around them like an ape. In thy company men become base and are punished variously by Death's messengers. The Merciful God, the Eradicator of the sufferings of the humble, O Nanak, alone saveth all" (GG, 1358). Guru Ram Das, Nanak IV, warns: "Do not go near those who are possessed by wrath uncontrollable' (GG, 40). Krodh is to be vanquished and eradicated. This is done through humility and firm faith in the Divine. Guru Arjan's prescription: "Do not be angry with any one; search your own self and live in the world with humility. Thus, O Nanak, you may go across (the ocean of existence) under God's grace" (GG, 259). Shaikh Farid, a thirteenth-century Muslim saint whose compositions are preserved in the Sikh Scripture, says in one of his couplets: "O Farid, do good to him who hath done thee evil and do not nurse anger in thy heart; no disease will then afflict thy body and all felicities shall be thine" (GG, 1381-82). Righteous indignation against evil, injustice
    and tyranny is, however, not to be equated with krodh as an undesirable passion. Several hymns in the Guru Granth Sahib, particularly those by Guru Nanak and Kabir, express in strong terms their disapproval of the corruption of their day.
    BIBLIOGRAPHY
    1. Sabadarth Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji. Amritsar, 1964
    2. Jodh Singh, Bhai, Gurmat Nirnaya. Ludhiana, 1932
    3. Sher Singh, The Philosophy of Sikhism. Lahore, 1944
    4. Avtar Singh, Ethics of the Sikhs. Patiala, 1970
    5. Nirbhai Singh, Philosophy of Sikhism. Delhi, 1990
    L.M. J.
     
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  8. Astroboy

    Astroboy Malaysia
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    FIVE EVILS (L. M. Joshi) or pancadokh or panj vikar as they are referred to in Sikh Scripture, the Guru Granth Sahib, are, according to Sikhism, the five major weaknesses of the human personality at variance with its spiritual essence. The common evils far exceed in number, but a group of five of them came to be identified because of the obstruction they are believed to cause in man's pursuit of the moral and spiritual path. The group of five evils comprises kama, krodha, lobha, moha, and ahankara (kam, karodh, lobh, moh and hankar, in Punjabi); translated into English these words mean lust, wrath, greed, attachment and egoity, respectively. The word 'evil' here may be understood to represent the connotation of Punjabi pap (sin), dokh (defect), or kilbikh (defilement).
    The number five (panj, panca) is traditional and has been used in a variety of contexts. One comes across repeated references to pentads in philosophy, religion, ethics, mythology and history of India. The god Siva has five faces, hence his name Pancanana; the Buddha analysed human personality into five aggregates (panca-skandha) and laid down five moral precepts (pancasila); the Upanisads speak of the five fires (pancagni) and five sheaths or wrappers investing the self (pancakosah); Jainism has its five vows (pancavratas), and the Yoga system its five abstentions (yamas) and five observations (niyamas); five are the organs of sense, five the organs of action, five the objects of sense, five the gross and subtle elements (panca mahabhuta or panca tattva). There are also the traditions of five makaras of Tantric Yoga, five kakars of later Sikhism and of the first five members of the Khalsa community and so on. The list of pentads (pancaka) can be lengthened. However, theologically, no special significance attaches to the number five in the group of evils except that these five human failures are believed to constitute strong hindrances to spiritual progress.
    The early Vedic literature bears no reference to the concept of 'five evils'; the terms moha, kama, krodha and aham do occur in the Vedic texts, but they are not enumerated as a series of evils. Moreover, these words do not seem to have any significant relation to ethical and soteriological ideas in the Vedic age. It was the ascetic sages of non-Vedic tradition, the munis and sramanas who propounded the philosophy of renunciation and the methods of sense-control. The impact of their ideas and practices was felt by the Upanisadic teachers. Thus the Upanisads, though they do not condemn kama or desire, are aware of the evils like raga or passion, avidya or nescience, moha or delusion, and ahankara or egoity. These evils are mentioned and condemned in some of the post-Buddhistic Upanisads such as the Prasna, Svetasvatara, Aitareya, Isa and Mundaka. The last-named text refers to 'the sages whose defilements have been destroyed' (ksinadosah), although it does not enumerate the 'defilements'.
    Long before these later Upanisads, however, leaders of sramanic philosophers had expounded soteriological techniques in which eradication of all evils and imperfections was considered sine qua non for ultimate release. It is in the teachings of Kapilamuni, Parsvanatha, Sakyamuni and Mahavira that one finds a detailed discussion of the nature and function of kama, krodha, lobha, moha and ahankara and many other kindred vices.
    The old Pali texts contain three lists of evils and factors which obstruct meditation and moral perfection. The list of five 'hindrances' (nivaranas) consists of sensuous desire, ill will, sloth and torpor, restlessness and sceptical doubt. These hindrances blind man's mental vision and make concentration difficult. The list of ten 'fetters' (sanyojanas), which bind beings to sansara, comprises the following: belief in a permanent individuality, sceptical doubt, belief in the efficacy of mere moral observances and rituals, sensual passion, ill will, desire for existence in the material world, desire for existence in the immaterial world, conceit, restlessness and nescience.
    The first two in the list of five hindrances, viz. sensuous desire (kamacchanda) and ill will or malice are the same as the first two in the list of five evils mentioned in the Sikh canon. Likewise, belief in a permanent individuality (satkayadrsti), sensual passion (kamaraga), ill will, conceit (mana) and nescience (avidya), included in the Buddhist list of ten fetters, are comparable to egoity, lust, wrath, pride and delusion or attachment of Sikh enumeration.
    The third Buddhist list of ten 'defilements' (Pali kilesa, Punjabi kalesh and Skt. klesa), includes the following: greed (lobha), hatred (dosa), delusion (moha), conceit (mana), false views, sceptical doubt, sloth, distraction, shamelessness and recklessness. In this list, again, the first four defilements are nearly identical with those included in the list of' ‘five evils' minus lust (kama). This last evil is mentioned separately and repeatedly in the Buddhist scriptures in Pali as well as in Sanskrit. Similarly wrath (krodha) is mentioned separately as a powerful enemy of holy life. Early Buddhist sources describe the triad of lobha, dosa (dvesa), and moha as the three roots of evil (akusala-mula). One of the standard Buddhist words for evil is klesa which may be translated as 'defilement' or ‘depravity’. A list of six defilements is found in some Buddhist Sanskrit sources and includes passion (raga), ill will (pratigha), conceit (mana), nescience (avidya), false view (kudrsti), and sceptical doubt (vichikitsa).
    The Jaina sources also contain details concerning evils and defilements. All the five evils of the Sikh list are found repeatedly mentioned in the sacred literature of Jainism. The Avasyakasutra has a list of eighteen sins which includes among others wrath (krodha), conceit, delusion (maya), greed, and ill will. The standard Jaina term for evil is 'dirt' or 'passion' (kasaya). The Dasavaikalikasutra states that four kasayas, viz. wrath, conceit, delusion and greed, cause rebirth. The Uttaradhyayanasutra mentions moha, trsna (synonym of kama) and lobha as the sources of sorrow.
    The Yogasutra (II. 3) has a list of five defilements or hindrances called panca-klesah. These are nescience (avidya), egoity (asmita), passion (raga), ill will (dvesa) and the will to live (abhinivesa). It should be pointed out here that avidya equals moha; asmita is identical with ahankara; raga is similar to kama; dvesa is not different from krodha; and abhinivesa belongs to the category of lobha understood as continuous desire for existence in sansar.
    The Bhagavad-gita mentions all the five evils although they are not enumerated as forming a pentad. The text mentions kama as desire or wish and at one point it is identified with krodha. Besides kama and krodha the Bhagavad-gita mentions passion (raga), ill will, attachment, delusion, egoity, greed, conceit and nescience (ajnana), and employs terms such as papa, dosa and kalmasa for impurities or defilements. In one verse hypocrisy, arrogance, conceit, wrath, harsh speech and nescience are described as demoniac qualities. Medieval Buddhist, Jainist, and Brahmanical authors of religious and philosophical works continued to discuss the meaning, nature and methods of eradicating the five and more evils. The Tantric adepts (siddhas) recommended rather radical techniques of combating the evil psychological forces, especially through the method of 'conquering passions through passions'. Reference may be made here to Tulasidasa who, in a series of quadriparti verses (chaupais) in his Ramacharitamanasa, acknowledges the universality of kama, krodha, lobha, moha, mana and trsna which afflict not only men but also the gods.
    There is no philosophical or theological explication of the five evils, collectively or individually, in Sikh Scripture, but man is repeatedly warned against them. They have been called diseases or maladies which afflict human beings with disastrous effects. The evil pentad is however mentioned at numerous places in the Holy Book. In at least five instances the list consists of the following: kam, krodh, lobh, moh and abhiman or ahankar. At one place instead of moh and abhiman we have mad and ninda. Here the word mad may be interpreted in the sense of 'intoxication born of egoity'. The word ninda means slander. In two of the seven instances cited here the members of the evil pentad are called 'five thieves' (panch-chor). In a hymn by Kabir the list has trishna (craving), kam, krodh, mad and matsar as the five evils. The word trishna (Skt. trsna) means craving or desire, while the word matsar means jealousy. Often the five evils are referred to as 'the five' (panch) or 'al1 the five' (sare panch). At places the five organs of sense (jnanendriyas) are also often referred to as 'the five'.
    One, two, three or four of the five cardinal evils are repeatedly mentioned almost throughout the body of the Sikh canon. The triad kam, krodh and lobh finds as frequent a mention as the triad kam, krodh and ahankar or moh, lobh and ahankar. Among the five evils the one that is condemned more than the others is ahankar. When only two of the five are mentioned, the pair consists either of kam and krodh, or of moh and guman, or of lobh and moh; when a group of four out of the five evils is cited, it usually consists of the first four, kam, krodh, lobh and moh. Since the Sikh canon is a composite text containing the religious poetry not only of the Gurus but also of several saints and Sufis from various regions, synonyms, occasionally from different languages, occur. Thus lobh is also called lalach; man is called garab (Skt. garva) and guman; moh is also called bharam (Skt. bhrama).
    A word of most frequent occurrence is haumai. It is perhaps derived from aham, 'I' or egoity, the essential element of ego; hankar, ahankar are its semantic cognates. The word man is employed in a double sense; sometimes it is clearly used in the sense of 'honour' or 'respect'. In most cases, however, it is synonymous with abhiman.
    Although it is permissible to identify haumai with ahankar, the fact that haumai is not included in the evil pentad and yet comes in for the strongest censure in the Scripture
    would lead to the conclusion that it is regarded as a major evil in addition to those forming the pentad. It may be added that haumai or egoity, self-centredness, the personality system, the belief in one's individual existence, is the basis of all the other evils. From this standpoint, ahankar may be reckoned as an offshoot of haumai. The assertion or affirmation of 'I' runs counter to the affirmation of 'Thou'; the consciousness of 'self existence' or 'one's own existence' (sva-bhava or atma-bhava) is diametrically opposed to the consciousness of God's existence. In a system in which the sole reality of God (ik onkar) is the first principle, there can be no room for the reality of an 'individual existence' or 'one's own existence' apart from or along with the existence of God. To say that God alone is the reality means that there is no other reality that belongs to someone else, and that there is no someone else who can claim an independent reality of his own. The truth is that there is no truth in haumai.
    Nevertheless, this unreal reality, this false truth—haumai—apparently exists. It is unreal and false from the standpoint of God who is the only absolute Reality; it is real and true from the standpoint of the fettered creatures coursing in sansar. These creatures have assumed a reality of their own; every fettered being is seemingly convinced of its own existence; this conviction flourishes in its ignorance of God's reality. There can be no such thing as co-existence of God and not-God; Reality and falsity cannot co-exist as cannot light and darkness. Therefore, where there is awareness of God's reality there is absence of one's own reality, and vice versa; where there is awareness of one's own existence or haumai, there is absence of the awareness of God's existence. The Scripture says: "Haumai jai ta kant samai—God is realized only when one eradicates egoity" (GG, 750); literally, '(one) merges into (one's) Lord only when (her/his) egoity has disappeared'.
    The five evils, lust, wrath, greed, attachment and egoity, flourish on the soil of the belief in one's individualized existence. By destroying the doctrine of one's own existence or the belief in one's individual reality, the sages (sant, sadh) cancel in one stroke, as it were, the entire catalogue of evils. Desire, anger, avarice, infatuation, egoism, passion, jealousy, hypocrisy, pride, deception, falsehood, violence, doubt, and nescience and other forms of depravity listed in the Guru Granth Sahib do not affect him who has overcome his own self and found his essence in God's reality. Liberation (mukti, mokh) means the extinction of all the evils headed by haumai.
    The Sikh canon also points to the way of extinguishing evils of all kinds. It is acknowledged that the five evils afflict all beings in sansar and that it is difficult to control them. Yet the possibility of conquering them is not ruled out in the theological framework of Sikhism; the moral training of a Sikh is in fact directed towards controlling the senses and eradicating the evils. The seeker of liberation has first to liberate himself of the yoke of the pentad. No headway can be made towards God-realization without discarding the cardinal evils. Kabir says, "He alone cherishes the Lord's feet who is rid of desire, wrath, greed and attachment—kamu krodhu lobhu mohu bibarjit haripadu chinai soi (GG, 1123).
    Loving devotion (bhagati, bhakti) to God is, according to Sikhism, the way to ultimate release. One can love God only when one has annihilated self-love; this means that the devotee must be humble and surrender himself fully unto God. The Gurus stress the necessity of taking refuge in God. To this end, one must first renounce pride (man). Constant awareness of God (simran) is the panacea for all ills. He who enshrines the Lord's lotus feet in his heart destroys sins of many existences. Devotion to God eradicates the evils in an instant and purifies the body (GG, 245). The destruction of evils may be viewed both as a cause and consequence of the practice of nam simran. Awareness of God's presence comes only when lust, wrath, avarice, attachment and egoity have departed from the devotee; when the devotee lives in constant awareness of God, the evils touch him not. Such a person is unaffected by pleasure and pain, for he has freed himself from evils such as lobh, moh and abhiman. Guru Tegh Bahadur describes such a sage as one liberated while still alive and calls him an image of God on earth (GG, I426-27).
    Another way of overcoming haumai and other evils is to keep the company of the saints (sant, sadh) who radiate virtuous qualities. One kills lust, wrath, greed and other depravities of the evil age (kali-kales) by taking refuge in the sangat, the holy fellowship. It is by discarding the most powerful of evils, egoity, that one can get admission to this sacred society. Egoity ceases as one takes to the company of the holy (GG, 271). A third method of overcoming the evils is to submit oneself to the instruction of the spiritual preceptor (guru). He who would overcome the five evils must follow his teaching. The wisdom obtained from the preceptor is like a swift sword (kharagu karara) which cuts through confusion, infatuation, avarice and egoity (GG, 1087). One celebrates God's virtues through the favour of the sage (sant prasadi) and destroys lust, anger and insanity born of egoism (unmad). In Guru Nanak's Sidh Gosti it is stated that without the preceptor one's efforts bear no fruit. The importance of living up to the instruction of the holy preceptor can be judged from the concept of the 'Guru-oriented person' (gurmukh) so central to the Sikh moral system. A gurmukh is one who has turned his face towards the Guru, that is to say, a person who by practising what the Guru teaches has freed himself from the depravities and lives in the Divine presence. He achieves this position by conquering the evils under the guidance of the Guru and ever remains in tune with the Supreme Reality.
    See AHANKAR, KAM, KRODH, LOBH and MOH.
    BIBLIOGRAPHY
    1. Jodh Singh, Bhai, Gurmati Nirnaya. Lahore, 1932
    2. Sher Singh, The Philosophy of Sikhism. Lahore, 1944
    3. Nirbhai Singh, Philosophy of Sikhism. Delhi, 1990
    4. Nripinder Singh, The Sikh Moral Tradition. Delhi, 1990
    5. Teja Singh Essays in Sikhism. Lahore, 1941
    6. Wazir Singh, Philosophy of Sikh Religion. Delhi, 1981
    7. Avtar Singh, Ethics of the Sikhs. Patiala, 1970
     
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  9. Astroboy

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    HUMAI (Ego) (Taran Singh). The term haumai is a compound of two pronouns hau and mai each meaning ‘I’, and thus, haumai means ‘I, I’. The ancient Indian term, for haumai has been aham-kara—‘I-maker’ or ‘I-doer’. In the Chhandogya Upanisad, it (sham-kara) is equated with atman or soul, conceived as the immanent Divinity. But, its most popular sense, later, was the one attached to it in the Sankhya philosophy viz. it is a mental organ or function, evolved from matter, and mediating between the material and the spiritual. In Buddhism, it has two slightly varying meanings viz. ‘mind involved in I-making-mine-making conceit’ and ‘the bias of I-making-mine-making from the aham-kara that all actions spring. According to the Pali Pitakas, springs of action are six, three being roots of good, three of bad actions or three of moral and three of immoral. The three roots of bad actions are greed (lobha), hate (dosa) and want of intelligence (moha); the other three are their opposites—detachment, love and intelligence. Modern Mahayanists hold that in the Bodhisattva theory, altruism as opposed to egoism takes a more prominent position, and the goal of nirvana is not one of personal salvation but of transferred merit, saintly aspiration being for the salvation of all beings.
    In English, the word nearest to haumai is ego which, metaphysically, from the Latin root, means ‘a conscious thinking subject’ as opposed to ‘non-ego’ or object—thus, it stands for the ‘self’, soul and spirit. The term ‘egoism’, ethically, stands for the theory which holds the self-interest to be the foundation of morality, and the egoist, thus, is systematically selfish and self-opinionated. An egocentric is, as we call it, self-centred. An egoist can think of nothing else, but of ‘I’ and ‘me’, and is invariably ‘talking about himself’, in ‘self-conceit’ and ‘selfishness’. Duality too has been recognized in the ego, and thus, ego is subject-consciousness and object consciousness, or, of ‘I’ and ‘Me’—it is not dualism of essentially different substances, but it is of such a nature as to form together one individual conscious being. Again, a distinction has been drawn between Theoretical
    egoism or the Subjective Idealism which maintains that one’s own individual ego is the only being that a man can logically assert to exist; and the Practical egoism which has three forms—logical, aesthetic and moral, according to Kant. A logical egoist considers it unnecessary to bring his own judgement to the test of another’s understanding; the aesthetic egoist is fully satisfied with his own tastes; and the moral egoist makes himself the end of all his activities—nothing is valuable unless it benefits him. In ethics, egoism maintains that the standard of conduct for the individual is his own good on the whole. So, the inclinations and purposes of an egoist are immediately and exclusively directed towards himself; he, in his consciousness, thinks about himself and his own immediate interests only, is self-centred and self-opinionated.
    Egoism is based on an atomistic conception of society viz. every social whole is composed of individuals, the nature of each one of whom is to preserve his own life, to seek his own good, to satisfy his own desires; and good and evil are relative to the individual. But is is a false conception, as no man is self-contained. An individual’s interests are not different from the interests of the society or of all members of the community. Every individual is a member of an organic whole and the complete good is the good of the whole of which he is a member. Higher men realize their true good by denying what appears to be their private good, and they so far identify themselves with their state or church that they are content to die so that the institution may live. Self-interest, self-conceit, self-seeking and self-reference—all become irrelevant to them.
    Using the term haumai, viz. I-ness and My-ness, Guru Nanak has given his view of haumai most comprehensively in sloka VII.I of the Asa-di-var (ode in the Asa Measure). At the same place, in another sloka, his first successor, Guru Angad, has also tried to interpret the view of Guru Nanak on the subject. Guru Nanak’s sloka, referred to in the above, reads, in English translation, as this:
    In ego man comes, in ego he goes,
    In ego he is born, in ego he dies.
    In ego he gives in ego he receives,
    In ego he earns, in ego he loses.
    In ego he is true or false,
    In ego he has considerations of sin and virtue.
    In ego he descends to hell or rises to heaven,
    In ego he laughs, in ego he weeps.
    In ego he begrimes, in ego he washes himself,
    In ego he is misled into the considerations of castes and kinds
    In ego he is foolish, in ego he is wise,
    And loses. all sense of salvation and liberation.
    In ego he is absorbed in Maya (illusion),
    In ego he is overtaken by delusion.
    In ego are men born as creatures
    Man can see the Gate, if he understands his ego,
    Without realization, all talk of ego that entangles a man.
    Nanak, under the Supreme Will our record is made,
    As one sees the one, we perceive the other. (Asa-di-var VII.I)
    In the light of the above sloka, Guru Nanak’s view of haumai can be constructed as this:
    1. Humai is a creation of the Supreme Being as it comes into existence under His Will. He is the master of the play of life. The whole play of life is caused by the presence of ego in man which gives rise to the conflict between the higher and lower selves.
    2. Haumai is a condition of the mind. Mind itself is born of the five elements which are the objects of the five senses of sight, hearing, smell, taste and touch. That is, Haumai is material and not spiritual in its basic nature.
    3. Haumai (I-ness, My-ness) is so powerful an instinct that it influences each and every activity of man (or animal) throughout the course of his existence which may run into myriads of births and lives. Ego is the basis of his transmigration from life to life, serves as the initial force or motive in all his actions, directs every choice of man—true or false, good or evil, painful or pleasurable.
    4. Haumai is that condition of mind which keeps man ignorant of the true reality, the true purpose of his life, and thus keeps him away from salvation and union with God.
    5. Guru Angad has described haumai as a deep-rooted disease. So far as it remains as the condition of the mind, it (mind) cannot conduct itself in a healthy way. But, again, Guru Angad assures that the word of the Guru is the medicine which can cure the disease of ego.
    6. An egoist everywhere sees the projection of his own mind only.
    7. One hears the word of the Guru when the Supreme Being Himself blesses him with His grace. The will of the Supreme binds a man to transmigration while His grace liberates him from that bondage of the cycle of births and deaths. Ego binds a man, grace liberates.
    8. Ego is the basis of individuality which at once separates one from the totality of life or cosmic and social life. This separation gives the idea of preservation of the self which leads to struggle for existence.
    9. The idea of struggle for existence makes the egoist self-seeking, conceited, self-assertive, selfish and proud. As he secures his interests and himself, he develops a complex of superiority. He begins to feel proud of his caste, birth, country, creed, colour, sex, prowess, learning, culture, conduct, rituals, etc. Thus, he begins to feel that he is born to rule while others are there to serve his will and carry out his order. They are just the means to preserve and watch his interests.
    10. Guru Nanak has no where given a hint that haumai can be purified and trained to serve nobler purposes or to work for the salvation of man. According to him ‘ego’ constitutes the wall of separation between God and man. So, this has to be completely removed; it is to be burnt, destroyed and eliminated altogether.
    11. However, mind or consciousness is a great power. If mind becomes pure, it realizes God. Mind is not merely ego; it has the powers of cognition, perception, understanding, reasoning and right discrimination. These functions of mind in Indian terminology, have been called ahamkar, mana, chit, budhi, bibek, etc. But mind is purified only when the ego is banished completely. Mind must be rid of ego. Guru Granth describes ego as disease, falsehood, wall, dross, dirt, poison, etc. Mind, to be healthy, must get rid of the disease, falsehood, separation, dross, dirt and poison. When ego is banished nobler and higher faculties of mind come into play.
    12. In the total scheme of God, ego makes the play of the world possible by creating the conflict between spirit and matter or good or evil. Ego is not what is called the free will as opposed to determinism. Man has no free will. His entire course is determined by the will of God. God Himself puts him on the path of evil or good, so called, for in fact the duality of evil and good also does not exist.
    The Guru Granth calls the egoist as manmukh or sakat. He is mind-oriented and follows the irrational carnal urges of lust, anger, avarice, attachment and pride. He is thoroughly a materialist and is bound to the material joys. He is always double minded, vacillating between God and Mammon. When man shakes off ego, he merges his self with the cosmic self. Such a man considers himself as a drop in the ocean of life and understands that his good or interest is common with the good of the other members of the human society or family. Such a man identifies himself with the society. He has no individual interests. An egoist does everything with desire for reward or fruit for himself while a non-egoist is niskani (desireless) in all his actions.
    In the Sidhgoshti (A Dialogue with the Siddhas), Guru Nanak (vide stanze-68) says that an egoist creates a world of his own life. The spider who weaves a web out of his ownself and is entangled in it and is thus killed ultimately by his own false creation. An egoist lives in an imaginary world of his own wherein he himself matters the most and remains the centre of the entire universe or a small circle of his relatives is all that matters. In selfishness, he thinks of his own salvation only and resorts to the so-called religious acts of supposed merit such as dips at the so-called holy places, alms-deeds, austeritier, meditation, samadhis (concentrations), recitations, mortification, etc. (Asa-di-var, VIII-2, also ibid, IX, I, IV.2). So-called men of religious piety who sin against others by discriminating against them on grounds of caste, creed, birth, position, sex, learning, and claim superiority for themselves for observing Shradh or sutak or purity of the cooking-squares are indeed egoists. They do not meditate on the Name and live in a fool’s paradise that these rituals and religious practices would save them. Similarly, men of power, wealth, position, beauty and bravery are proud, and in their egoism, care not a fig for the feelings of others, behave like tyrants, do high-handedness; but they also live in a world of their own fabrication as they have to reap the fruit of what they had sown. Being forgetful of the Name, all these men of ego suffer terribly.
    In ego, a world springs up, O man,
    Forgetting the Name, this world suffers.
    A Gurmukh thinks of knowledge and truth, and burns ego by the word of the Guru.
    He is pure in mind, thought and word,
    he merges with the True One. (Sidhgoshti, 68)
    A Gurmukh is the antithesis of an egoist. He mediates on the Name and so purifies his mind that all the evil and selfish tendencies leave him. This is banishing of the ego. There is no other remedy for the otherwise incurable disease of ego. Mediation on the Name alone can banish ego and make one the servant of God. The disciple of the Name inculcates in the devotee the virtues of temperance, honest, non-attachment, moderation, gratitude and love of the Lord. These are the qualities of a servant of God too. This plane of character guarantees the state of bliss and continuous pleasure to a Gurmukh.
    Guru Nanak is more concerned with practical life than theorising. In bani, he has placed haumai in opposition to Hukam (Supreme Will), Seva (service), Gyan (discriminating knowledge), Sehj (poise, middle-path), Nam (meditation, devotion) and Nirlaip (non-attachment).
    (1) In the Japu (pauri II), with which the Guru Granth opens, he has placed haumai in opposition to the Supreme Will or human, saying that one can be a man of realization and truthfulness only if he conducts himself in accordance with the Supreme Will. He has drawn some sort of distinction between order and will, as it is the will which creates order. God is absolutely free to ordain an order. His will creates the order which works in the cosmic evolution and course. By His will: all forms come into being, they develop life, grow exalted, become good or evil, receive pain or pleasure, win Grace and get liberation or are doomed forever in transmigration, etc.; but an egoist is led to believe, erroneously, that he can transgress the will or order and by his efforts or actions develop, get exalted, become good, get pleasure, and win liberation. By such thinking, he denies, not only the Supremacy of the Divine Will, but the absoluteness of the Supreme Being itself. The Guru asserts that ‘all are subject to the Supreme Will, none outside its pale’, but the egoist asserts that he is beyond the pale of the Supreme Will and thus he feels not the need of being devoted to that and meditating on the Name. The Guru asserts that a cosmic order exists, the egoist does not recognize this and feels that he can defy any order or rule. He does not care for the rules which make a man really exalted or otherwise, great or otherwise, and bring suffering or pleasure. He is selfish, self-willed, self-seeking and sins against the common interests of society or community. He defies the social laws. The egoist does not understand the supremacy of the will though it is there. He suffers for his ignorance as he constantly sins against humanity. He is not a responsible being and does not contribute to the total good of mankind by following higher and nobler tendencies which too are present in his mind. He is narrow in outlook. We must attune our will to the Supreme-will, our self to the higher self, and choose the higher course of good which may result in the good of all.
    (2) As already referred to, Guru Nanak has placed haumai in opposition to seva or service of God which also means service of mankind. The man who wants to serve God must attune his ego to the Supreme-will. For this, he need develop a certain pattern of life. In opposition to this sloka on ego, the Guru has given the character of a servant of God as under:
    The service of God is done by the men of temperate lives who meditate on Him as the truest of the true,
    They refrain from treading the path of evil, and doing good, practise honesty.
    They have broken the bonds of worldliness, and eat and drink moderately.
    “Thou art lavish in They mercies, of which Thou givest daily ever-increasingly”—
    thus glorifying they obtain the glorious Lord. (Asa-di-var, VII)
    The conflict between ego and will-to-serve is removed when man, through the grace of Guru and God, meditates on the Name. By meditation and devotion, his will gets attuned to the will of the Supreme. Meditation on the Name gives him a set character which is temperate, refrains from the path of evil, practises honesty, is unattached to the world, eats and drinks moderately and thus obtains the Lord. A man of meditation believes that God is the giver of every gift and He gives through His mercy and gives ever-increasingly, while an egoist believes just the other way. He lives for himself only, lives intemperately, eats and drinks immoderately, and earns by hook or by crook, not caring the least for honesty. An egoist is bound or attached to the world; he is attached to his own interests; he cares for the need of his family only and with that his circle ends. A servant of God looks after the needs of the humanity, the society and the community. He breaks the bonds of the body and the family or narrow considerations. Mankind is his family.
    (3) Ego and right knowledge are always in opposition. In a hymn (No.33) of Sri rag, Guru Nanak emphasizes that a man of service who alone is honoured in the court of the Lord, is a man of right discrimination; he is a man of enlightenment which comes through living according to the teachings of the holy books, under the fear of the Lord and by knowing the truth. This man goes beyond the attractions and charms of Maya and is not deceived by it, while a greedy man, an egoist, always vacillates. The lamp of the mind, the Guru says, is lighted this way:
    If we practise the teachings of the holy books, If we put the wick of the Lord’s fear in the lamp of the mind,
    If we give it the fire of truth:—
    This, then, is the oil, and this is how the lamp is lighted.
    If the inside is lit like this,
    then the Lord is obtained.
    A man who is impressed by the word of the Guru, adopts such a way of life. He surrenders himself completely to the will of the Lord. He fears the Lord. An egoist does not care for the word of the Guru, nor for truth, nor for the Supreme-will. He believes that his own intellect is supreme and he can make no error. A man of pure intellect will serve mankind, not an egoist.
    (4) Ego and bhakti (nam-bhakti) do not go together. Guru Amardas (Vadhans, Pada-ix) has emphatically stated that haumai (ego) and nam (meditation on the Name) are in direct conflict, the two can never dwell in the same mind. Guru Nanak (Asa, Ashtpadi-II), portraying the life of a man of meditation, says that externally he also appears to be a man of ego as he lives in the world and earns and spends like all men, but he then clarifies, he is unattached in his mind.
    Outwardly he is an egoist,
    He appears to behave and eat like that;
    But he is liberated inwardly,
    he is never attached.
    A bhakta lives in the world, earns and spends, rears up family, brings up his children. But still he shares his earnings with others. He lives temperately and moderately. He can save to spend in the service of man. A servant of God can never be proud and egotistical. Meditation on the Nam gives non-attachment.
    Haumai is, in fact, a denial of God, the Supreme Reality; it is the denial of the existence of a cosmic order, it is the denial of the oneness of the human society; it is denial of the path of love, knowledge, service and devotion’ it is living in an imaginary world of own fancy; it is living in constant conflict with all else in the creation. But it is God’s own creation to serve as an instrument of the play of life which He enjoys. God also sends the Guru to free men of the grip of haumai so that they may be reclaimed to God. The Guru is sent to mankind as God’s grace to it. He banishes haumai root and branch and unites man with God again.
    T. S
     
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  10. Astroboy

    Astroboy Malaysia
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    ਨਾਮ ਤੇਰੇ ਕੀ ਜੋਤਿ ਲਗਾਈ (Previously namjap)
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  11. Randip Singh

    Randip Singh
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    kkkrodh is something I battle with everyday........it is my biggest fault...:eek:
     
  12. Randip Singh

    Randip Singh
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    yes....or an obsession with sex.

    I think each of the 5 thieves describes an obsessive behaviour.
     
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  13. Harry Haller

    Harry Haller United Kingdom
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    absolutely agree!
     
  14. kggr001

    kggr001 Netherlands
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    Krodh(Anger), is just as hard to fight like any other thief, I happen to get anger when I get impatience or someone is yelling at me, but when I think about it it's pointless to get angry, since anger doesn't solve anything, it doesn't make things go faster nor does it make the yelling person stop. It makes matters worse. The best way to fight it is to have acceptance and live according the 5 virtues.
     
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  15. chazSingh

    chazSingh Ireland
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    yes ji,

    the grace which dawns upon us is being able to see what our anger is doing to us, to the people around us...and when it springs up within us we are able to let it slowly pass by, keep our calm, and think of a better way through the situation...

    so many details, so many opportunities to resolve a situation are missed when we become clouded with anger...and we have lost that all important feeling of "recognising all human race as one"
     
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  16. Luckysingh

    Luckysingh Canada
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    No krodh in sikhi.
    One should drench and convert all the krodh build up with Love.
    This is what helps you develop the Bir Ras as prescribed by dasam pita.
     

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